• Ample evidence documents the clear benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and the infant. • Among the very few contraindications to breastfeeding are galactosemia, medications or drugs of concern, and HIV and HTLV infection. • Pediatricians should recognize that human milk is superior to formula in optimizing each infant's potential for early growth and development. • Pediatricians should recommend exclusive/full breastfeeding as superior to formula feeding through the first 6 postnatal months and the subsequent timely introduction of adequate, safe, and appropriate complementary foods in combination with continued breastfeeding as optimal nutrition in the first postnatal year. • Pediatricians should be knowledgeable about important issues concerning breastfeeding and the management of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad in situations of infant prematurity or illness and maternal illness, infection, and medication exposure. • Families should be provided with appropriate information about breastfeeding and infant feeding before as well as throughout the pregnancy and infancy. • Mothers should receive ongoing support for breastfeeding in the hospital, in medical offices and facilities, and throughout communities, paralleling the BFHI. • Ongoing lifelong education about support for and management of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad is essential for pediatricians in the 21st century. 2011
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"The majority of the policy and programming surrounding breastfeeding lies within health policy whereby government resources are aimed at encouraging and supporting mothers to breastfeed, promoting breastfeeding through social media campaigns, and protecting breastfeeding through the regulation of breast milk substitutes that are perceived to be a contributor to infant food insecurity. The alignment of breastfeeding with food security within policy is no surprise as such a policy approach is based on the foundation of hundreds of medical studies concluding that breastfeeding is superior to other forms of infant feeding (American Academy of Pediatrics 1997; Anderson et al. 1999; Lawrence and Lawrence 2011) and alternatives to breastfeeding/breast milk pose nutritional and health risks for infants (Lauwers and Swisher 2005; Palmer 2009) including increased risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections (Beaudry et al. 1995), middle ear infections (Ball and Wright 1999) and childhood obesity (Cohen 2006). Such a policy position is also supported by evidence that breast milk substitutes pose risk of food contamination during the manufacturing of formula 17 or during consumer use when formula is mixed with contaminated water, or when non-sterile equipment and improper temperature are used. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This paper explores the framing of public policy related to infant food insecurity in Canada by examining multiple levels and jurisdictions where infant feeding and food security policy merge. It identifies that both policy areas position breastfeeding as the solution to infant food insecurity, primarily isolating policy within health domains. Overall, this paper provides a critique of policy in relation to what we know about the challenges of maintaining breastfeeding as the sole nutrition strategies for infants and the barriers of access to alternative food for infants within the context of low-income circumstances in high-income countries such as Canada. It argues that infant food insecurity is a matter that requires better conceptualization and broader policy responses beyond health policy aimed at shaping infant feeding practice. An informed merging of infant feeding and food security policy could provide the framework for policy development to address the structural relations that make breastfeeding unsustainable, particularly for low-income women, as well food insecurity outcomes that stem from not breastfeeding in low-income circumstances.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Food Culture and Society An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research
"Indeed, the modern milk formulas are enriched with iron and fatty acids to promote brain development, along with all nutrients that growing babies need [9,10]. These artificial milks are produced according to standard recipes that do not consider the inherent individuality of development making each preterm infant different from others . In this context, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) could be helpful in identifying the best and more complete nourishment for both preterm and term babies and to develop a more individual-based diet for this special population. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate changes in global metabolic profile between: 1 - breast milk and formula milk, 2 - breast milk from mothers delivering at different gestational age (GA) collected within one week from delivery, and then week by week until term equivalent age. Methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to analyze the water-soluble and lipid fractions extracted from 50 milk samples, 46 human milk at different GA, from 23 weeks of gestation until term equivalent age and four different formula milks. Results: The formula milk for premature infants was the most similar to breast milk of preterm babies. Breast milk showed higher lactose concentrations than formula milk, that conversely presented higher galactose 1-phosphate and maltose concentrations. Mother's milk of very preterm babies (23-25 wks of GA) showed a different metabolic profile from preterm infants >= 29 wks of GA with a subsequent trend to similarity around the 30th week of post-natal age. Breast milk from preterm infants of 29-34 wks, collected up to 40 wks of post-natal age showed a temporal change over the first three weeks of lactation, approaching to zero with the achievement of term age. Conclusions: Metabolome is a promising tool to study human and artificial milk global metabolic profile.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
"While the pathways responsible of these mechanisms are not completely understood, it is clear that an optimal nutritional support for this special class of patients plays an important role not only for short effects, in achieving an appropriate growth and nutritional accretion, but also for long-term effects on health and well-being. Although the World Health Organization strongly suggests that newborns should be exclusively breast fed for the first 6 months of life, only breast milk is not able to satisfy the high nutritional needs of preterm-LBW infants in terms of energy content and protein, as believed today [14,15]. Considering this, whether formula milk (FM) may be an alternative option to human milk is still in debate. "