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Abstract

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a multifactorial skeletal disorder which is very common in pedigree dogs and represents a huge concern for canine welfare. Control schemes based on selective breeding have been in operation for decades. The aim of these schemes is to reduce the impact of CHD on canine welfare by selecting for reduced radiographic evidence of CHD pathology as assessed by a variety of phenotypes. There is less information regarding the genotypic correlation between these phenotypes and the impact of CHD on canine welfare. Although the phenotypes chosen as the basis for these control schemes have displayed heritable phenotypic variation in many studies, success in achieving improvement in the phenotypes has been mixed. There is significant room for improvement in the current schemes through the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs), which can combine a dog's CHD phenotype with CHD phenotypes of relatives, other phenotypes as they are proven to be genetically correlated with CHD (especially elbow dysplasia phenotypes), and information from genetic tests for population-relevant DNA markers, as such tests become available. Additionally, breed clubs should be encouraged and assisted to formulate rational, evidenced-based breeding recommendations for CHD which suit their individual circumstances and dynamically to adjust the breeding recommendations based on continuous tracking of CHD genetic trends. These improvements can assist in safely and effectively reducing the impact of CHD on pedigree dog welfare.

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... [4][5][6][7][8] The manifestation of CHD is based on genetic and non-genetic factors, resulting in the varying severity of phenotypes seen. 9,10 Heritable alleles have an additive effect, such that a dog inheriting primarily dysplastic alleles will show a more severe phenotype than a dog with primarily normal alleles. 11 Nongenetic factors that may influence CHD include nutrition, activity, metabolic disorders, and body condition. ...
... 29 Data suggest that these genes are related to joint laxity, the tolerance to joint laxity, OA progression, inflammatory response, muscle and soft tissue formation, and extracellular matrix synthesis/degradation. 10,30,31 These studies are limited to a single breed, or two-breed crosses. Genetic biomarkers may be more applicable when tailored to an individual breed, as opposed to all breeds; this is still under investigation. ...
... Genetic biomarkers may be more applicable when tailored to an individual breed, as opposed to all breeds; this is still under investigation. 9,10,27,30,31 Alternatively, body fluid proteins are being evaluated for their capabilities in screening for, diagnosing, staging, and monitoring the development and progression of OA in CHD and other joint disorders. To date, OA research using protein biomarkers has primarily focused on breakdown products of articular cartilage in serum and/or synovial fluid. ...
Article
This study compares serum and urine concentrations of relevant protein biomarkers among adult dogs with or without radiographic canine hip dysplasia (CHD). Adult (≥ 2 years of age), client‐owned dogs (n = 74) radiographically categorized as having at least “good” hips (n = 49) or having “mild”, “moderate”, or “severe” hip dysplasia (n = 25) by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA). Urine and serum samples were obtained from each dog at a single time‐point and processed and analyzed for relevant protein biomarkers. Urinary concentrations of CTX‐II (p < 0.001) and TIMP‐1 (p = 0.002) were significantly lower in dogs with CHD compared to dogs with no CHD. ROC curve analyses were successful in establishing a panel of 4 biomarkers (urinary CTX‐I and II, serum MMP‐9, and serum PIICP) with high discriminatory capability for the presence or absence of hip dysplasia in adult dogs (AUC = 0.89. Urine and serum biomarkers can distinguish adult dogs with radiographic CHD from those with no CHD with a sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity of 0.77 using ROC analysis with AUC 0.89. Clinical significance: This finding suggests that this simple, minimally invasive diagnostic technique has potential for discriminating dysplastic dogs from dogs with normal hips, with possible translational application to humans based on similar etiopathogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... The heritability estimates in these studies were performed using a variety of methods such as regression, Bayesian and/or Restricted Maximal Likelihood analyses. As a general rule, traits with heritability estimates >0.15 are considered to be under adequate genetic influence such that sufficient response will be seen with selective breeding (Wilson et al. 2011), thus decreasing the prevalence of the disease. Heritability estimates of previous studies performed on the OFA, FCI and BVA scoring systems have generally met or exceeded this level. ...
... The EBV is a measure of the genetic superiority of an animal as compared to its counterparts and is calculated from the phenotypes of the individual, their relatives and pedigree data (Nicholas 2010a). The EBV is a more accurate predictor of an individual's genetic merit because it takes into account the genetic contribution of superior genes from all relatives (such as offspring or siblings) as well as any other available information about the individual in question (Wilson et al. 2011;Woolliams et al. 2011). The accuracy of an individual's EBV increases as information becomes available from its relatives. ...
... This also means that utilising the available information from relatives will allow the EBV of a puppy to be calculated the moment it is born (Lewis et al. 2010); this is beneficial as it allows breeders to plan ahead as well as potentially assisting with the process and progress of selection. Another major advantage for the utilisation of EBV for breeding selection is that EBV are corrected for identifiable nongenetic (environmental) effects which may cause bias on the hip score (Lewis et al. 2010;Wilson et al. 2011;Woolliams et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Abstract Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a developmental orthopaedic disease of the coxofemoral joints with a multifactorial mode of inheritance. Multiple gene effects are influenced by environmental factors; therefore, it is unlikely that a simple genetic screening test with which to identify susceptible individuals will be developed in the near future. In the absence of feasible methods for objectively quantifying clinical CHD, radiographic techniques have been developed and widely used to identify dogs for breeding which are less affected by the disease. A hip-extended ventrodorsal view of the pelvis has been traditionally used to identify dogs with subluxation and/or osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joints. More recently, there has been emphasis on the role of coxofemoral joint laxity as a determinant of CHD and methods have been developed to measure passive hip laxity. Though well-established worldwide, the effectiveness of traditional phenotypic scoring schemes in reducing the prevalence of CHD has been variable. The most successful implementation of traditional CHD scoring has occurred in countries or breeding colonies with mandatory scoring and open registries with access to pedigree records. Several commentators have recommended that for quantitative traits like CHD, selection of breeding stock should be based on estimated breeding values (EBV) rather than individual hip score/grade. The EBV is a reflection of the genetic superiority of an animal compared to its counterparts and is calculated from the phenotype of an individual and its relatives and their pedigree relationship. Selecting breeding stock on the basis of a dog's genetic merit, ideally based on a highly predictive phenotype, will confer the breeder with greater selection power, accelerate genetic improvement towards better hip conformation and thus more likely to decrease the prevalence of CHD.
... The inheritance pattern of CHD has been shown to be polygenic in GSDs [5] and regional and chromosomal heritability analyses of CHD in Labrador retrievers also indicated that the genetic architecture of CHD is based on many genes with small or moderate effect [4]. Identification of potential risk loci involved in CHD and a better understanding of the genetic architecture of this disease could help to address the severe welfare consequences, e.g. by promoting early genetic screening and improving breeding schemes [6,7]. ...
Article
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Background Association mapping studies of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) can contribute to the understanding of the genetic background of this common and debilitating disease and might contribute to its genetic improvement. The power of association studies for CHD is limited by relatively small sample numbers for CHD records within countries, suggesting potential benefits of joining data across countries. However, this is complicated due to the use of different scoring systems across countries. In this study, we incorporated routinely assessed CHD records and genotype data of German Shepherd dogs from two countries (UK and Sweden) to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) within populations using different variations of CHD phenotypes. As phenotypes, dogs were either classified into cases and controls based on the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) five-level grading of the worst hip or the FCI grade was treated as an ordinal trait. In a subsequent meta-analysis, we added publicly available data from a Finnish population and performed the GWAS across all populations. Genetic associations for the CHD phenotypes were evaluated in a linear mixed model using 62,089 SNPs. Results Multiple SNPs with genome-wide significant and suggestive associations were detected in single-population GWAS and the meta-analysis. Few of these SNPs overlapped between populations or between single-population GWAS and the meta-analysis, suggesting that many CHD-related QTL are population-specific. More significant or suggestive SNPs were identified when FCI grades were used as phenotypes in comparison to the case-control approach. MED13 (Chr 9) and PLEKHA7 (Chr 21) emerged as novel positional candidate genes associated with hip dysplasia. Conclusions Our findings confirm the complex genetic nature of hip dysplasia in dogs, with multiple loci associated with the trait, most of which are population-specific. Routinely assessed CHD information collected across countries provide an opportunity to increase sample sizes and statistical power for association studies. While the lack of standardisation of CHD assessment schemes across countries poses a challenge, we showed that conversion of traits can be utilised to overcome this obstacle.
... Anecdotally, difference police forces in the UK have different procurement methods -some dogs will be bred specifically for police work, whilst others will be rescue animals or unwanted pets. Primarily however, police dogs are selected on the basis of character traits, and, depending on whether the dog is selected from pup or adult, may then undergo testing for inheritable phenotypes (Wilson et al., 2011). Further investigation would need to be undertaken to establish an ideal hip angle, and at what age that may become apparent, but may ultimately prove beneficial during the selection process. ...
Article
Many police dogs do not reach their expected retirement age as they are no longer able to cope with the physical demands of the job. Annual licensing requires police dogs to complete a series of agility tasks, including jumping and negotiating an A-frame obstacle, both of which are associated with higher injury rates in canine agility competitors. This study sought to measure conformational, kinematic, and kinetic parameters of actively employed police German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs), whilst completing a 55 cm jump hurdle, and a standard A-frame. Each dog completed three repetitions of each obstacle and was also recorded at both walk and trot. Contact pressures and forces were measured, whilst joint kinematics were recorded using reflective markers and a high-speed camera. Results found that static hip angle was significantly correlated with hip flexion at trot, during jump suspension and at the apex of the A-frame. Stifle and hock flexion were greatest during the suspension phase of jump (56.98±11.710° and 54.51±17.430°). Shoulder and elbow flexion were greatest at the apex of A-frame (104.34±16.744° and 75.72±20.804°), whilst carpal extension was highest upon landing from the jump (125.77±7.071°). Peak vertical force (PFz) when normalised for body mass (BM) increased when landing from A-frame (14.28 N/kg BM) as opposed to landing from the jump obstacle (12.055 N/kg·BM). Our results show that increased range of motion (ROM) is required during both jumping and negotiation of A-frame compared to walk and trot, but more significantly, greater forces are incurred upon landing from the A-frame than compared to jumping. It was also observed that dogs were subject to high degrees of torsion in the distal limbs upon landing from the A-frame due to trained behaviours. We conclude that use of agility equipment generates greater forces through the musculoskeletal system and requires a greater ROM than what is experienced at walk and trot, which may contribute to early retirement ages in police dogs.
... Ideally, it should be ensured that the traits (e.g. disease diagnoses) on which selection is based are both heritable and of clinical relevance for the dogs' health and well-being, e.g. that the radiographic assessment of hip status being used as the selection criterion is closely associated with the subsequent clinical problems and mortality that we wish to decrease (Malm et al., 2010;Wilson et al., 2011). ...
... The response to selection which can be expected from a genetic control scheme of this type depends on the phenotypic variation and heritability of the phenotype in the population, whether EBVs are used, the selection pressure which is applied by the end users of the scheme and how well the selection criterion (BVAHT scores) genetically correlates to the goal phenotype (also called breeding objective). Wilson et al. [32] argued that the goal phenotype is improved animal welfare. Consequently, the extent to which any phenotype used in a CHD control scheme genetically correlates to improved animal welfare is a key question. ...
Article
Full-text available
Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is a common, painful and debilitating orthopaedic disorder of dogs with a partly genetic, multifactorial aetiology. Worldwide, potential breeding dogs are evaluated for CHD using radiographically based screening schemes such as the nine ordinally-scored British Veterinary Association Hip Traits (BVAHTs). The effectiveness of selective breeding based on screening results requires that a significant proportion of the phenotypic variation is caused by the presence of favourable alleles segregating in the population. This proportion, heritability, was measured in a cohort of 13,124 Australian German Shepherd Dogs born between 1976 and 2005, displaying phenotypic variation for BVAHTs, using ordinal, linear and binary mixed models fitted by a Restricted Maximum Likelihood method. Heritability estimates for the nine BVAHTs ranged from 0.14-0.24 (ordinal models), 0.14-0.25 (linear models) and 0.12-0.40 (binary models). Heritability for the summed BVAHT phenotype was 0.30 ± 0.02. The presence of heritable variation demonstrates that selection based on BVAHTs has the potential to improve BVAHT scores in the population. Assuming a genetic correlation between BVAHT scores and CHD-related pain and dysfunction, the welfare of Australian German Shepherds can be improved by continuing to consider BVAHT scores in the selection of breeding dogs, but that as heritability values are only moderate in magnitude the accuracy, and effectiveness, of selection could be improved by the use of Estimated Breeding Values in preference to solely phenotype based selection of breeding animals.
... The introduction of breeding values, which represents the genetic quality of a dog for a certain trait, could increase the efficacy of current breeding programs. 4,9,51,64,[71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78] Breeding values are based on a mathematical approach to pedigree data. Because it is elusive to know all elements of the pedigree, statistical models are applied to estimate the breeding value (EBV). ...
Article
To critically review the different screening systems used for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and their impact on the prevalence of the disease. Critical literature review. Literature search through PubMed (November 1959-October 2011) and the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA), Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club (BVA/KC), and Pennsylvania Hip Improvement Program (PennHIP) websites. The OFA, FCI, and BVA/KC screening methods, which use the hip-extended radiographic projection, have had relatively minor success on CHD prevalence. These screening approaches are prone to conflicting data regarding interobserver agreement. The PennHIP and Dorsolateral Subluxation (DLS) systems, both distraction methods, have not reported on prevalence but seem to be important heritable traits in genomic screening of dysplastic dogs. A shift towards genome screening yields a promising future combating CHD, although further investigation towards fine-mapping in the search for genes, responsible for CHD, is necessary.
... Analyses determining the genetic correlations between individual scoring protocols would enable dogs to be evaluated under any (participating) scheme (UK registered dogs evaluated under the FCI scheme and Scandinavian dogs participating in the BVA/KC scheme for example) while still having an EBV in the country of registration [25]. It should be noted, however, that not all scoring protocols may be equal in terms of predicting the lameness associated with hip and elbow dysplasia and consequential OA [33]. To address this further research focussing on identifying OA and lameness later in the life of scored dogs would be welcome. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Hip dysplasia remains one of the most serious hereditary diseases occurring in dogs despite long-standing evaluation schemes designed to aid selection for healthy joints. Many researchers have recommended the use of estimated breeding values (EBV) to improve the rate of genetic progress from selection against hip and elbow dysplasia (another common developmental orthopaedic disorder), but few have empirically quantified the benefits of their use. This study aimed to both determine recent genetic trends in hip and elbow dysplasia, and evaluate the potential improvements in response to selection that publication of EBV for such diseases would provide, across a wide range of pure-bred dog breeds. Results The genetic trend with respect to hip and elbow condition due to phenotypic selection had improved in all breeds, except the Siberian Husky. However, derived selection intensities are extremely weak, equivalent to excluding less than a maximum of 18% of the highest risk animals from breeding. EBV for hip and elbow score were predicted to be on average between 1.16 and 1.34 times more accurate than selection on individual or both parental phenotypes. Additionally, compared to the proportion of juvenile animals with both parental phenotypes, the proportion with EBV of a greater accuracy than selection on such phenotypes increased by up to 3-fold for hip score and up to 13-fold for elbow score. Conclusions EBV are shown to be both more accurate and abundant than phenotype, providing more reliable information on the genetic risk of disease for a greater proportion of the population. Because the accuracy of selection is directly related to genetic progress, use of EBV can be expected to benefit selection for the improvement of canine health and welfare. Public availability of EBV for hip score for the fifteen breeds included in this study will provide information on the genetic risk of disease in nearly a third of all dogs annually registered by the UK Kennel Club, with in excess of a quarter having an EBV for elbow score as well.
... This acceptance will improve decisionmaking on effective disease-control and breeding programs [109]. Application of estimated breeding values (EBVs) developed from summative health information derived from a range of sources, including health schemes and veterinary primary-care data, could contribute integrally to novel disorder-control programs [14,110,111]. ...
Article
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Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein.
... Dogs evaluated under these schemes must be permanently identified by microchip or tattoo [166] and breed median scores are published to assist breeding decisions [167]. Linkage between HD and ED schemes results and KC pedigree data has allowed pedigree evaluation and generation of estimated breeding values (EBVs) [168] for HD [169] and ED [170] in Labrador Retrievers. However, selection bias resulting from predominant inclusion of registered purebreds and the unlikelihood of submissions from dogs that are clinically affected or have obviously affected radiographs limit generalisation and may bias prevalence estimates downwards [171]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance.
... Comparing genetic trends between studies and especially between different hip scoring systems is problematic as EBV analyses are very specific to the phenotype (hip scoring system), breed and population on which the analysis is based (Mackenzie 1985;Wilson et al. 2011). Nonetheless, a comparison between the BVA and NZVA hip scoring systems may be valid, because they utilise the same radiographic hip phenotype. ...
Article
Full-text available
AIM: To use estimated breeding value (EBV) analysis to investigate the genetic trend of the total hip score (to assess canine hip dysplasia) in four populous breeds of dogs using the records from the New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) Canine Hip Dysplasia Scheme database (1991 to 2011). METHODS: Estimates of heritability and EBV for the NZVA total hip score of individual dogs from the German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever and Rottweiler breeds were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures with a within-breed linear animal model. The model included the fixed effects of gender, birth year, birth season, age at scoring and the random effect of animal. The pedigree file included animals recorded between 1990 and 2011. A total of 2,983 NZVA hip score records, from a pedigree of 3,172 animals, were available for genetic evaluation. Genetic trends of the NZVA total hip score were calculated as the regression coefficient of the EBV (weighted by reliabilities) on year of birth. RESULTS: The estimates of heritability for hip score were 0.32 (SE 0.08) in German Shepherd, 0.37 (SE 0.08) in Labrador Retriever, 0.29 (SE 0.08) in Golden Retriever and 0.52 (SE 0.18) in Rottweiler breeds. Genetic trend analysis revealed that only the German Shepherd breed exhibited a genetic trend towards better hip conformation over time, with a decline of 0.13 (SE 0.04) NZVA total hip score units per year (p<0.001). The genetic trends of total hip score for the remaining three breeds were not significantly different from zero (p>0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Despite moderate heritability of the NZVA total hip score, there has not been substantial improvement of this trait for the four breeds analysed in the study period. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Greater improvement in reducing the prevalence of canine hip dysplasia may be possible if screening were to be compulsory as a requirement for registration of pedigree breeding stock, greater selection pressure were to be applied and selection of breeding stock made on the basis on an individual's EBV rather than the NZVA total hip score alone.
... 28,49 So, the phenotypic expressions of these traits are very similar to CHD, determined by heredity and environment. The EBV for CHD is a genetic parameter derived from the hip quality of relatives, and is thus more representative of the dog's genetic quality, 12,44 and allows monitoring of the genetic trends in dog populations, 50 being recommended for CHD selection purposes. 51,52 With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technology and emergence of high-density genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) canine arrays, associations between genetic markers in linkage disequilibrium and CHD genes have been discovered. ...
Article
Full-text available
Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is the most common inherited polygenic orthopedic trait in dogs with the phenotype influenced also by environmental factors. This trait was described in the dog in 1935 and leads to a debilitating secondary hip osteoarthritis. The diagnosis is confirmed radiographically by evaluating signs of degenerative joint disease, incongruence, and/or passive hip joint laxity. There is no ideal medical or surgical treatment so prevention based on controlled breeding is the optimal approach. The definitive CHD diagnosis based on radiographic examina-tion involves the exposure to ionizing radiation under general anesthesia or heavy sedation but the image does not reveal the underlying genetic quality of the dog. Phenotypic expression of CHD is modified by environmental factors and dogs with a normal phenotype can be carriers of some mutations and transmit these genes to their offspring. Programs based on selection of dogs with better individual phenotypes for breeding are effective when strictly applied but remain inferior to the selection of dogs based on estimation of breeding values. Molecular studies for dissecting the genetic basis of CHD are ongoing, but progress has been slow. In the future, the recommended method to improve hip quality in controlled breeding schemes, which will allow higher selection pressure, would be based on the estimation of the genomic breeding value. Since 2012, a commercial DNA test has been available for Labrador Retrievers using a blood sample and provides a probability for development of CHD but we await evidence that this test reduces the incidence or severity of CHD. Keywords: canine hip dysplasia, phenotype, breeding stock, GWAS, screening, diagnosis
... Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is an inherited, developmental trait with both genetic and environmental factors such as sex, age, growth rate, and body condition affecting its expression (Zhang et al., 2009;Powers et al., 2010;Wilson et al., 2011). First described in 1935 (Schnelle, 1935), it has been the subject of intensive research and methods for reproductive control because it is one of the most common, and clinically-important, orthopedic traits of the dog. ...
Article
Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common complex trait characterized by abnormal hip joint development. Hip joint laxity, an early characteristic of CHD, results in degeneration of the joint due to mechanical trauma, which is a clinical problem mostly in medium to large breed dogs. Clinical sings include pain, decreased activity and lameness. A retrospective, multi-center, cross sectional study of 437 dogs was performed to determine if a Norberg Angle (NA) ≥105° accurately predicts a non-dysplastic hip based on a distraction index (DI) cut-off of ≤0.3 or a dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score cut-off of ≥55%. The predictive capacity of the NA against a DI ≤0.3 or a DLS score ≥55% was assessed using area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The ROC curve of NA for the prediction of a DI ≤0.3 was 0.59 (95% CI = 0.50-0.69) and for the prediction of DLS score ≥55% was 0.69 (95% CI = 0.63-0.75). Optimizing the specificity of the NA to ≥80% for prediction of a DI ≤0.3 and a DLS score ≥55% gave a cut-point for the NA of ≥112° and 108.7°, respectively. In conclusion, at the cut-point of 105°, the NA is not an accurate measurement to score normal or abnormal hips, based on the DI or DLS score. Application of screening methods for CHD based on hip laxity, such as the DI or the DLS score, would help to remove additional dysplastic dogs from the breeding pool or the NA criterion should be higher when selecting unaffected dogs for breeding.
... Reports in the literature indicate variable response to genetic selection based upon phenotypic radiographic evidence of CHD in individual dogs (recently reviewed by [14]. Breeding schemes reliant upon phenotype have shown a modest [15,16] or more substantial [1,[17][18][19] degree of improvement in hip conformation and reduced incidence CHD. Some of the variability across findings may represent differences in sample size, hip assessment protocols, preferential sire selection, and breed contribution in the study design; the latter is especially important as larger breeds are typically more prone to express these conditions due to either genetic ancestry [20] or conformational morphology [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and elbow dysplasia (ED) impact the health and welfare of all dogs. The first formally organized assessment scheme to improve canine health centered on reducing the prevalence of these orthopedic disorders. Phenotypic screening of joint conformation remains the currently available strategy for breeders to make selection decisions. The present study evaluated the efficacy of employing phenotypic selection on breed improvement of hips and elbows using the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals complete database spanning the 1970–2015 time period. Sixty breeds having more than 1000 unique hip evaluations and 500 elbow evaluations (1,056,852 and 275,129 hip and elbow records, respectively) were interrogated to derive phenotypic improvement, sex and age at time of assessment effects, correlation between the two joints, heritability estimates, estimated breeding values (EBV), and effectiveness of maternal/paternal selection. The data demonstrated that there has been overall improvement in hip and elbow conformation with a reduction in EBV for disease liability, although the breeds differed in the magnitude of the response to selection. Heritabilities also differed substantially across the breeds as did the correlation of the joints; in the absence of a universal association of these differences with breed size, popularity, or participation in screening, it appears that the breeds themselves vary in genetic control. There was subtle, though again breed specific, impact of sex and older ages on CHD and ED. There was greater paternal impact on a reduction of CHD. In the absence of direct genetic tests for either of these two diseases, phenotypic selection has proven to be effective. Furthermore, the data underscore that selection schemes must be breed specific and that it is likely the genetic profiles will be unique across the breeds for these two conditions. Despite the advances achieved with phenotypic selection, incorporation of EBVs into selection schemes should accelerate advances in hip and elbow improvement.
... In consequence of the major progress in the detection of genes responsible for CHD [2][3][4][5][6][7], many investigators have suggested the implementation of estimated breeding values (EBV) to improve the selection [8][9][10][11][12][13]. Phenotypic screening of joint conformation remains a currently available strategy for breeders to make selection decisions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Segregation analysis of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) was studied for the first time in Cane Corso Italiano dogs. Data was obtained from 1813 dogs, using the Cane Corso Italiano Pedigree Database (www.canecorsopedigree.com). Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI) official guidelines were used for scoring the CHD. Offspring segregation of CHD from parental crosses containing combinations of parents’ CHD between CHD score A, B and C were analyzed. Results are summarized in Figure 2-7. Offspring segregation of crossing (male A x female B) was compared with the reciprocal crossing (male B x female A). Genes responsible for CHD are probably located on autosomes, therefore reciprocal crossing gave the same results. Most (59.9 %) of CHD-A scored offspring arose from male CHD-A x female CHD-A crosses. 50.0 % CHD-A scored offspring arose from the male CHD-A x female CHD-B crosses, and 47.1% CHD-A scored offspring arose from the male CHD-A x female CHD-C crosses. Only 35.3% CHD-A scored offspring arose from the male CHD-B x female CHD-B crosses, and 16.7% CHD-A scored offspring arose from male CHD-C x female CHD-C crosses. Surprisingly, crosses between one parent CHD-A scored and second parent CHD-C scored enabled substantially more CHD-A scored offspring, compared to crosses of both parents CHD-B scored. These results suggest that an optimal Cane Corso Italiano breeding programme for reducing CHD should employ crosses of males and females, both CHD-A scored. Cane Corso Italiano breeders should realize regularly crosses of both parents CHD-A scored, rarely crosses of one parent CHD-A scored and second CHD-B scored, exceptionally crosses of one parent CHD-A scored and second CHD-C scored. Responsible breeders should exclude any crosses of both parents worse than CHD-A scored. The main pedigreed breeding males should be only CHD-A scored.
... The percentage of dogs that are scored for HD vary largely according to breed and country. BLUP selection is considered as the most efficient method to improve a complex trait (Wilson et al. 2011) and until now, only a limited number of countries, like Sweden and UK, have implemented genetic evaluation for some of their breeds. ...
Thesis
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Implementation of breeding programs in order to reduce incidence of inherited disorders and their impact on welfare should be a priority for dog breeders and breeding organizations. In that respect, exchange of breeding animals between countries constitutes a critical point to be taken into account. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate management strategies to improve breed health in an international context, concerning both genetic evaluation and management of genetic variability. A survey, which was completely filled in by 15 national kennel clubs (KCs), demonstrated shared concerns among KCs about health in pedigree dogs and a shared intent of improving breeding and health status, especially among European national KCs. In addition, with data provided by the French, Swedish and British kennel clubs, including pedigree databases and phenotypic records of hip dysplasia (HD), the feasibility of joint evaluations across countries and the efficiency of international breeding programs were investigated. The benefits of exchanging breeding animals across countries were clearly shown in terms of improved genetic variability and increased genetic progress, especially for breeds in countries with small populations. Further, the efficiency of breeding programs including importation of breeding males concerning genetic improvement of complex traits and inbreeding management was tested by simulation. We concluded that international breeding programs are useful and alternative options to improving canine genetic health and their benefits will be amplified with an expected increase in exchange of breeding animals in the future. Importing male dogs could lead to higher genetic progress, however, it is necessary to have a high genetic correlation between countries and high accuracy of estimated breeding values of imported dogs.
... The validity of the practice of hip evaluation and grading based on the worse-hip DI has been previously questioned. Wilson et al. (2011a) noted the serious loss of information due to this practice. They further drew attention to the fact that the genes responsible for hip dysplasia in the left hip are largely the same as those that cause hip dysplasia on the right (Wilson et al. 2011b). ...
Article
AIM: To obtain provisional estimates of the heritability (h²) of passive laxity of the coxofemoral joints of a breeding colony of German Shepherd dogs, measured using the PennHIP distraction index (DI). METHODS: Records were obtained of the PennHIP DI of right and left hips of 195 German Shepherd dogs (377 DI records) from the dog breeding colony of the New Zealand Police Dog Breeding Centre between 2003 and 2016, as well as pedigree records of 884 animals over four generations. Estimates of h² and variance components for the log transformed DI data were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures with a single trait sire model. Four DI traits for each dog were analysed: left hip, right hip, mean and worse-hip DI. The model included the fixed effects of sex and year of birth, with the age at scoring as a covariable, the random sire effect and residual error for each observation. RESULTS: The h² of the DI of the left hip (0.81, SE 0.40) was higher than the h² of the DI of the right hip (0.35, SE 0.36). The h² for the worse-hip DI (0.15, SE 0.28) in each dog was lower than the h² of the individual hip DI, or the h² for the mean of the two hips (0.53, SE 0.36) in each dog. The low number of generations prevented a meaningful analysis of the genetic trend. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The h² estimates for the left, right and mean DI traits were moderate to high, whereas the h² estimates for the worse-hip DI (as used by the PennHIP program for ranking of dogs) was low, but all estimates had large SE due to the small sample size. This provisional estimate of the h² of four distraction index traits suggests that the mean DI could be useful as a selection tool against canine hip dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs, whereas the worse hip DI may be less effective. Heritability estimates from a population with a greater number of DI measures is needed to validate this finding given the large SE in our study.
... Selection after the evaluation of estimated breeding values (EBVs) is the most effective way to genetically improve hip joint status (Wilson et al., 2011;Lewis and Windig, 2016). Genetic evaluation routines have been implemented in some countries, such as Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden and the UK (Wang et al., 2018). ...
Article
Breeding against canine hip dysplasia (HD) may benefit from the importation of foreign sires. When foreign sires are evaluated on a different HD scale, this may diminish the efficacy. Using stochastic simulations, we evaluated genetic change and inbreeding levels for different scenarios of importing sires with high genetic merit for HD. Population size and genetic parameters (e.g. heritability, accuracy of selection, genetic correlation) were based on actual data for HD in Golden retrievers and Labrador retrievers in the UK and Sweden. For countries with different HD scales and an estimated breeding value (EBV) evaluation in place, the importation was useful if imported sires had EBV rankings in the top 50% and if genetic correlations between EBV systems were above 0.85. When importing sires with EBV rankings in the top 10%, moderate accuracies of EBVs (>0.40) and moderately strong genetic correlations (>0.70) were needed. Selection against HD without the importation of sires may increase inbreeding levels, while the importation of sires can decrease inbreeding levels. For national genetic evaluation and selection programmes, importing sires with high genetic merit can be an effective breeding strategy, but care is needed to estimate reliable EBVs.
... Thus, where future work focuses on the relative advantages of different methods for diagnosing or categorising FHD (e.g. rank scores versus Norberg angles, laxity scores or subluxation indices) 19,23 , it should be kept in mind that these diagnostic methods and their phenotypic variance may influence h 2 estimates, with this, in turn influencing the effectiveness of selective breeding programmes based on these FHD scores 6 . In addition, h 2 estimates could be influenced through observational error depending on the grading system used in the selection programme. ...
Article
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Feline hip dysplasia (FHD) is a debilitating condition affecting the hip joints of millions of domestic cats worldwide. Despite this, little is known about FHD except that it is relatively common in the large breed Maine Coon. We used 20 years of data from 5038 pedigree-registered Maine Coon cats in a radiographic health screening programme for FHD to determine, for the first time, its heritability, genetic correlation to body mass and response to selection. FHD prevalence was 37.4%, with no sex predilection; however, FHD severity increased with age and body mass. Heritability of the radiographic categories used to classify FHD severity was 0.36 (95%CI: 0.30–0.43). The severity of FHD symptoms was also genetically correlated with body mass (0.285), suggesting that selection for a large body type in this breed concurrently selects for FHD. Support for this was found by following generational responses to selective breeding against FHD. Not only did selective breeding successfully reduce the severity of FHD symptoms in descendants, but these cats were also smaller than their ancestors (−33g per generation). This study highlights the value of breeding programmes against FHD and cautions against breed standards that actively encourage large bodied cats.
... The HCM status of close relatives can help to identify cats at high risk of carrying HCMcausing variants, whose use in breeding should be postponed until they are shown to be free of the HCM phenotype at mature age . The use of pedigrees to obtain estimated breeding values, as advocated for hip dysplasia selection, seems less applicable, as HCM is considered a qualitative rather than a quantitative trait (Wilson et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common and potentially lethal heart disease in cats. To reduce its prevalence, breeding cats are frequently screened on the basis of their phenotype or genotype. Although echocardiography is the most reliable phenotypical method, its efficacy is limited by the incomplete penetrance of HCM and by difficulties in distinguishing primary HCM from other causes of left ventricular hypertrophy. On the other hand, genetic testing is hampered by the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Genetic tests are currently only available for Maine Coons and Ragdolls. Because of the high prevalence of HCM, stringent selection may have a negative impact on the genetic diversity of a breed. A more optimal selection would therefore be a slow and careful exclusion of phenotypically and/or genetically positive cats.
... Canine hip dysplasia (HD) is one of the most common orthopedic disorders in large and giant dog breeds (1). It was reported by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) (2) that 177 breeds were affected by HD, with the prevalence ranging from 0.9 to 75.3%, based on statistics of dogs born between 2011 and 2015. ...
Article
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The BVA/KC (British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club) and FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale) are the main screening schemes used to evaluate the status of canine hip dysplasia (HD) in Europe. Jointly utilizing HD records from both BVA/KC and FCI schemes could improve the reliability of genetic evaluation within and across countries. In this study, HD scores for German shepherd dogs (GSDs) in the UK (using the BVA/KC scheme) and Sweden (using the FCI scheme) were used to investigate how to better operate joint genetic evaluations across the two schemes. It was shown that under a bivariate model, which regarded BVA/KC and FCI scores as different traits, the estimated genetic correlations between the UK and Swedish GSD populations were the same when using BVA/KC total or worse hip scores and for single-country or joint analysis of both the UK and Swedish populations. Under a univariate model that converted BVA/KC scores into FCI scores, the predictability of estimated breeding values was slightly improved by performing a joint analysis.
Article
Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a complex, polygenic disease radiographically associated with hip subluxation and development of osteoarthritis. Screening programs have been established with the goal of hip improvement, with the most common in the United States being OFA hip scoring and the PennHIP method. When evaluating the single hip-extended view used by OFA versus the 3 radiographic views and associated distraction index (DI) used by PennHIP for CHD screening, the scientific evidence supports the use of the DI and PennHIP method. OFA scoring can be used to effect hip improvement, especially when incorporated into estimated breeding values.
Article
With a prevalence of over 70% amongst some breeds, hip dysplasia is one of the most common developmental orthopaedic diseases diagnosed in first opinion practice. With a multimodal approach leading to the best form of management of the condition, this two-part article looks at the causes and treatment of the condition, and the role that the veterinary nurse and rehabilitation can play. Part one below focuses on aetiology and treatment.
Article
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The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of a new automated computer software tool for the assessment of passive hip laxity. The hip laxity was estimated using the dedicated computer software by two blinded evaluators, one previously trained and one without specific training for distraction index measurement, in two independent sessions using 230 hip joints from 115 dogs that underwent screening for passive hip laxity using the distraction view. Previously, all of these radiographs were sent to PennHIP Analysis Center for an official distraction index record. The measurement repeatability of the two sessions was adequate for both evaluators. The reproducibility of the official distraction index measurement, mean distraction index±standard deviation 0.44±0.15, was adequate (P>0.05) for the trained evaluator, 0.44±0.15, and non-adequate (P<0.05), for the non-trained evaluator 0.47±0.17. The distraction index measurement tool proposed can be used with confidence for hip laxity evaluation by trained evaluators, as it provided good repeatability and reproducibility of official reports. The simplicity of the process described leads to a less time-consuming and more affordable procedure.
Article
The mapping of the canine genome and the study of canine breed genomic architecture has revolutionized the discovery of genetic tests for inherited disorders in dogs. As the genetics underlying complex disorders are revealed, canine breeders and their registering organisations will be required to understand genetics in a much more sophisticated way. To facilitate the management of genetic disorders in the era of new complex information, we consider how best to apply the results of new research and analytical techniques to benefit the wider canine breeding community with the aims of improving canine health and maintaining benevolent genetic diversity. If this is not done, there is a serious risk that expensive and valuable genetic research will remain unused or be misused to the detriment of breeds. In this review, we make a case for the formation of an international organisation that will exist as a central repository for breed-based genetic analysis and information sharing. This organisation ("Inter-Dog") could be modelled on a similar organisation that is monitoring genetic improvement of dairy cattle. The formation of such an organisation will require the collaboration of international kennel management organisations, researchers, and agencies offering genetic testing services.
Article
To determine whether there has been improvement in the phenotypic hip dysplasia status in four susceptible dog breeds as measured by the New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) scheme. A retrospective analysis of the NZVA CHD database was performed using records of all German Shepherd dogs, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers that had undergone evaluation for hip dysplasia between 1990 and 2008. The effect of date of birth on the total hip score was analysed using linear regression, including the covariates of age and gender. When a significant effect of date of birth on total score was noted, ordinal logistic regression was performed to determine the probability of different grades of the Norberg angle and subluxation scores by year of birth; these categories being most indicative of laxity of the coxofemoral joint. Given the known heritability of hip phenotype, determined using radiological measurements, the hypothesis was that if sufficient selection pressure has been applied there would have been a trend towards a lower total score over time. For Labrador Retrievers (n=1,451), Golden Retrievers (n=896) and Rottweilers (n=313), there was no effect of date of birth on total score over the period of the study (p>0.1). For German Shepherd dogs (n=1,087), there was a significant trend to a lower total score over time (p=0.0003). However the actual size of the effect was small. Ordinal logistic regression on the Norberg angle and subluxation scores for German Shepherd dogs demonstrated a significant lowering of grade in both of these measures of hip laxity. This study failed to show significant improvement in the phenotypic hip status of three out of the four most populous large-dog breeds in the NZVA CHD database. Even in the German Shepherd dog, the trend towards a lower total score did not represent a substantial change. Lack of evidence of phenotypic improvement may be due to insufficient selection pressure over the course of the study, selective usage of the scheme (and thus a biased sample), or deficiencies within the NZVA CHD scoring method itself. Greater improvement might be possible if use of the scheme (or an equivalent) is made a compulsory requirement for registration of pedigree breeding stock, if greater selection pressure is applied and/or if pedigree data are included to enable estimations of breeding value.
Article
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Variance components and genetic parameters for hip dysplasia (HD) in a population of 1372 Newfoundlands were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood method applied to animal models comprising fixed effects of gender, screening expert and HD grading system. All models investigated included a random direct genetic effect, but differed for combinations of random maternal genetic effect, permanent maternal environmental effect and kennel effect. Although kennels had no effect on HD, the permanent maternal environmental effects, however were significant. The results for the maternal genetic effect were ambiguous. These results suggest a confounding of these three random effects. The model that included the fixed effects, the direct genetic effect and the permanent maternal environmental effect was the most parsimonious combined with an optimal fit. The heritability estimated with this model was 0.28 and the proportion of the permanent maternal environmental effect of the phenotypic variance was 0.10. The effects of gender and screening expert were significant but not the one of HD grading system.
Article
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Hip dysplasia is an important and complex genetic disease in dogs with both genetic and environmental influences. Since the osteoarthritis that develops is irreversible the only way to improve welfare, through reducing the prevalence, is through genetic selection. This study aimed to evaluate the progress of selection against hip dysplasia, to quantify potential improvements in the response to selection via use of genetic information and increases in selection intensity, and to prepare for public provision of estimated breeding values (EBV) for hip dysplasia in the UK. Data consisted of 25,243 single records of hip scores of Labrador Retrievers between one and four years old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007 as part of the British Veterinary Association (BVA) hip score scheme. A natural logarithm transformation was applied to improve normality and linear mixed models were evaluated using ASREML. Genetic correlations between left and right scores, and total hip scores at one, two and three years of age were found to be close to one, endorsing analysis of total hip score in dogs aged one to three as an appropriate approach. A heritability of 0.35±0.016 and small but significant litter effect (0.07±0.009) were estimated. The observed trends in both mean hip score and mean EBV over year of birth indicate that a small genetic improvement has been taking place, approximately equivalent to avoiding those dogs with the worst 15% of scores. Deterministic analysis supported by simulations showed that a 19% greater response could be achieved using EBV compared to phenotype through increases in accuracy alone. This study establishes that consistent but slow genetic improvement in the hip score of UK Labrador Retrievers has been achieved over the previous decade, and demonstrates that progress may be easily enhanced through the use of EBVs and more intense selection.
Article
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To establish a predictive method using whole genome genotyping for early intervention in canine hip dysplasia (CHD) risk management, for the prevention of the progression of secondary osteoarthritis (OA), and for selective breeding. Two sets of dogs (six breeds) were genotyped with dense SNPs covering the entire canine genome. The first set contained 359 dogs upon which a predictive formula for genomic breeding value (GBV) was derived by using their estimated breeding value (EBV) of the Norberg angle (a measure of CHD) and their genotypes. To investigate how well the formula would work for an individual dog with genotype only (without using EBV), a cross validation was performed by masking the EBV of one dog at a time. The genomic data and the EBV of the remaining dogs were used to predict the GBV for the single dog that was left out. The second set of dogs included 38 new Labrador retriever dogs, which had no pedigree relationship to the dogs in the first set. The cross validation showed a strong correlation (R>0.7) between the EBV and the GBV. The independent validation showed a moderate correlation (R=0.5) between GBV for the Norberg angle and the observed Norberg angle (no EBV was available for the new 38 dogs). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the genomic data were all above 70%. Prediction of CHD from genomic data is feasible, and can be applied for risk management of CHD and early selection for genetic improvement to reduce the prevalence of CHD in breeding programs. The prediction can be implemented before maturity, at which age current radiographic screening programs are traditionally applied, and as soon as DNA is available.
Article
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The aim of this study was to explore the genetic relationship between the nine component traits comprising the British Veterinary Association (BVA) total hip score in UK registered Labrador Retrievers. Data consisted of 11,928 single records of trait scores of dogs aged between one and four years (365-1459 days) old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007. Pedigree information was provided by the UK Kennel Club. The distribution of trait scores showed only small numbers of dogs with visible malformation in the six traits that were scored according to the severity of osteoarthritis. Linear mixed models were fitted using ASREML. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.15 to 0.38, and litter effects from 0.04 to 0.10. Genetic correlations between all nine traits were extremely high ranging from 0.71 to 1.0, implying considerable genetic similarity. The decomposition demonstrated that aggregate scores of only the 3 traits indicative of laxity in one year old dogs was predictive of the phenotype of the remaining six scored on osteoarthritic severity in dogs at 4+ years old. The application of selection index methodology in selecting against hip dysplasia using the trait scores was explored and potential improvements in accuracy (directly related to response to selection) of over 10% are reported compared to the current total hip score. This study demonstrates that traits descriptive of joint laxity are valuable early-age predictors of osteoarthritis and shows that there is scope for improvement in the way data from the UK hip score scheme are used for selection against hip dysplasia in Labradors. This was verified via use of selection indices, which identified substantial increases in accuracy, not only via optimum coefficients, but also through an easily applicable aggregate of scores of just two or three traits only compared with the current total hip score.
Article
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Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is a common inherited disease that affects dog wellbeing and causes a heavy financial and emotional burden to dog owners and breeders due to secondary hip osteoarthritis. The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) initiated a program in the 1960's to radiograph hip and elbow joints and release the OFA scores to the public for breeding dogs against CHD. Over last four decades, more than one million radiographic scores have been released. The pedigrees in the OFA database consisted of 258,851 Labrador retrievers, the major breed scored by the OFA (25% of total records). Of these, 154,352 dogs had an OFA hip score reported between 1970 and 2007. The rest of the dogs (104,499) were the ancestors of the 154,352 dogs to link the pedigree relationships. The OFA hip score is based on a 7-point scale with the best ranked as 1 (excellent) and the worst hip dysplasia as 7. A mixed linear model was used to estimate the effects of age, sex, and test year period and to predict the breeding value for each dog. Additive genetic and residual variances were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis also provided an inbreeding coefficient for each dog. The hip scores averaged 1.93 (+/-SD = 0.59) and the heritability was 0.21. A steady genetic improvement has accrued over the four decades. The breeding values decreased (improved) linearly. By the end of 2005, the total genetic improvement was 0.1 units, which is equivalent to 17% of the total phenotypic standard deviation. A steady genetic improvement has been achieved through the selection based on the raw phenotype released by the OFA. As the heritability of the hip score was on the low end (0.21) of reported ranges, we propose that selection based on breeding values will result in more rapid genetic improvement than breeding based on phenotypic selection alone.
Article
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OBJECTIVE-To estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations among 4 traits of hip joints (distraction index [DI], dorsolateral subluxation [DLS] score, Norberg angle [NA], and extended-hip joint radiograph [EHR] score) and to derive the breeding values for these traits in dogs. ANIMALS-2,716 dogs of 17 breeds (1,551 dogs in which at least 1 hip joint trait was measured). PROCEDURES-The NA was measured, and an EHR score was assigned. Hip joint radiographs were obtained from some dogs to allow calculation of the DI and DLS score. Heritabilities, genetic correlations, and breeding values among the DI, DLS score, NA, and EHR score were calculated by use of a set of multiple-trait, derivative-free, restricted maximum likelihood computer programs. RESULTS-Among 2,716 dogs, 1,411 (52%) had an estimated inbreeding coefficient of 0%; the remaining dogs had a mean inbreeding coefficient of 6.21%. Estimated heritabilities were 0.61, 0.54, 0.73, and 0.76 for the DI, DLS score, NA, and EHR score, respectively. The EHR score was highly genetically correlated with the NA (r = -0.89) and was moderately genetically correlated with the DI (r = 0.69) and DLS score (r = -0.70). The NA was moderately genetically correlated with the DI (r = -0.69) and DLS score (r = 0.58). Genetic correlation between the DI and DLS score was high (r = -0.91). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Establishment of a selection index that makes use of breeding values jointly estimated from the DI, DLS score, NA, and EHR score should enhance breeding programs to reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia in dogs.
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Two hundred and fifteen Estrela Mountain Dogs (EMD) were examined using the PennHIP method between 2002 and 2006. Passive hip laxity (PHL) was estimated calculating the distraction index (DI). Pedigree information was obtained from the Portuguese Kennel Club. The heritability and breeding values were estimated using the linear Animal Model. The DI, using as reference the worst joint of each animal, ranged from 0.15 to 1.12 (0.55 +/- 0.19). The PHL was equal in right and left sides, and was higher in females than in males (P > 0.05 and P <0.01 in the t-test, respectively). The estimated heritability was 0.83 +/- 0.11. The mean breeding values for PHL were stable in EMD born between 1991 and 2003, and showed an improvement in 2004 and 2005. The data confirm high PHL in breeds with high prevalence and severity of canine hip dysplasia. The high heritability indicates that the DI could be reduced in the breed if PHL were used as a selection criterion. The early favourable evolution of DI breeding values could be related with the increase of voluntary radiographic hip screening in the last years, and the subsequent introduction of hip quality as a breeding criterion.
Article
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Three hundred and thirteen Estrela mountain dogs were examined for hip dysplasia (HD) using the standard ventrodorsal hip extended view, and graded into five categories (A, B, C, D and E) using the Fédération Cynologique Internationale's (FCI) scoring system. The Ortolani method was performed to evaluate hip joint laxity. Pedigree information was obtained from the Portuguese Kennel Club and the genetic trend was evaluated by calculating the mean breeding values (BVs) for the last 15 years, using the threshold model. HD was found in 66% of the dogs. There was low-moderate correlation between the results of the Ortolani test and FCI hip scores (r(s)=0.386; P<0.001). Grades of hip dysplasia were equal in both males and females (P=0.14) and in the animals' right and left sides (P=0.51). The mean BVs for HD were stable in dogs born between 1991 and 2003, and showed an improvement in 2004 and 2005. The data confirm the high prevalence and severity of HD in predisposed breeds that do not have breeding programmes in place. It also confirms an initial favourable change in BVs that is a likely consequence of the voluntary radiographic hip-screening programme.
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To determine prevalence of radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis in 4 diarthrodial joints of dogs with restricted feed intake, compared with dogs without restricted feed intake. Paired feeding study. 48 Labrador Retrievers. Dogs in litters from 7 dams and 2 sires were paired by sex and weight within litters and randomly assigned to a control-fed group or a limit-fed group that received 25% less food than the control-fed group. Radiographic evaluation of prevalence and severity of osteoarthritis in the hip, shoulder, elbow, and stifle joints was performed when dogs were 8 years of age. Radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis that affected multiple joints was significantly more common in the control-fed group than in the limit-fed group. Prevalence of lesions in the hip joint was 15/22 in the control-fed group and 3/21 in the limit-fed group. Prevalence of lesions in the shoulder joint was 19/22 in the control-fed group and 12/21 in the limit-fed group; lesions in this joint were generally mild. Severity, but not prevalence, of osteoarthritis in the elbow joint was greater in the control-fed group than in the limit-fed group. Prevalence and severity of osteoarthritis in several joints was less in dogs with long-term reduced food intake, compared with control dogs. Food intake is an environmental factor that may have a profound effect on development of osteoarthritis in dogs.
Book
The concepts of veterinary genetics are crucial to understanding and controlling many diseases and disorders in animals. They are also crucial to enhancing animal production. Accessible and clearly presented, Introduction to Veterinary Genetics provides a succinct introduction to the aspects of genetics relevant to animal diseases and production. Now in its third edition, this is the only introductory level textbook on genetics that has been written specifically for veterinary and animal science students. Coverage includes: basic genetics, molecular biology, genomics, cytogenetics, immunogenetics, population genetics, quantitative genetics, biotechnology, and the use of molecular tools in the control of inherited disorders. This book describes in detail how genetics is being applied to artificial selection in animal production. It also covers the conservation of genetic diversity in both domesticated and wild animals. New for the Third Edition: •End-of-chapter summaries provide quick recaps. •Covers new topics: epigenetics, genomics and bioinformatics. •Thoroughly revised according to recent advances in genetics. Introduction to Veterinary Genetics is still the only introductory genetics textbook for students of veterinary and animal science and will continue to be an indispensable reference tool for veterinary students and practitioners alike.
Article
Variance components and heritability were linearly estimated for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in German Shepherd Dogs using a Bayesian analysis based on the marginal posterior distributions of parameters achieved via Gibbs sampling. Data was provided by the German Shepherd Breeding Association in Augsburg. The material included 21 371 X-rayed dogs born in the years 1998-2000 in 3755 kennels from 9704 litters. The pedigree file consisted of 38 604 animals and contained ancestors for up to six generations. The full model used considered the fixed effects of sex, age at examination for CHD, the examining veterinary expert, the combined effect of litter size and percentage of examined dogs per litter, and the sire and mother lines as well as the additive genetic random effects of the animal and of the mother, the permanent environmental effect of the litter and the kennel. Submodels were compared with the full model to evaluate the importance of different fixed and random effects, and their influence on other model components. Heritability estimates in the full model were h2 = 0.26 ± 0.03 (additive genetic animal effect) and hm2 = 0.10 ± 0.02 (additive genetic maternal effect). The direct animal and the maternal effects were negatively correlated genetically (ram = -0.65 ± 0.05). The proportion of the variance of the random effect of the common kennel of the total variance was always below 0.015, whereas the corresponding proportion of variance of the random effect of the common litter effect reached a value of 0.045. When submodels were employed, the heritability estimates for the additive genetic animal effect ranged from h2 = 0.24 to h2 = 0.26. The heritability estimates for the additive genetic maternal effect varied between hm2 = 0.09 and hm2 = 0.10.
Article
Objective—To develop a radiographic procedure to measure dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) of the femoral head in canine coxofemoral (hip) joints in a weight-bearing position. Study Design—DLS measured on a radiographic projection was compared with DLS measured on computed tomography (CT) images of hip joints in a weight-bearing position. Animals—A total of 24 dogs of varying ages were examined including Labrador retrievers, greyhounds, and Labrador-greyhound crossbreeds. Methods—Anesthetized dogs were placed in sternal recumbency in a kneeling position in a foam rubber mold. The stifles were flexed and adducted with the femora perpendicular to, and in contact with, the table. To test for DLS, dogs were imaged in this weight-bearing position (DLS test) with routine radiography and CT. For each hip, the DLS score was determined by measuring the percentage of the femoral head medial to the lateralmost point of the cranial acetabular rim on the dorsoventral radiographic projection and the lateralmost point of the central, dorsal acetabular rim on the CT image. Higher DLS scores indicated better coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. DLS scores were compared with the distraction index (DI) by grouping joints according to their probability of developing osteoarthritis (OA) as predicted by the DI. Results—The DLS score in the new position ranged from 29% to 71% for radiography and 15% to 59% for CT. Joints classified as OA unsusceptible had a mean score of 64%± 1.5% for radiography and 55%± 0.8% for CT (n = 10); hip joints having a high probability of developing OA had a score of 39%± 2.6% for radiography and 26%± 1.9% for CT (n = 8). When the DLS test was repeated on the same dogs at a different time, the intraclass correlation coefficient for the DLS score on the radiographs was 0.85 (left hip) and 0.89 (right hip). There was a strong correlation (r = .89 for both hips) between the DLS score measured on the weight-bearing radiograph and the CT image. A strong correlation also was observed between the DLS score and the DI (r = -.87). The DLS scores for OA unsusceptible joints and joints with a high probability of developing OA were significantly different (P < .05). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The DLS test can be performed with CT or routine radiography to measure variable amounts of DLS in weight-bearing hip joints oriented similarly to those of a standing dog. After additional long-term follow-up studies evaluating the development of OA and breed effects are performed, the DLS method may prove useful in studies of normal and abnormal hip joint development related to canine hip dysplasia.
Article
We investigated effectiveness and potential use of early diagnosis of hip joint dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs by X-ray examination comparing the conventional extension position I with compression-distraction method. In addition to that we also used Ortolani palpation technique and X-ray examination of the hip joint in order to obtain view of its dorsal acetabular rim (DAR) and dorsal acetabular rim angle (DARA) with respect to the femoral head. Examinations were carried out first on dogs 4–6 months old and repeatedly when they reached age of 12 months. We examined altogether 25 German Shepherd dogs but only 10 of them were used for evaluation because for the remaining ones we lacked one or more relevant measurements. Even if the evaluations included all of them, the results were not influenced significantly. When evaluating the early diagnosis, we used the Norberg angle (NA), distraction index (DI) and evaluated every hip joint by assigning to it a hip dysplasia score according to the FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale) dysplasia scheme. When comparing the values by means of Pearson correlation coefficient we detected significant correlation between DI12/ FCI12 (distraction index at the age of 12 months/FCI score at the age of 12 months) and DI4/FCI12 (distraction index at the age of 4 months in comparison with FCI evaluation at the age of 12 months) (0.86 and 0.78, resp.). When presenting the early prognosis on the basis of DI and DARA values at the age of 4 months, we observed agreement with the final diagnosis made at the age of 12 months on the basis of NA values and FCI score in 80 % of evaluated dogs.
Article
To develop a radiographic stress technique to quantify hip joint laxity in dogs. Prospective study on client-owned dogs presented for hip dysplasia screening. 302 nonselected dogs (63 breeds). Dogs were sedated and placed in dorsal recumbency. During pelvic radiography, the femoral heads were displaced manually in a craniodorsal direction. On these stress radiographs, the degree of lateral displacement of the femoral heads was assessed in terms of a subluxation index (SI) and compared with the degree of femoral head subluxation and the severity of hip dysplasia found on conventional extended hindlimb radiographs. The degree of subluxation on stress radiographs was significantly greater than on conventional radiographs. Correlation between the severity of canine hip dysplasia (CHD), graded according to conventional techniques, and the degree of subluxation, induced by radiographic stress technique, was positive (r = .57; P<.0001). Two critical SI values were noted. Of the dogs with an SI value of 0.3 or less, 99% were classified as CHD grade normal, borderline, or mildly dysplastic. In dogs with an SI value between 0.3 and 0.5, CHD grading ranged from normal to severely dysplastic. Of the dogs with an SI value greater than 0.5, 95% had dysplastic hip joints. Hip joint laxity cannot be quantified precisely on standard position radiographs. The proposed stress technique yields significantly higher degrees of femoral head subluxation than the standard position.
Article
Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common and debilitating developmental condition of the canine coxofemoral (hip) joint, exhibiting a multifactorial pattern of inheritance. British Veterinary Association hip traits (BVAHTs) are nine radiographic features of hips used in several countries to ordinally score both the right and left hip of potential breeding candidates to assess their suitability for breeding. The objective of this study was to examine some aspects of the relationship between contralateral scores for each BVAHT in a cohort of 13 124 Australian-registered German Shepherd Dogs. Goodman and Kruskal gamma coefficients of 0.48-0.95 and correlation coefficients of 0.50-0.74 demonstrate that the association between right and left hip scores varies between moderate and strong for BVAHTs. Principal component analysis of scores detected a sizeable left-versus-right effect, a finding supported by symmetry and quasi-symmetry analyses which found that seven of the nine BVAHTs display significant marginal asymmetry. Dogs showing asymmetry for one BVAHT are significantly more likely to display asymmetry at other BVAHTs. When asymmetry is expressed as a binary trait (either symmetrical or asymmetrical), it displays low to moderate heritability. Estimates of genetic correlations between right and left scores are very high for all BVAHTs (>0.945), suggesting right and left scores for each BVAHT are largely determined by the same set of genes. The marginal asymmetries are therefore more likely to be of environmental and non-additive genetic origin. In breeding programmes for CHD, we recommend that scores from both hips be used to estimate breeding values, with a term for side-of-hip included in the model to account for score variation owing to asymmetry.
Article
To determine whether there has been improvement in the phenotypic hip dysplasia status in four susceptible dog breeds as measured by the New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) scheme. A retrospective analysis of the NZVA CHD database was performed using records of all German Shepherd dogs, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers that had undergone evaluation for hip dysplasia between 1990 and 2008. The effect of date of birth on the total hip score was analysed using linear regression, including the covariates of age and gender. When a significant effect of date of birth on total score was noted, ordinal logistic regression was performed to determine the probability of different grades of the Norberg angle and subluxation scores by year of birth; these categories being most indicative of laxity of the coxofemoral joint. Given the known heritability of hip phenotype, determined using radiological measurements, the hypothesis was that if sufficient selection pressure has been applied there would have been a trend towards a lower total score over time. For Labrador Retrievers (n=1,451), Golden Retrievers (n=896) and Rottweilers (n=313), there was no effect of date of birth on total score over the period of the study (p>0.1). For German Shepherd dogs (n=1,087), there was a significant trend to a lower total score over time (p=0.0003). However the actual size of the effect was small. Ordinal logistic regression on the Norberg angle and subluxation scores for German Shepherd dogs demonstrated a significant lowering of grade in both of these measures of hip laxity. This study failed to show significant improvement in the phenotypic hip status of three out of the four most populous large-dog breeds in the NZVA CHD database. Even in the German Shepherd dog, the trend towards a lower total score did not represent a substantial change. Lack of evidence of phenotypic improvement may be due to insufficient selection pressure over the course of the study, selective usage of the scheme (and thus a biased sample), or deficiencies within the NZVA CHD scoring method itself. Greater improvement might be possible if use of the scheme (or an equivalent) is made a compulsory requirement for registration of pedigree breeding stock, if greater selection pressure is applied and/or if pedigree data are included to enable estimations of breeding value.
Article
To compare 2 screening methods for detecting evidence of hip dysplasia (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals [OFA] and PennHIP) in dogs. Diagnostic test evaluation study. Animals-439 dogs >or= 24 months of age that received routine hip joint screening from June 1987 through July 2008. Dogs were sedated, and PennHIP radiography was performed (hip joint- extended [HE], compression, and distraction radiographic views). The HE radiographic view was submitted for OFA evaluation. A copy of the HE radiographic view plus the compression and distraction radiographic views were submitted for routine PennHIP evaluation, including quantification of hip joint laxity via the distraction index (DI). 14% (60/439) of dogs had hip joints scored as excellent by OFA standards; however, 52% (31/60) of those had a DI >or= 0.30 (range, 0.14 to 0.61). Eighty-two percent of (183/223) dogs with OFA-rated good hip joints had a DI >or= 0.30 (range, 0.10 to 0.77), and 94% (79/84) of dogs with OFA-rated fair hip joints had a DI >or= 0.30 (range, 0.14 to 0.77). Of all dogs with fair to excellent hip joints by OFA standards, 80% (293/367) had a DI >or= 0.30. All dogs with OFA-rated borderline hip joints or mild, moderate, or severe hip dysplasia had a DI >or= 0.30 (range, 0.30 to 0.83). Dogs judged as phenotypically normal by the OFA harbored clinically important passive hip joint laxity as determined via distraction radiography. Results suggested that OFA scoring of HE radiographs underestimated susceptibility to osteoarthritis in dogs, which may impede progress in reducing or eliminating hip dysplasia through breeding.
Article
To determine if age, breed, gender, weight or distraction index (DI) influenced the risk of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in four common dog breeds; the American bulldog, Bernese mountain dog, Newfoundland and standard poodle. This was a cross sectional prevalence study with 4349 dogs. Canine hips were evaluated using 3 radiographic projections: the hip-extended view, the compression view and the distraction view. The hip-extended view was examined for the presence of OA. The PennHIP distraction view was utilized to calculate the DI. For all breeds, a multiple logistic regression model incorporating age, weight, gender, and DI was created. For each breed, disease-susceptibility curves grouping dogs on the basis of age were constructed. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were developed for each breed regardless of age. For all breeds, DI was the most significant risk factor for the development of OA associated with CHD. Weight and age were also significant risk factors in all four breeds, but gender was not. Results from this study support previous findings, that irrespective of breed, the probability of radiographic OA increases with hip joint laxity as measured by the DI. Breed-specific differences in this relationship, however, warrant investigation of all breeds affected by CHD to determine inherent dependency of hip OA on joint laxity. Such findings guide veterinarians in helping dog breeders to make evidence-based breeding decisions and in informing dog owners to implement preventative treatments for CHD for dogs found to be at risk.
Article
The aims of this study were to assess genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations. The influence of time-dependent fixed effects in the model when estimating the genetic trends was also studied. Official hip and elbow dysplasia screening records of 42 421 dogs from seven breeds were analysed with REML. To investigate the mode of inheritance of hip and elbow dysplasia, trait distributions, genetic variances and regressions of offspring phenotypes on parental predicted breeding values were studied separately in males and in females. Genetic trends for hip dysplasia between the years 1983 and 1998 were favourable only in the Rottweiler. In elbow dysplasia, the trends were favourable after the year 1992 in all the four breeds studied but the overall changes were small. The reason for this seemed to be negligible selection pressure against these traits. Time-dependent fixed effects in the model had an influence on the estimated genetic trends, resulting either in a more negative or more positive genetic trend compared with the model from which the time-dependent effects were removed. Mitochondrial or sex-linked inheritance did not seem likely in the expression of hip and elbow dysplasia in the populations studied. Regression coefficients of offspring phenotypes on estimated parental breeding values were approximately equal to their expected value in a situation with equal parental contribution. Furthermore, the phenotypic frequency distributions of hip and elbow dysplasia grades were similar among males and females in each breed studied. No indication of major genes was found in the offspring frequency distributions within individual sires. According to these Finnish data, mode of inheritance for both hip and elbow dysplasia is polygenic (quantitative) with equal expression of the genes from both parents, although the estimates of heritability for hip dysplasia in the Rough Collie and for elbow dysplasia in the German Shepherd and the Golden Retriever were somewhat different in males compared with females.
Article
Our objective was to evaluate the association between grading of hip status as assessed by radiographic examination (hip screening) and subsequent incidence of veterinary care and mortality related to hip dysplasia (HD) in five breeds of insured dogs in Sweden. Screening results for hip status from the Swedish Kennel Club and data on veterinary care and mortality from the insurance company Agria were merged based on the registration number of the dog. Dogs of five breeds (Bernese Mountain Dogs, German Shepherds, Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, and Rottweilers) screened during 1995-2004 and covered by an insurance plan for veterinary care or life at the time of screening were included. The study populations included between 1667 and 10,663 dogs per breed. Breed-specific multivariable Cox proportional-hazards analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of radiographic hip status on time from hip screening to first HD-related veterinary and life claim, respectively. The effects of gender, birth season, and a time-varying covariate of year were also studied. Additional analyses, on the five breeds combined, were performed to investigate the effects of hip status, breed, and the interaction between hip status and breed. The effect of hip status was highly significant (P<0.001) for both life and veterinary claims related to HD in all five breeds with increased hazard ratio (HR) for deteriorating hip status. Dogs with moderate or severe hip status at screening had a markedly increased hazard of HD-related veterinary care and mortality compared with dogs assessed as free or mild. The time-varying covariate of year showed a significantly higher HR in the last time period for German Shepherds and Labrador Retrievers in the analyses of veterinary claims. In the analyses on all five breeds, German Shepherds had the highest HR for both veterinary care and mortality related to HD, followed by Bernese Mountain Dogs. Golden and Labrador Retrievers had the lowest HR. The effect of hip status on the hazard was the same irrespective of breed. However, as a consequence of differences between breeds in overall risk, the predictive ability of screening results for subsequent incidence of HD-related problems for individual dogs was breed-dependent. Based on the strong association between radiographic hip status and incidence of HD-related veterinary care and mortality, and the previously reported moderate heritability of hip status, we conclude that selection based on screening results for hip status can be expected to reduce the risk of HD-related clinical problems.
Article
To determine whether there has been improvement in canine hip joint phenotype classifications of dogs whelped from 1989 to 2003 by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA), by examining results of radiographic evaluations and identifying any trends in percentages of dogs classified as having desirable hip joint phenotypes. Retrospective cohort study. OFA radiographic classifications (n=431,483) on dogs whelped between 1989 and 2003. Numbers and percentages of dogs classified by hip joint phenotypes were determined for 2-year cohorts. Differences between breeds and sexes were assessed using the Fisher's exact test, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to express associations. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was calculated to identify significant trends over time. There were statistically significant (P<.05) increases in the proportion of all breeds of dogs evaluated as excellent and good from 1993 to 2003, controlling for gender and age at evaluation. Labrador Retrievers, Bernese Mountain Dogs, and Rottweilers had the highest proportions of excellent and good scores, and the highest rates of improvement in excellent and good scores were seen in Bernese Mountain Dogs and Rottweilers. Results support the contention that there have been improvements in hip joint phenotype classifications in dogs in the United States since the previous study (1989-1992), through increases in the proportion of dogs receiving excellent and good classifications. Hip joint phenotype classifications can be used by dog breeders to develop breeding programs to improve the hip joints of future generations of dogs.
Article
Despite expensive screening and breeding programmes, hip dysplasia (HD) continues to be one of the most common orthopaedic diseases in dogs. The vast majority of dogs afflicted with HD show minimal to no clinical signs, but it can also be a highly debilitating condition for both working and pet dogs. Hip joint laxity is considered a major risk factor for the development of degenerative joint disease and a definitive diagnosis is made if characteristic signs are evident on a ventrodorsal view of the pelvis. Early prediction of the condition can be made using stress radiographic techniques to evaluate the passive hip laxity. The diagnosis of HD may be used for the purpose of selecting breeding stock or to decide on the best treatment approach. Breeding programmes based on individual dog phenotypes have been ineffective and a selection procedure based on breeding value (BV) estimation is recommended. Traditional conservative and surgical treatment approaches are reserved for dogs with overt clinical signs of the disease but such treatments can be expensive and aggressive, and are often ineffective in eliminating clinical signs or subluxation and in preventing the development of degenerative joint disease. The implementation of breeding programmes based on BVs and further research into early prediction/diagnosis of HD and effective preventive treatment approaches are essential.
Article
Hip dysplasia is a common inherited trait of dogs that results in secondary osteoarthritis. In this article the methods used to uncover the mutations contributing to this condition are reviewed, beginning with hip phenotyping. Coarse, genome-wide, microsatellite-based screens of pedigrees of greyhounds and dysplastic Labrador retrievers were used to identify linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). Fine-mapping across two chromosomes (CFA11 and 29) was employed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Power analyses and preferential selection of dogs for ongoing SNP-based genotyping is described with the aim of refining the QTL intervals to 1-2 megabases on these and several additional chromosomes prior to candidate gene screening. The review considers how a mutation or a genetic marker such as a SNP or haplotype of SNPs might be combined with pedigree and phenotype information to create a 'breeding value' that could improve the accuracy of predicting a dog's hip conformation.
Article
Heritability of hip dysplasia was estimated to be about 0.4 to 0.5 when based on the radiographic evaluations of the hip joints of 2,404 German Shepherd Dogs born at The Armed Forces Dog Training Center in Sweden. The material included all dogs in 401 litters born at the Center from 1965 through 1973 that reached the age of 15 months. To be expected with such high heritability, frequency of hip dysplasia in the offspring was shown to be affected by the hip joint status of sire and dam as well as by the hip joint status of their parents and littermates. Even matings between sires with normal hip joints and dams with only slight dysplasia resulted in significantly higher frequency of hip dysplasia in the offspring, when compared with the frequency if both sires and dams had normal hip joints. Frequency of hip dysplasia in the progeny of sires with normal hip joints varied greatly. Since 1973, selection of the breeding stock has been based on hip joint status (phenotype) of the breeding animals and of their relatives as well as on what had become known about frequency of hip dysplasia in the litters already born (progeny testing). In this way, frequency of hip dysplasia in 347 dogs born at the Center during 1975 was lowered to 28%. This figure should be compared with the figure of 50%, which represents the frequency of hip dysplasia in the kennel up to 1970, when selection was not as strict as could be expected in a well-controlled kennel.
Article
From mechanical principles and postmortem observations of coxofemoral joints of dogs, a hydrostatic mechanism influencing hip joint stability was discovered. This discovery led to the development of a stress-radiographic positioning method to quantitate hip joint laxity in dogs. The method incorporated 2 views with the dog in supine position and hips at neutral flexion/extension angle: a compression view, with the femoral heads fully seated in the acetabula; and a distraction view, with the femoral heads at maximal lateral displacement. An index measurement method was formulated to quantitate the relative degree of joint laxity appearing in either the compression or distraction view. Clinical evaluation of 6 dogs was done to compare the compression/distraction method with the standard hip-extended radiographic method. Also, the stress-radiographic method was performed on 16-week-old Borzoi and German Shepherd Dogs to compare the characteristics of inherent hip joint laxity in these breeds. In all dogs tested, hip joint laxity was masked by the standard hip-extended view as indicated by a 2.5-fold improvement in sensitivity to hip joint laxity of the new method (P less than 0.00001). Moreover, the mean hip joint laxity of 16-week-old German Shepherd Dogs exceeded the mean hip joint laxity of Borzois by 79% (P less than 0.00001). Reports in the literature document the incontrovertible association of hip joint laxity to the development of hip dysplasia in dogs. We believe the ability to accurately quantitate hip joint laxity will provide key diagnostic and prognostic criteria for the selection of pet dogs, and more importantly, breeding stock.
Article
From 1974 through 1984, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals evaluated 143,218 radiographic submissions representing 151 breeds of dogs. All breeds from which there were 35 or more evaluations had some frequency of dysplasia. Seventy breeds, each with over 100 submissions, were tabulated and ranked according to frequency of hip dysplasia. Frequency of dysplasia varied from 0.6% in the Borzoi to 46.9% in the Saint Bernard. These data were compared with data obtained earlier (1966 to 1973) on evaluations in 38 breeds for changes in frequency. There was significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in frequency of dysplasia in 27 breeds, a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in frequency in only 1 breed (German Shorthaired Pointer), and no significant change in frequency in 10 breeds. The median significant decrease was 22.4%, and the range was from 3.1% in the Chesapeake Bay Retriever to 48.7% in the Keeshond. The reduction in frequency of hip dysplasia demonstrated the value of a control program. There were 5 breeds with a significant (P less than 0.05) decrease in frequency of dysplasia that had over 5,000 evaluations from 1974 to 1984. The decreases in frequency were independent of changes in American Kennel Club registrations for these breeds (a dramatic decline in registrations for the German Shepherd Dog and Old English Sheepdog, and a dramatic increase for the Rottweiler, Golden Retriever, and Labrador Retriever). Frequency regressed linearly in the German Shepherd Dog and Old English Sheepdog, but regressed nonlinearly in the other 3 breeds. The percentage reduction in frequency from the base frequency (1966 to 1973) for these breeds was 17.5% for the German Shepherd Dog, 23.1% for the Old English Sheepdog, 9.1% for the Rottweiler, 10.1% for the Golden Retriever, and 6.8% for the Labrador Retriever.
Article
A 3-year prospective study of large-breed dogs (4 months to 3 years of age) was conducted to evaluate the influence of radiographic positioning and age on coxofemoral joint (hip) laxity, subjective hip score, and development of degenerative joint disease (DJD). The dogs (n = 142) were breeder- or client-owned and represented 14 breeds. With dogs under heavy sedation, hips were radiographed in the standard hip-extended position and in the new compression/distraction position at 4, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age. The standard hip-extended radiographic view was evaluated by 3 methods: subjective evaluation by a board-certified veterinary radiologist (WHR), according to the standard 7-point Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) scoring scheme (OFA/WHR); joint laxity quantitation, using the Norberg angle (NA) method; and subjective scoring by a veterinary orthopedic surgeon for radiographic evidence of DJD. The hips in the distraction radiographic view were evaluated for passive hip laxity, as measured by use of a unitless distraction index (DI). Results of the study indicated that at a specific age (4, 6, 12, 24, or 36 months), all methods of hip evaluation correlated with each other at a moderate level (P < 0.05). The strength of contemporaneous correlation tended to increase with age of evaluation. Longitudinally, the between-method correlations were usually significant (P < 0.05), but not at a sufficiently high level to permit reliable between-method prediction. Prospective intraclass (within-method) statistical analysis of the various hip-scoring methods indicated that DI was superior to NA and OFA/WHR in comparability of score over time. The intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 for DI in contrast to 0.40 to 0.78 for NA, and 0.06 to 0.39 for OFA/WHR over the age intervals of the study. For reference, the highest Kappa of 0.39 for the subjective OFA/WHR scoring reflected a maximal level of agreement between time intervals, only slightly better than chance. The associated large error questions the predictive use of the 7-point, subjective hip-scoring scheme, particularly prior to the age of 2 years.
Article
To determine the prevalence and changes over time in the prevalence of hip dysplasia; to ascertain whether prevalence or severity of hip dysplasia was associated with sex of the dogs, age at which coxofemoral joint status was evaluated, or ancestral background; to determine the effects of selective breeding; and to conduct an economic evaluation of the hip dysplasia program operated by the Swedish Kennel Club. Analysis of radiographic evaluations of coxofemoral joint conformity. 83,229 dogs from 7 breeds registered by the Swedish Kennel Club. All radiographs were scrutinized by a single radiologist (LA), and coxofemoral joint conformation was classified as normal or dysplastic, with the degree of dysplasia classified as 1,2,3, or 4. Decreasing prevalence of hip dysplasia corresponding to selection of breeding stock and high heritabilities was found. Sex differences were documented in 3 of the breeds. This was interpreted as breed differences in the distribution of genes related to hip dysplasia. Economic analyses showed that costs of screening and registration of coxofemoral joints was less than the value of dogs estimated to have been saved from moderate, severe, or very severe hip dysplasia in 6 of the breeds. Documented effects of age suggest that all dogs should be screened at the same age, rather than screening a few dogs at an older, more revealing age. In screening and control programs based on an open registry with access to family records, decreasing prevalence of hip dysplasia can be expected, and related to selection of breeding stock.
Article
To document genetic progress in improving hip quality of dogs maintained in a closed breeding colony to produce dogs for training as guides for blind people. Prospective analysis of hip quality records from a breeding trial that encompassed 3 full generations and included some dogs born into the fourth and fifth generations. Hip quality was assessed for 2,037 German Shepherd Dogs and 1,821 Labrador Retrievers from 1980 to 1996. A subjective hip score assigned by 1 radiologist was used to assess hip quality during the study period. In the past 8 years, the distraction index was also used. Genetic change was produced by selecting a small percentage of dogs to be parents of the next generation. Dogs were selected to become parents of the next generation on the basis of estimated breeding values. These were calculated by combining observed values of individual dogs with known relationships in the population pedigrees to predict which dogs were the best candidates for selection as parents. In < 5 generations of selection, the percentage of German Shepherd Dogs with canine hip dysplasia at 12 to 16 months of age decreased from 55 to 24%. Among Labrador Retrievers, the percentage decreased from 30 to 10%. This report gives practitioners documented proof that genetic selection will work to improve hip quality. Dog breeders must be advised to be patient, however, to allow enough generations to elapse to make meaningful genetic change.
Article
develop a radiographic procedure to measure dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) of the femoral head in canine coxofemoral (hip) joints in a weight-bearing position. DLS measured on a radiographic projection was compared with DLS measured on computed tomography (CT) images of hip joints in a weight-bearing position. A total of 24 dogs of varying ages were examined including Labrador retrievers, greyhounds, and Labrador-greyhound crossbreeds. Anesthetized dogs were placed in sternal recumbency in a kneeling position in a foam rubber mold. The stifles were flexed and adducted with the femora perpendicular to, and in contact with, the table. To test for DLS, dogs were imaged in this weight-bearing position (DLS test) with routine radiography and CT. For each hip, the DLS score was determined by measuring the percentage of the femoral head medial to the lateralmost point of the cranial acetabular rim on the dorsoventral radiographic projection and the lateralmost point of the central, dorsal acetabular rim on the CT image. Higher DLS scores indicated better coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. DLS scores were compared with the distraction index (DI) by grouping joints according to their probability of developing osteoarthritis (OA) as predicted by the DI. The DLS score in the new position ranged from 29% to 71% for radiography and 15% to 59% for CT. Joints classified as OA unsusceptible had a mean score of 64% +/- 1.5% for radiography and 55% +/- 0.8% for CT (n = 10); hip joints having a high probability of developing OA had a score of 39% +/- 2.6% for radiography and 26% +/- 1.9% for CT (n = 8). When the DLS test was repeated on the same dogs at a different time, the intraclass correlation coefficient for the DLS score on the radiographs was 0.85 (left hip) and 0.89 (right hip). There was a strong correlation (r = .89 for both hips) between the DLS score measured on the weight-bearing radiograph and the CT image. A strong correlation also was observed between the DLS score and the DI (r = -.87). The DLS scores for OA unsusceptible joints and joints with a high probability of developing OA were significantly different (P < .05). The DLS test can be performed with CT or routine radiography to measure variable amounts of DLS in weight-bearing hip joints oriented similarly to those of a standing dog. After additional long-term follow-up studies evaluating the development of OA and breed effects are performed, the DLS method may prove useful in studies of normal and abnormal hip joint development related to canine hip dysplasia.
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate the Finnish Kennel Club's hip-dysplasia screening and control programs. As a retrospective study, records of hip-dysplasia screening of 69,349 dogs in 22 breeds that were born in 1988-1995 were analyzed and compared to data from prior to 1988. In most breeds, no significant changes in dysplasia prevalence could be found. In English cocker spaniels, golden and Labrador retrievers and Rottweilers a significant decrease - but in boxers, Dobermans, German Shepherd dogs and rough collies a significant increase - in prevalence was detected. In flat-coated retrievers overall prevalence increased - but the prevalence of severe hip-dysplasia decreased significantly during the study period. The present control program has not resulted in fast progress. Selecting against hip-dysplasia cannot be expected to be very effective, when based only on mass selection on phenotypic observations. Predicted breeding values based on progeny testing would probably give better results. Also, breeders' compliance and commitment to programs is not always high and other selection criteria in breeding are thought to be more important. Modern society has high demands for animal welfare and consumer issues, and breeders and kennel societies should pay more attention to health issues in breeding pedigreed dogs.
Article
To determine whether dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) of the femoral head reflects osseous conformation of the coxofemoral (hip) joint and represents a property distinct from maximum passive laxity of the hip joint in dogs. 14 Labrador Retrievers, 16 Greyhounds, 58 Greyhound-Labrador Retriever mixed-breed dogs, and 1 Rottweiler. DLS of the femoral head (DLS score) and passive laxity of the hip joint (distraction index) were determined radiographically in 3 groups of dogs: not treated (167 joints of 84 dogs); before and after injecting 2 ml of hyaluronan into 25 hip joints of 13 dogs; and before and after unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy in 5 dogs. Results of the 2 methods were compared for each group. In untreated dogs, the correlation coefficient (r) of DLS score versus distraction index was -0.73 and -0.69 for 84 left and 83 right hip joints, respectively. Mean coefficient of determination (r2) for both hips was 0.5. Mean DLS score did not differ before and after intra-articular injection of hyaluronan into either hip joint, whereas mean distraction index increased significantly after intra-articular injection. Unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy resulted in a significant increase in DLS score, compared with values obtained before surgery. However, distraction index before and after surgery did not differ significantly. The DLS test assesses the congruity of the acetabulum and the femoral head in a canine hip joint and thus represents a characteristic distinct from maximum passive laxity. The DLS score and the distraction index evaluate different components of hip joint stability.
Article
Hip dysplasia records from 10,335 German shepherd dogs were used to estimate environmental effects and predict breeding values and genetic change achieved with the Finnish Kennel Club's breeding programme. The best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) procedure was used for the analysis. No clear genetic improvement could be found during the study period (1985 to 1997). This might be due to ineffective selection for good hips. Significant environmental effects included year and month of birth, panellist, screening age and the effect of the genetic group of offspring from imported versus non-imported sires. In order to make the breeding programme more effective, BLUP breeding values should be used instead of phenotypic selection.
Article
To estimate genetic population variables for 6 radiographic criteria of canine hip dysplasia (CHD). 664 full- and half-siblings from a colony of Labrador Retrievers. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated for 6 radiographic criteria of CHD. Two evaluation protocols were compared: the grade of the most severely affected hip joint and the sum of the scores for both hip joints. The predictive performance of estimated breeding values was also evaluated. The overall prevalence of CHD (Federation Cynologique Internationale grades C, D, and E) was 29.6%. Median age at radiographic examination was 377 days. Heritability for the total CHD grade, Norberg angle (NA), coverage of the femoral head (COV), craniodorsal acetabular rim (ACR), subchondral bone sclerosis (SUBCH), shape of the femoral head and neck (FHN), and osteoarthritic changes at the insertion site of the joint capsule (JC) was estimated as follows: 0.44, 0.43, 0.46, 0.37, 0.32, 0.21, and 0.05, respectively. Heritability estimates were slightly higher for the sum of the scores for both hip joints. If NA and COV were included as fixed effects in the model for the dependent variables ACR, SUBCH, FHN, and JC , then heritability of these traits significantly decreased (0.08 to 0.15). High scores of NA and COV lead to a significant increase of the scores of the remaining criteria. Canine hip dysplasia is heritable to a moderate degree. Signs of subluxation revealed the highest heritability estimates. The criteria ACR, SUBCH, FHN, and JC were strongly influenced by NA and COV.
Article
To compare the accuracy of the extended-hip radiographic (EHR) score, the distraction index (DI), and the dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score for identifying hip dysplasia in dogs at 8 months of age. Cohort study 129 Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, and Labrador Retriever-Greyhound crossbreds. Radiography was performed when dogs were 8 months of age. Dogs were euthanatized at 8 to 36 months of age; hip dysplasia was diagnosed at the time of necropsy on the basis of results of a gross examination of the articular cartilage of the hip joints for signs of osteoarthritis. The EHR score, DI, and DLS score at 8 months of age were all significantly correlated with degree of cartilage degeneration at necropsy. Sensitivity and specificity of using EHR score at 8 months of age to diagnose hip dysplasia (scores > 3 were considered abnormal) were 38 and 96%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity of using DI (values > 0.7 were considered abnormal) were 50 and 89%; and sensitivity and specificity of using DLS score (scores < 55% were considered abnormal) were 83 and 84%. Results suggested that specificities of the 3 methods for diagnosing hip dysplasia in dogs at 8 months of age were similar. However, the DLS score had higher sensitivity, indicating that there were fewer false-negative results.
Article
To determine whether age, breed, sex, weight, or distraction index (DI) was associated with the risk that dogs of 4 common breeds (German Shepherd Dog, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Rottweiler) would have radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated with hip dysplasia. Cross-sectional prevalence study. 15,742 dogs. Hips of dogs were evaluated radiographically by use of the ventrodorsal hip-extended view, the compression v ew, and the distraction view. The ventrodorsal hip-extended view was examined to determine whether dogs had DJD. For each breed, a multiple logistic regression model incorporating age, sex, weight, and DI was created. For each breed, disease-susceptibility curves were produced, using all dogs, regardless of age, and dogs grouped on the basis of age. Weight and DI were significant risk factors for DJD in all breeds. For German Shepherd Dogs, the risk of having DJD was 4.95 times the risk for dogs of the other 3 breeds combined. In all breeds, the probability of having DJD increased with age. Results indicated that the probability of having hip DJD increased with hip joint laxity as measured by use of DI. This association was breed-specific, indicating that breed-specific information on disease susceptibility should be incorporated when making breeding decisions and when deciding on possible surgical treatment of hip dysplasia.
Article
Hip-dysplasia (malformation of the coxofemoral joint) in dogs is a major health problem. Under the British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club's voluntary hip-dysplasia scheme, dog-owners/breeders submit radiographs from animals >1-year-old, to ensure adequate skeletal maturity. An overall hip score quantifies the degree of malformation in the hip joints of these animals, by summing the scores for nine components of the radiographs of both the left and right joints. The hip score data for 29,610 Labrador retrievers (registered with The Kennel Club, UK) were merged with the Kennel Club pedigree database for 472,435 Labrador retrievers. The merged data included the animal's identity, date of birth, sex and hip score and similar records for the dog's relatives, including the hip score if the relative had been tested. In recent years, breeding had been increasingly from tested parents. The mean hip score for male Labradors was significantly higher than that for females. Regression modelling showed a significant, positive dependence of the hip score of the offspring upon the hip scores of its sire, dam and grandparents. Genetic heritability (using data from 13,382 Labrador retrievers comprising 718 litters) was highly significant: 0.34 from the two parents, 0.41 from sire alone and 0.30 from dam alone. Using components data from 2038 offspring Labrador retrievers comprising 1248 litters, three similar estimates of heritability were significant for three major components (Norberg angle, cranial acetabular edge and subluxation); for other components, heritability was significant from the sire but not from the dam. Offspring hip score could be reduced substantially by using only parents with zero hip score.
Article
Selective breeding policies for preventing or controlling hip dysplasia require accurate estimates of parameters in offspring/parental relationships and estimates of heritability. Recent literature includes some major studies of pedigree breeds of dog, using data derived from the hip dysplasia screening scheme set up by the British Veterinary Association. These publications have not taken into account the age of the animals when they were screened. This study analyses the data from 29,213 labrador retrievers whose ages were known when they screened. The mean hip score of the dogs was positively and significantly correlated with their age. If this relationship with age is ignored, various offspring/parental relationships and the estimates of heritability are likely to be distorted.
Article
To determine the radiographic methods that best predict the development of osteoarthritis in the hip joints of a cohort of dogs with hip dysplasia and unaffected dogs. 205 Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, and Labrador Retriever-Greyhound crossbred dogs. Pelvic radiography was performed when the dogs were 8 months old. Ventrodorsal extended-hip, distraction, and dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) radiographs were obtained. An Orthopedic Foundation for Animals-like hip score, distraction index, dorsolateral subluxation score, and Norberg angle were derived from examination of radiographs. Osteoarthritis was diagnosed at the time of necropsy in dogs > or = 8 months of age on the basis of detection of articular cartilage lesions. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the radiographic technique or techniques that best predicted development of osteoarthritis. A combination of 2 radiographic methods was better than any single method in predicting a cartilage lesion or a normal joint, but adding a third radiographic method did not improve that prediction. A combination of the DLS score and Norberg angle best predicted osteoarthritis of the hip joint or an unaffected hip joint. All models that excluded the DLS score were inferior to those that included it. A combination of the DLS score and Norberg angle was the best predictor of radiographic measures in 8-month-old dogs to determine whether a dog would have normal or osteoarthritic hip joints.
Article
To estimate prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and identify sources of bias in published reports. Prospective study. 200 clinically normal Golden Retrievers and 140 clinically normal Rottweilers between 24 and 60 months of age referred for hip evaluation (group 1) and 93 clinically normal dogs evaluated for Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip certification (group 2). Hip-extended pelvic radiographs from group 1 dogs were screened for CHD. Radiographs were evaluated twice; the first interpretation used an OFA-type subjective 7-point scoring system, and the second included the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an additional sign of degenerative joint disease. The OFA submission rate of group 2 dogs was determined from the number of official reports returned from the OFA. Prevalence of CHD in Golden Retrievers ranged from 53% to 73% and in Rottweilers ranged from 41% to 69%. Among dogs referred for OFA evaluation, radiographs from 49 (53%) were submitted to OFA. Of submitted radiographs, 45 (92%) were normal; of radiographs not submitted, 22 (50%) were normal. Radiographs with normal-appearing hips were 8.2 times as likely to be submitted to the OFA. Compared with Golden Retrievers, Rottweiler radiographs were significantly more likely to be submitted for OFA certification. Prevalence of CHD in these 2 breeds may be much higher than previously reported in the United States. Results suggest substantial bias in the OFA database, which causes lower estimates of prevalence of CHD.
Article
To evaluate hip joint laxity in 10 breeds of dogs via 2 radiographic techniques. 500 clinically normal dogs. Prospective study. Radiographs obtained via routine hip joint evaluations performed in sedated dogs of 10 popular breeds were randomly selected from a database. Measurements of distraction index (DI) and hip-extended index (HEI) on 1 hip joint radiograph randomly chosen from each dog were made. Mean age of dogs was 20.7 months. Mean HEI was 0.17 (range, 0.0 to 0.72) and mean DI was 0.44 (range, 0.07 to 0.96). Borzois had uniformly tight hip joints as judged by use of both methods and were considered the gold standard by which hip joint laxity was judged (all Borzois had DI < or = 0.32). Overall, DI was significantly greater than HEI. Within each breed, mean DI was always greater than mean HEI. Significant differences were detected among breeds for HEI; however, compared with DI, the magnitude of differences among breeds was less. Distraction radiography detected the greatest range and magnitude of passive hip laxity in the 10 breeds of dogs. The difference in values between breeds known to have high prevalence of canine hip dysplasia and those in Borzois was greater for DI than for HEI. Breeds must be evaluated individually because of inherent differences in hip joint laxity.