Article

Copper chelation by tetrathiomolybdate inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in vivo

Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.84). 07/2011; 301(3):H712-20. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.01299.2010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Redox-active transition metal ions, such as iron and copper, may play an important role in vascular inflammation, which is an etiologic factor in atherosclerotic vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated whether tetrathiomolybdate (TTM), a highly specific copper chelator, can act as an anti-inflammatory agent, preventing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in vivo. Female C57BL/6N mice were daily gavaged with TTM (30 mg/kg body wt) or vehicle control. After 3 wk, animals were injected intraperitoneally with 50 μg LPS or saline buffer and killed 3 h later. Treatment with TTM reduced serum ceruloplasmin activity by 43%, a surrogate marker of bioavailable copper, in the absence of detectable hepatotoxicity. The concentrations of both copper and molybdenum increased in various tissues, whereas the copper-to-molybdenum ratio decreased, consistent with reduced copper bioavailability. TTM treatment did not have a significant effect on superoxide dismutase activity in heart and liver. Furthermore, TTM significantly inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory gene transcription in aorta and heart, including vascular and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, respectively), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (ANOVA, P < 0.05); consistently, protein levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and MCP-1 in heart were also significantly lower in TTM-treated animals. Similar inhibitory effects of TTM were observed on activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in heart and lungs. Finally, TTM significantly inhibited LPS-induced increases of serum levels of soluble ICAM-1, MCP-1, and TNF-α (ANOVA, P < 0.05). These data indicate that copper chelation with TTM inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses in aorta and other tissues of mice, most likely by inhibiting activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factors, NF-κB and AP-1. Therefore, copper appears to play an important role in vascular inflammation, and TTM may have value as an anti-inflammatory or anti-atherogenic agent.

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Available from: Hao Wei, Mar 20, 2015
    • "However, a number of studies have reported that antioxidants, including tocopherols and ascorbate, may also act as pro-oxidants, especially in the presence of transition metals like copper [26] [27] [28] [29]. In contrast, copper chelation, for example by bathocuproine sulfonate (BCS) or by tetrathiomolybdate (TTM), has been shown to protect cells against copper-induced toxicity in vitro [20] [30] and in vivo [30] [31] [32] [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Copper is essential for several important cellular processes, but an excess of copper can also lead to oxidative damage. In brain, astrocytes are considered to play a pivotal role in the copper homeostasis and antioxidative defence. To investigate whether antioxidants and copper chelators can modulate the uptake and the toxicity of copper ions in brain astrocytes, we used primary astrocytes as cell culture model. These cells accumulated substantial amounts of copper during exposure to copper chloride. Copper accumulation was accompanied by a time- and concentration-dependent loss in cell viability, as demonstrated by a lowering in cellular MTT reduction capacity and by an increase in membrane permeability for propidium iodide. During incubations in the presence of the antioxidants ascorbate, trolox or ebselen, the specific cellular copper content and the toxicity in copper chloride-treated astrocyte cultures were strongly increased. In contrast, the presence of the copper chelators bathocuproine disulfonate or tetrathiomolybdate lowered the cellular copper accumulation and the copper-induced as well as the ascorbate-accelerated copper toxicity was fully prevented. These data suggest that predominantly the cellular content of copper determines copper-induced toxicity in brain astrocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
    • "However, a number of studies have reported that antioxidants, including tocopherols and ascorbate, may also act as pro-oxidants, especially in the presence of transition metals like copper [26] [27] [28] [29]. In contrast, copper chelation, for example by bathocuproine sulfonate (BCS) or by tetrathiomolybdate (TTM), has been shown to protect cells against copper-induced toxicity in vitro [20] [30] and in vivo [30] [31] [32] [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Copper is an essential trace element for many important cellular functions. However, excess of copper can impair cellular functions by copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, astrocytes are considered to play a prominent role in the copper homeostasis. In this short review we summarise the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms which are involved in the handling of copper by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up copper ions predominantly by the copper transporter Ctr1 and the divalent metal transporter DMT1. In addition, copper oxide nanoparticles are rapidly accumulated by astrocytes via endocytosis. Cultured astrocytes tolerate moderate increases in intracellular copper contents very well. However, if a given threshold of cellular copper content is exceeded after exposure to copper, accelerated production of reactive oxygen species and compromised cell viability are observed. Upon exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of copper ions or copper oxide nanoparticles, astrocytes increase their copper storage capacity by upregulating the cellular contents of glutathione and metallothioneins. In addition, cultured astrocytes have the capacity to export copper ions which is likely to involve the copper ATPase 7A. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently accumulate, store and export copper ions suggests that astrocytes have a key role in the distribution of copper in brain. Impairment of this astrocytic function may be involved in diseases which are connected with disturbances in brain copper metabolism.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Neurochemical Research
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    • "These data are in agreement with an early study using a rabbit brain tumor model in which copper lowering reduced tumor vessel width, as well as the proliferative rate of tumor endothelia, to similar levels seen in healthy brain vessels [12]. Similarly, a recent study has shown that copper plays an important role in vascular inflammation, and that copper chelation with TM may have value as an anti-inflammatory or anti-atherogenic agent [26]. In those studies mice treated with TM demonstrated significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory gene transcription and protein levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in the aorta and heart. "
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    ABSTRACT: Copper, an essential trace element acquired through nutrition, is an important co-factor for pro-angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Decreasing bioavailable copper has been used as an anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer strategy with promising results. However, the role of copper and its potential as a therapy in mesothelioma is not yet well understood. Therefore, we monitored copper levels in progressing murine mesothelioma tumors and analyzed the effects of lowering bioavailable copper. Copper levels in tumors and organs were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mesothelioma tumors rapidly sequestered copper at early stages of development, the copper was then dispersed throughout growing tumor tissues. These data imply that copper uptake may play an important role in early tumor development. Lowering bioavailable copper using the copper chelators, penicillamine, trientine or tetrathiomolybdate, slowed in vivo mesothelioma growth but did not provide any cures similar to using cisplatin chemotherapy or anti-VEGF receptor antibody therapy. The impact of copper lowering on tumor blood vessels and tumor infiltrating T cells was measured using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Copper lowering was associated with reduced tumor vessel diameter, reduced endothelial cell proliferation (reduced Ki67 expression) and lower surface ICAM/CD54 expression implying reduced endothelial cell activation, in a process similar to endothelial normalization. Copper lowering was also associated with a CD4(+) T cell infiltrate. In conclusion, these data suggest copper lowering is a potentially useful anti-mesothelioma treatment strategy that slows tumor growth to provide a window of opportunity for inclusion of other treatment modalities to improve patient outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
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