Perinatal outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic patients matched by body mass index


    Given that both type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and often coexist, we sought to determine if outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients are related to the presence of diabetes or to maternal obesity.
    This retrospective cohort study examined perinatal outcomes of type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic patients matched by prepregnancy body mass index January 2000 to July 2008. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U and t-tests were used to compare groups. The association between type 2 diabetes and adverse perinatal outcomes was evaluated through logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders.
    213 pairs of type 2 and non-diabetic patients were compared. Diabetic patients had overall worse composite pregnancy, delivery, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. Specifically, diabetic patients had higher rates of preeclampsia, poly- and oligohydramnios, cesarean delivery, shoulder dystocia, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm delivery, LGA infant, fetal anomaly, and neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, RDS, sepsis, intubation, and admission to the NICU. Diabetes remained a significant predictor of adverse delivery, fetal and neonatal composite outcomes when adjusted for confounders in logistic regression.
    Type 2 diabetic patients have a higher incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes than nondiabetic patients independent of obesity.