Multimodality approach in cryptogenic epilepsy with focus on morphometric 3T MRI
Department of Neuroradiology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. Journal of Neuroradiology
(Impact Factor: 1.75).
06/2011; 39(2):87-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.neurad.2011.04.004
This study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of morphometric MRI analysis in comparison to other modalities, such as MEG, SPECT and PET, in identifying the epileptogenic focus in patients with cryptogenic epilepsy.
Study inclusion was limited to epilepsy patients with a monolobar focus hypothesis, as concluded from EEG/seizure semiology and the best individual concordance rate. Feature maps, generated by the MATLAB(®) "morphometric analysis program" (MAP), were evaluated by a neuroradiologist blinded to conventional MRI and the focus hypothesis (MAP(1)). In addition, the feature maps were also interpreted by simultaneous matching conventional MRI but, again, with the reader having no knowledge of the focus hypothesis (MAP(2)).
In 12 out of 51 patients, true-positive findings were achieved (MAP(1): sensitivity 24%; specificity 96%). The sensitivity of the MAP(1) results was superior extratemporally. After matching conventional MRI, FCD was traced in six of the 12 patients (MAP(2): sensitivity 12%; specificity 100%). MEG sensitivity was 62%. Sensitivity of interictal and ictal SPECT was 20% and 50%, respectively. PET was not as sensitive extratemporally (19%) as temporally (82%). The greatest correspondence with the best individual concordance rate was noted with PET (14/16; 88%) and MEG (8/10; 80%), followed by interictal (5/8; 63%) and ictal (9/15; 60%) SPECT. Results for MAP(1) were 53% (10/19), and 100% for MAP(2) (6/6).
Although MAP sensitivity and specificity results are lower in comparison to other modalities, implementation of the technique should be considered first, before arranging any further investigations. The present study results offer guidelines for the implementation, interpretation and concordance of diagnostic procedures.
Available from: Andreas Alexopoulos
- "When combined with conventional visual analysis MAP provided complementary information and identified FCD type II lesions in 98% (89 of 91) of patients (Wagner et al., 2011). Doelken et al. (2011) recently reported a multimodality study of 51 patients with cryptogenic epilepsy and a suspected uni-lobar focus using MAP as well as MEG, SPECT, and PET, and found MAP to be 24% sensitive and 96% specific. "
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ABSTRACT: We aim to report on the usefulness of a voxel-based morphometric MRI post-processing technique in detecting subtle epileptogenic structural lesions. The MRI post-processing technique was implemented in a morphometric analysis program (MAP), in a 30-year-old male with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy and negative MRI. MAP gray-white matter junction file facilitated the identification of a suspicious structural lesion in the right frontal opercular area. The electrophysiological data by simultaneously recorded stereo-EEG and MEG confirmed the epileptogenicity of the underlying subtle structural abnormality. The patient underwent a limited right frontal opercular resection, which completely included the area detected by MAP. Surgical pathology revealed focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIb. Postoperatively the patient has been seizure-free for 2 years. This study demonstrates that MAP has promise in increasing the diagnostic yield of MRI reading in challenging patients with "non-lesional" MRIs. The clinical relevance and epileptogenicity of MAP abnormalities in patients with epilepsy have not been investigated systematically; therefore it is important to confirm their pertinence by performing electrophysiological recordings. When confirmed to be epileptogenic, such MAP abnormalities may reflect an underlying subtle cortical dysplasia whose complete resection can lead to seizure-free outcome.
Available from: Olivier Naggara
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 focal cortical dysplasia (FCD2) is one of the main causes of refractory partial epilepsy, but often remains overlooked by MRI. This study aimed to elucidate whether 3T MRI offers better detection and characterization of FCD2 than 1.5T, using similar coils and acquisition time.
Two independent readers reviewed the 1.5T and 3T MR images of 25 patients with histologically proven FCD2. For both magnetic fields, the ability to detect a lesion was analyzed. We compared the identification of each of the five criteria typical of FCD2 (cortical thickening, blurring, cortical signal changes, subcortical signal changes, and "transmantle" sign) and artifacts, using a four-point scale (0-3). Interobserver reliability for lesion detection was calculated.
Seventeen lesions (68%) were detected at 3T, two of which were overlooked at 1.5T. Interobserver reliability was better at 3T (κ = 1) than at 1.5T (κ = 0.83). The transmantle sign was more clearly identified at 3T than 1.5T (mean visualization score: 1.72 vs. 0.56; p = 0.002).
The use of 3T MRI in patients suspected of type 2 FCD improves the detection rate and the lesion characterization owing to the transmantle sign being more clearly seen at 3T. This point is of interest, since this feature is considered as an MR signature of FCD2.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities of the pulvinar in patients with epilepsy have received greater attention, but their occurrence and features have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the clinical and radiological features of patients with epilepsy who presented MRI abnormalities of the pulvinar.
We retrospectively investigated 225 consecutive patients who came to our institute because of seizures and underwent an MRI within 24h. The patients who exhibited pulvinar MRI abnormalities, their profile, seizure type, efficacy of medication, and chronological changes of MRI findings were examined.
Out of the 225 patients who underwent MRI within 24h of seizure, 17 exhibited MRI abnormalities of the pulvinar. All of these 17 patients presented status epilepticus. Bilateral pulvinar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity was observed in 3 patients and unilateral pulvinar DWI hyperintensity in the other 14. Out of these 14 patients, 7 exhibited DWI hyperintensity in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex, and 10 patients presented an old lesion due to stroke or trauma.
Our results demonstrated that the involvement of the pulvinar in status epilepticus is more frequent than expected and consisted of unilateral or bilateral DWI hyperintensities that may completely normalize. These pulvinar MRI abnormalities possibly reflect the epileptogenic hyperexcitation of different cortical areas through their connections with the pulvinar.
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