Antioxidant activities of aqueous leaf extracts of Toona sinensis on free radical-induced endothelial cell damage

Institute of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
Journal of ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 06/2011; 137(1):669-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.06.017
Source: PubMed


In Taiwan, Toona sinensis (Toona sinensis) is well known as a traditional Chinese medicine, while the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of this drug are still a matter of debate.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of non-cytotoxic concentrations of aqueous leaf extracts of Toona sinensis (TS extracts; 50-100 μg/mL) and gallic acid (5 μg/mL), a major component of these extracts, against AAPH-induced oxidative cell damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs).
Exposure of ECs to AAPH (15 mM) decreased cell viability from 100% to 43%. However, ECs were pre-incubated with TS extracts prior to AAPH induction resulted in increased resistance to oxidative stress and cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in ECs-derived PGI(2) and IL-1 β in response to AAPH exposure was positively correlated with cytotoxicity and negatively with TS extracts concentrations. In addition, gallic acid also suppressed PGI(2) and IL-1 β production in AAPH-induced ECs. Notably, TS extracts/gallic acid treatment significantly inhibited ROS generation, MDA formation, SOD/catalase activity, and Bax/Bcl-2 dysregulation in AAPH-stimulated ECs. Pretreatment of ECs with TS extracts/gallic acid also suppressed AAPH-induced cell surface expression and secretion of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, which was associated with abridged adhesion of U937 leukocytes to ECs. Moreover, TS extracts/gallic acid treatment significantly inhibited the AAPH-mediated up regulation of PAI-1 and down regulation of t-PA in ECs, which may decrease fibrinolytic activity.
Therefore, Toona sinensis may possess antioxidant properties that protect endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Our results also support the traditional use of Toona sinensis in the treatment of free radical-related diseases and atherosclerosis.

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    • "In the present study, rats under oxidative stress induced by injection of H 2 O 2 for 2 weeks and fed with TSL-A and gallic acid (GA), a major component in TSL-A [7], for 8 weeks were investigated for the underlying mechanism. Factors influenced sperm functions, including ROS, MMP, and motility of sperm, were measured by flow cytometry and microscope, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: Toona sinensis leaf (TSL) is commonly used as a vegetable and in spice in Asia. In this study, feeding with aqueous extract of TSL (TSL-A) alleviated oxidative stress and recovered the motility and functions of sperm in rats under oxidative stress. Protein expressions in testes identified by proteomic analysis and verified by Western blot demonstrated that TSL-A not only downregulated the level of glutathione transferase mu6 (antioxidant system), heat shock protein 90 kDa- β (protein misfolding repairing system), cofilin 2 (spermatogenesis), and cyclophilin A (apoptosis) but also upregulated crease3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 2 (steroidogenesis), heat shock glycoprotein 96, and pancreatic trypsin 1 (sperm-oocyte interaction). These results indicate that TSL-A promotes the functions of sperm and testes via regulating multiple testicular proteins in rats under oxidative stress, suggesting that TSL-A is a valuable functional food supplement to improve functions of sperm and testes for males under oxidative stress.
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