Breastfeeding: More Than Just Good Nutrition
Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Florida- Health Science Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.Pediatrics in Review (Impact Factor: 0.82). 07/2011; 32(7):267-80. DOI: 10.1542/pir.32-7-267
• Ample evidence documents the clear benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and the infant. • Among the very few contraindications to breastfeeding are galactosemia, medications or drugs of concern, and HIV and HTLV infection. • Pediatricians should recognize that human milk is superior to formula in optimizing each infant's potential for early growth and development. • Pediatricians should recommend exclusive/full breastfeeding as superior to formula feeding through the first 6 postnatal months and the subsequent timely introduction of adequate, safe, and appropriate complementary foods in combination with continued breastfeeding as optimal nutrition in the first postnatal year. • Pediatricians should be knowledgeable about important issues concerning breastfeeding and the management of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad in situations of infant prematurity or illness and maternal illness, infection, and medication exposure. • Families should be provided with appropriate information about breastfeeding and infant feeding before as well as throughout the pregnancy and infancy. • Mothers should receive ongoing support for breastfeeding in the hospital, in medical offices and facilities, and throughout communities, paralleling the BFHI. • Ongoing lifelong education about support for and management of the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad is essential for pediatricians in the 21st century. 2011
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- "While the pathways responsible of these mechanisms are not completely understood, it is clear that an optimal nutritional support for this special class of patients plays an important role not only for short effects, in achieving an appropriate growth and nutritional accretion, but also for long-term effects on health and well-being. Although the World Health Organization strongly suggests that newborns should be exclusively breast fed for the first 6 months of life, only breast milk is not able to satisfy the high nutritional needs of preterm-LBW infants in terms of energy content and protein, as believed today [14,15]. Considering this, whether formula milk (FM) may be an alternative option to human milk is still in debate. "
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the metabolic profile of preterm human breast milk (HBM) by using a metabolomic approach. Methods: NMR spectroscopy and GC/MS were used to analyze the water-soluble and lipid fractions extracted from milk samples obtained from mothers giving birth at 26-36 weeks of gestation. For the sake of comparison, preterm formula milk was also studied. Results: The multivariate statistical analysis of the data evidenced biochemical variability both between preterm HBM and commercial milk and within the group of HBM samples. Conclusions: The preliminary results of this study suggest that metabolomics may provide a promising tool to study aspects related to the nutrition and health of preterm infant.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To elucidate the diagnostic criteria of Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple that will aid in recognizing and treating Raynaud phenomenon in breastfeeding mothers with chronic deep nipple pain during lactation. DESIGN Retrospective review of a patient database composed of 22 cases of breastfeeding mothers who fit the diagnostic criteria for Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple. SETTING Menlo Dermatology Medical Group in Menlo Park, California, an academic-affiliated, private dermatologic referral center. PATIENTS All patients diagnosed as having Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple evaluated from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The rate of failed treatment for Candida mastitis, the rate of improvement of symptoms with nifedipine use, and the overall rate of improvement of symptoms with appropriate therapy involving treatment of Raynaud phenomenon. RESULTS Among the 22 patients with Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple, previous treatment for Candida mastitis with oral or topical antifungals was ineffective in 20 (91%). Of the 12 patients who tolerated a trial of nifedipine, 10 (83%) reported decreased or resolved nipple pain. All patients experienced marked improvement of symptoms with appropriate therapy involving treatment of Raynaud phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS Most patients were treated with antifungals before presentation without resolution of nipple pain. Nifedipine appears to be an effective medication for the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple. With appropriate management of Raynaud phenomenon, breastfeeding mothers demonstrated improvement of nipple pain. Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nipple pain during lactation.