Highlights of the International Consensus Statement on Major Depressive Disorder
Neuropsychopharmacology Unit, Division of Experimental Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.5). 06/2011; 72(6):e21. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.9058tx2c
The International Consensus Group on Depression gathered to outline a universal treatment algorithm for depression with the purpose of merging the evidence base and standards of clinical practice from various countries, including the United States, Europe, the Middle East, China, and Japan. This brief summary includes the following recommendations made by the consensus group: periodically screen all patients for depression, use measurement-based tools and full psychiatric assessments to complete differential diagnoses, refer patients to psychiatric specialists when appropriate, establish a therapeutic alliance with patients and their families, begin treatment with an antidepressant for moderate or severe depression, treat patients to remission, and continually monitor patients' symptomatic improvement.
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- "It causes subjective distress, impaired functional capacity, secondary mental and somatic complications and can even lead to suicides. An accurate diagnosis followed by effective treatment can improve the outcome (Cizza, 2011; Nutt, 2011). Some proportion of patients with depression respond very well to various pharmacologic and behavioral treatments, when given individually or in combination. "
ABSTRACT: Curcumin, an active ingredient of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae), has shown potential antidepressant-like activity in animal studies. The objectives of this trial were to compare the efficacy and safety of curcumin with fluoxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, 60 patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio for six weeks observer-masked treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg) and curcumin (1000 mg) individually or their combination. The primary efficacy variable was response rates according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HAM-D17 ). The secondary efficacy variable was the mean change in HAM-D17 score after six weeks. We observed that curcumin was well tolerated by all the patients. The proportion of responders as measured by the HAM-D17 scale was higher in the combination group (77.8%) than in the fluoxetine (64.7%) and the curcumin (62.5%) groups; however, these data were not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Interestingly, the mean change in HAM-D17 score at the end of six weeks was comparable in all three groups (P = 0.77). This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognition, behavior, and physical functioning, and is associated with a chronic clinical course. There are barriers to successful treatment, which often result in early discontinuation and relapse. Adverse effects (AEs) remain the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation of treatment with conventional antidepressants, particularly early on in therapy. This often translates into relapse of symptoms or recurrence of the depressive episode. The delay to therapeutic response also has a meaningful implication for treatment adherence. Areas covered: This article focuses on the implications of a novel entity for the treatment of depression; the first new molecule developed for this indication in the last 10 years. Vilazodone is a novel dual-acting serotonergic antidepressant, which is a selective and potent inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, as well as a selective partial agonist of the 5-HT(1A) receptor. Expert opinion: The data available in the literature so far indicate clinical efficacy over placebo and a rather benign adverse event profile. Whether the early onset of clinical efficacy observed in one of the two pivotal studies represents a true or only a chance phenomenon, only future studies can tell. Adverse effects are mostly mild-moderate and most GI type AEs disappear in about one week, at a time when all patients are still on a clinically suboptimal daily dosage (10 mg/d during the first week). Sexual AEs did not differ from placebo. Vilazodone represents an interesting addition to the arsenal of available antidepressants.
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ABSTRACT: Background: It has been suggested that clinician-rated scales and self-report questionnaires may be interchangeable in the measurement of depression severity, but it has not been tested whether clinically significant information is lost when assessment is restricted to either clinician-rated or self-report instruments. The aim of this study is to test whether self-report provides information relevant to short-term treatment outcomes that is not captured by clinician-rating and vice versa. Methods: In genome-based drugs for depression (GENDEP), 811 patients with major depressive disorder treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline were assessed with the clinician-rated Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D), 4,041 patients treated with citalopram were assessed with the clinician-rated and self-report versions of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C and QIDS-SR) in addition to HRSD. Results: In GENDEP, baseline BDI significantly predicted outcome on MADRS/HRSD after adjusting for baseline MADRS/HRSD, explaining additional 3 to 4% of variation in the clinician-rated outcomes (both P < .001). Likewise, each clinician-rated scale significantly predicted outcome on BDI after adjusting for baseline BDI and explained additional 1% of variance in the self-reported outcome (both P < .001). The results were confirmed in STAR*D, where self-report and clinician-rated versions of the same instrument each uniquely contributed to the prediction of treatment outcome. Conclusions: Complete assessment of depression should include both clinician-rated scales and self-reported measures.
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