Small cell carcinoma of the kidney: A clinicopathologic study of 14 cases
Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.Human pathology (Impact Factor: 2.77). 07/2011; 42(11):1792-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2011.03.005
Small cell carcinoma of the kidney is distinctively rare. We searched pathology files in 2 institutions and found 14 cases of renal small cell carcinoma. The patients' mean age at diagnosis was 59 years (range, 22-75 years); 8 were women, and 6 were men. Patients usually presented with hematuria (n = 6) and abdominal pain (n = 5). The mean tumor size was 7.1 cm (range, 3.5-14.0 cm). The small cell carcinoma was pure in 9 cases and mixed with high-grade urothelial carcinoma in 5 cases. None was associated with any type of renal cell carcinoma. Tumor necrosis was present in all cases, and lymphovascular invasion was identified in 6 cases. The tumor invaded the perinephric adipose tissue in 13 cases and was confined to the kidney in only 1 case. Lymph node metastases were identified in all patients who underwent lymph node dissection (5/5). On immunostains, the small cell carcinoma cells were positive for pancytokeratin (11/12), chromogranin (6/9), and synaptophysin (8/9). Follow-up data were available for 13 patients, and 11 died of small cell carcinoma at a mean of 15 months (range, 4-31 months) after diagnosis. Of the 2 surviving patients, 1 was alive at 5 months after diagnosis, and the other, whose disease was confined to the kidney, was alive with no evidence of disease at 137 months. In summary, renal small cell carcinoma is a highly aggressive disease that often presents at an advanced stage with widespread metastases. Patients usually have a poor clinical outcome despite multimodal therapy. The frequent coexistence of small cell carcinoma with urothelial carcinoma suggests that renal small cell carcinomas may evolve from a preexisting urothelial carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a tissue-specific transcription factor that plays a critical role in the normal development of embryonic epithelial cells of the thyroid and lung. Because TTF-1 expression is highly restricted to epithelial tumors arising in these organs, it is, at present, one of the immunohistochemical markers most commonly used to assist in the differential diagnosis of carcinomas of the lung and thyroid. Recent studies, however, have reported that TTF-1 is not as specific for lung and thyroid carcinomas as was previously thought as it can be found to be expressed, although much less frequently, in some carcinomas arising in other organs, such as the ovaries, endometrium, colon, and breast, as well as in some tumors of the central nervous system. Even though this unexpected TTF-1 positivity has been reported more frequently with the recently available SPT24 anti-TTF-1 monoclonal antibody, it has also been shown to occur with the commonly used 8G7G3/1 clone, albeit in a lower percentage of cases. Despite these findings, TTF-1 remains a very useful immunohistochemical marker in diagnostic pathology.
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