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Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Tubers against infectious diarrhea

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To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.
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340 Indian Journal of Pharmacology | June 2011 | Vol 43 | Issue 3
Studies on the activity of
Cyperus rotundus
Linn. tubers against
infectious diarrhea
Poonam G. Daswani, Brijesh S., Pundarikakshudu Tetali1, Tannaz J. Birdi
Short Communication
The Foundation for Medical
Research, Worli,
Mumbai, 1Naoroji Godrej Centre
for Plant Research, Lawkin Ltd.
Campus, Shirwal, Satara, India
Received:
Received: 07-10-2010
Revised:
Revised: 24-12-2010
Accepted:
Accepted: 23-02-2011
Correspondence to:
Correspondence to:
Dr. Tannaz J. Birdi,
E-mail: fmr@fmrindia.org
ABSTRACT
To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of
Cyperus rotundus
Linn. tubers using
representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.
Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of
enteropathogenic
Escherichia coli
(EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive
E. coli
(EIEC) and
Shigella flexneri
to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect
on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic
E. coli
(ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin
(ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity,
reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT
and action of LT. The decoction of
C. rotundus
does not have marked antimicrobial activity
and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.
KEY WORDS:
KEY WORDS: Bacterial adherence,
Cyperus rotundus
, HEp-2 cells, infectious diarrhea
Introduction
Diarrheal diseases, one of the most common infectious
worldwide, are predicted to remain a leading health problem.[1]
Oral rehydration therapy has been the key strategy for effective
case management. However, it often fails in high stool output
state. With contraindications of antimotility agents in infectious
diarrhea and an increasing threat of drug resistance, various
attempts for developing vaccines against diarrheal pathogens
have been made.[2,3] However, the response to vaccines in
developing countries has not been encouraging.[3] In the recent
past, attempts have been made to treat infectious diarrhea
with supportive therapy such as probiotics; but these are still
under development.[4] Therefore, medicinal plants may provide
a cost-effective alternative for treatment of diarrhea.
Most of the studies on antidiarrheal medicinal plants have
focused on intestinal motility and/or antibacterial activity.[5]
Hence, there is limited information on their mechanism(s)
of action against pathogenicity of infectious diarrhea. In this
study, we have evaluated the effect of crude decoction of
tubers of
Cyperus rotundus
Linn. (family Cyperaceae) on
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DOI:
DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.81502
various parameters, viz., bacterial adherence to and invasion
of epithelial cells and production and action of enterotoxins, in
addition to their antimicrobial activity.
Materials and Methods
Plant Material
Tubers of
C. rotundus
were collected from the Parinche
valley near Pune, Maharashtra, India, and authenticated by Dr.
P. Tetali. A voucher specimen has been deposited at Botanical
Survey of India (Western Circle), Pune, India, under herbarium
number 124666. Tubers were shade dried and stored at 4°C
until further use. All experiments were performed with the
same dried material.
Preparation of the Crude Aqueous Extract (Decoction)
The decoction was prepared by boiling 1 g of the powdered
dried plant material in 16 mL double-distilled water till the
volume was reduced to 4 mL.[6] To replicate field conditions,
the decoction was freshly prepared every time. To minimize
variability, similar boiling conditions were maintained for each
preparation and the dry weight was recorded. The decoction
was centrifuged and filtered through a membrane of 0.22-μm
pore size before use. The decoction was diluted 1:100, 1:20 and
1:10 in appropriate media for each experiment (referred to as
1%, 5% and 10%, respectively, throughout the text).
Phytochemistry
The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the decoction was
carried out using standard methods.
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341Indian Journal of Pharmacology | June 2011 | Vol 43 | Issue 3
Microorganisms Used
Six bacteria, viz., enteropathogenic
Escherichia coli
(EPEC) strain B170, serotype 0111:NH; enterotoxigenic
E. coli
(ETEC) strain B831-2, serotype unknown (heat labile toxin,
LT, producer) and strain TX1, serotype 078:H12 (heat stable
toxin, ST, producer); enteroinvasive
E. coli
(EIEC) strain E134,
serotype 0136:H-;
Vibrio cholerae
C6709 El Tor Inaba, serotype
01 (cholera toxin, CT, producer) and
Shigella flexneri
M9OT,
serotype 5 were used.
Giardia lamblia
P1 trophozoites and
simian rotavirus SA-11 were also studied.[7,8]
Biological Assays
The assays briefly described below were undertaken using
methods and positive controls described previously.[7,8] Each
experiment was done in duplicate/triplicate and repeated at
least three times.
Antimicrobial Action
The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial
and antirotaviral activities using agar dilution, trypan blue
and neutral red assay, respectively. Ofloxacin (1 μg/mL) and
metronidazole (10 μg/mL) were used as controls for the former
two assays, respectively.
Effect on Bacterial Colonization
Adherence of EPEC and invasion of EIEC and
S. flexneri
to HEp-2 cells was assessed. HEp-2 cells were incubated in
the absence (control) and presence of various dilutions of the
decoction, either 18–20 hours prior to infection (pre-incubation)
or simultaneously with infection (competitive inhibition).
Results were compared with that of lactulose, a prebiotic
oligosaccharide.
Effect on Bacterial Enterotoxins
The production of LT/CT and their binding to ganglioside
monosialic acid receptor were assessed by ganglioside
monosialic acid enzyme linked immunosorbent assay GM1-
ELISA. Results were compared with those of 2-mercaptoethanol
and gallic acid, respectively. The production and action of ST
was assessed by suckling mouse assay.
Approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee and
the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of
Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA, registration No. 424/01/a/
CPCSEA, June 20, 2001) was obtained for the study.
Statistical Analysis
Data were expressed as mean standard error of the
percentage values from three independent experiments. The
percentage in each experiment was calculated using the formula
(C or T)/C 100, where C is the mean value of the duplicate/
triplicate readings of the control group and T is mean value of
the duplicate/triplicate readings of the test (dilutions of the
decoction) groups. Hence, the values of the test groups were
represented as percentages relative to control (100%). Data
were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett’s
post-test using the software Prism 4.0 (GraphPad, Inc.,
San Diego, CA, USA).
P
0.05 was considered statistically
significant.
Results
Dry Weight/Yield
The variability between different preparations of the
decoction was within acceptable limits as indicated by the
standard error of the dry weights. The average dry weight was
52 ± 2.8 mg/mL (
n
= 25), the yield being 21 ± 1.12% (w/w)
with respect to the starting material. Thus, the concentrations
of the different dilutions used in the biological assays were
0.52 ± 0.028 mg/mL (1%), 2.6 ± 0.14 mg/mL (5%) and 5.2 ±
0.28 mg/mL (10%).
Phytochemistry
The decoction contained carbohydrates, reducing sugars,
proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins,
whereas glycosides, alkaloids, and phytosterols were absent.
Antimicrobial Activity
C. rotundus
did not exhibit antibacterial and antirotaviral
activity (data not shown). The multiplication of
G. lamblia
was
restricted at all the concentrations tested in a dose-dependent
manner with maximum inhibition (43.81 ± 2.54%) at 10%
concentration [Figure 1]. However, the decrease was less than
that caused by metronidazole.
Effect on Bacterial Colonization
The adherence of
E. coli
B170 and invasion of
E. coli
E134
and
S. flexneri
to HEp-2 cells was significantly affected when the
HEp-2 cells were incubated with the decoction either prior to or
simultaneously with the infection [Figure 2a–c]. In comparison
to lactulose, the decoction showed greater decrease in bacterial
colonization.
Effect on Bacterial Enterotoxins
The decoction showed an overall increase (statistically
insignificant) in the production of LT by
E. coli
B831-2 at all the
concentrations tested. The binding of LT to GM1 was marginally
decreased at 10% concentration. The decrease, however, was
lesser than that observed with gallic acid [Figure 3a].
Th e decoction significantly decreased CT production by
V.
cholerae
at 5 and 10% concentrations which was comparable
to that of 2-mercaptoethanol. How ever, there was no effect on
the binding of CT to GM1 at any of the concentrations tested
[Figure 3b].
Figure 1: Antigiardial activity of the decoction of C. rotundus [C:
Control, trophozoites in medium alone; M: trophozoites incubated
in medium with metronidazole (10 μg/mL)]. Values represent mean
standard error (n = 3) of percentage viable trophozoites relative to
control (100%); *P < 0.05
Daswani, et al.: Antidiarrhoeal activity of C. rotundus
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342 Indian Journal of Pharmacology | June 2011 | Vol 43 | Issue 3
The production and action of ST was not affected at any
concentration (data not shown).
Discussion
C. rotundus
Linn., commonly known as nut grass and locally
Daswani, et al.: Antidiarrhoeal activity of C. rotundus
Figure 2: Effect of the decoction of C. rotundus on bacterial colonization to HEp-2 cells: (a) Adherence of EPEC strain B170; (b) Invasion of EIEC
strain E134; (c) Invasion of S. exneri (C: Control, bacterial adherence/invasion to HEp-2 cells in medium alone; L1: adherence/invasion to HEp-2
cells in medium with 2.5 mg/mL lactulose; L2: adherence to HEp-2 cells in medium with 15 mg/mL lactulose in the competitive protocol). Values
represent mean ± standard error (n = 3) of percentage adherence/invasion relative to respective control (100%); *P < 0.05
as Musta, is said to possess antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory
and antipyretic activities.[9,10] The tubers are used in Ayurvedic
medicine and have been mentioned in ancient texts for various
ailments.
Our previous study conducted on
C. rotundus
tubers
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343Indian Journal of Pharmacology | June 2011 | Vol 43 | Issue 3
Figure 3: Effect of the decoction of C. rotundus on bacterial enterotoxins: (a) Production of heat labile toxin (LT)
by E. coli B831-2 and its binding to GM1; (b) Production of cholera toxin (CT) by V. cholerae and its binding to
GM1 (C: Control, toxin in medium alone; M1: LT in medium with 5 mM 2-mercaptoethanol; M2: CT in medium with
1 mM 2-mercaptoethanol; G: LT/CT in medium with 50 mM gallic acid). Values represent mean standard error
(n = 3) of percentage production/binding relative to respective control (100%); *P < 0.05
collected from Madhya Pradesh, India, had reported selective
action against ETECs with no direct killing of bacteria.[11] We
expanded the study with this plant to include multiple pathogens
and parameters. In the present study, tubers from Parinche,
Maharashtra, were used. Though the antibacterial profile of
the two batches was similar, differential effects were seen on
adherence of EPEC, LT and ST. Despite the mode of extract
preparation being similar, the difference in the results of the
two studies can be attributed to different ecotypes and the
time of collection.
Some other studies have also reported antidiarrheal activity
of
C. rotundus
. Antidiarrheal action in castor oil-induced
diarrhea and in irritable bowel syndrome in animal models
has been demonstrated.[12,13] However, there is a dearth of
information regarding its mechanism(s) of action in controlling
infectious diarrhea. We, therefore, undertook the present study.
The present study was intentionally restricted to crude
extract as it is our belief that the different biological activities
may not be due to a single constituent. This has also been
highlighted in recent studies on
Psidium guajava
and
Alchornea
cordifolia
.[8,14] Previous studies with the essential oil of
C.
rotundus
showed it to be more bactericidal against Gram-
positive bacteria.[15,16] In this study, however,
C. rotundus
showed
no antibacterial activity which could be due to a difference in
the extract used and/or a difference in the test strains, all the
strains being Gram negative. The major constituents present in
C. rotundus
are essential oil, triterpenes, polyphenol, alkaloids
and flavonoids. However, none of these have been attributed
with antidiarrheal activity.[10] The decoction used herein showed
the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, proteins,
amino acids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. Tannins and
flavonoids, in general, have been reported to have antidiarrheal
activity.[17-19] Thus, these compounds may be responsible for the
observed activity. However, it may be noted that since tannins
and flavonoids have not been studied for their activities
vis-à-
vis
colonization of enteric pathogens to the gut epithelium and/
or production and action of enterotoxins, further investigations
with isolated constituents are necessary.
The results show that
C. rotundus
has limited antimicrobial
action. Since bacterial colonization was reduced when the
Daswani, et al.: Antidiarrhoeal activity of C. rotundus
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344 Indian Journal of Pharmacology | June 2011 | Vol 43 | Issue 3
HEp-2 cells were incubated with the decoction prior to and
simultaneously with infection, it is likely that
C. rotundus
affects
metabolism of HEp-2 cells and/or modifies its receptors to
prevent bacterial adherence/entry. Since the decoction did not
kill
V. cholerae,
the suppression of CT production could be due to
its effect on bacterial metabolism. LT production was, however,
not affected. Since LT and CT have antigenic similarities, the
differential effect on binding of these toxins (inhibiting the
binding of only LT) suggests that the decoction may not be
affecting the common antigenic moiety of these toxins.[20]
To conclude, the results suggest that
C. rotundus
has limited
activity against different forms of infectious diarrhea due to its
selective activity against diarrheal pathogens. In the absence
of a marked antimicrobial activity, this plant seems to exhibit
the antidiarrheal action because of its action on some features
of bacterial virulence viz., bacterial colonization, production of
CT and action of LT.
Acknowledgements
We are thankful to Aviansh Gurav, Santosh Jangam of Foundation
for Research in Community Health, Pune for collection of plant material;
Dr. N. F. Mistry, Foundation for Medical Research for her critical
suggestions in the study design; staff and students, Pharmacognosy
Department, Principal KM Kundanani College of Pharmacy, Mumbai
for assistance in qualitative phytochemical studies.
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Cite this article as: Daswani PG, Brijesh S, Tetali P, Birdi TJ. Studies on the
activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea. Indian J
Pharmacol 2011;43:340-4.
Source of Support: Grant No. 91283, Department of Science and
Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of
India. Con ict of Interest: None declared.
Daswani, et al.: Antidiarrhoeal activity of C. rotundus
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... Cyperus rotundus, commonly known as motha, is abundantly available and provides an excellent source of remedy for various ailments. C. rotundus is cheap, grows in the wild, has a broad range of benefits, and contains abundant secondary metabolites (Singh et al., 2012), including alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, and tannins (Daswani et al., 2011). Anticancer alkaloids are the most essential phytochemicals developed into drugs (Isah, 2016). ...
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Digestive system cancers are common primary cancer in humans. Plants are an excellent source of compounds used in the treatment of different types of cancer. Virotherapy is a promising tool for fighting cancer because of its safety and selectivity. Thus, the present study proposed a new combination therapy consisting of secondary metabolite compounds (alkaloids) extracted from Cyperus rotundus L. and oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The new combination was tested against three cancer cell lines (i.e., human rectal and esophagus cancer and mouse hepatocellular carcinoma) and a non-transformed rat embryo fibroblast cell line (REF). The MTT viability assay was used to analyze the possible synergism using the Chou–Talalay analysis method. The in vitro study showed that the combination therapy of NDV-alkaloid extract had synergistic enhanced anticancer activity on all the cancer cell lines tested. Moreover, combination therapy showed antagonism and low cytotoxic effect on the REF cell line. NDV-alkaloid treatment was found to upregulate p53 in comparison with each monotherapy alone, and thereby it is a possible explanation for the synergism. In conclusion, this study proposed a novel cancer therapy via the combination of C. rotundus L. (alkaloids) extract and oncolytic NDV, which may be a promising therapy for gastrointestinal tumors.
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Discovering plant extracts that can help delay the aging process is challenging as the world transitions into an aging society. Cyperus rotundus L. has long been used as a natural medication to cure a variety of disorders in the traditional medical systems of China, India, Africa, Japan, and Arab countries. C. rotundus may be a bioactive substance that can be used to prevent and treat various diseases, as well as prolong life and improve general well-being; however, no data supporting in vivo testing have been reported. This study investigates the effects of C. rotundus extract on the lifespan and stress-induced mortality in Drosophila melanogaster or fruit flies. Different solvent extractions, including ethanol (ECE), 70% ethanol (HECE), methanol (MCE), and water (WCE), of the rhizomes and tubers of C. rotundus were mixed into the diets of flies to determine the lifespan extension property. The most active extract was selected for further testing of resistance to oxidative stress, starvation, acetic acid, and survival from heavy metal-induced toxicity. The phytochemical profiles of the extract were analyzed using LC–MS. The results showed that the mean lifespan-prolonging effects of the extracts in flies were observed in the order of HECE>WEC>MCE>ECE. Supplementation with HECE at 10 mg/mL diet increased the antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased lipid peroxidation compared to the control group. After exposure to hydrogen peroxide and paraquat, Drosophila treated with HECE showed a significant increase in survival. Supplementation with HECE increased resistance to acetic acid and starvation. HECE supplementation also enhanced the survival of fruit flies from iron and aluminum toxicities. LC–MS analysis revealed the major components of epicatechin/catechin, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, quercetin, and vanillin in HECE. These findings suggest that HECE promotes longevity and increases health by reducing oxidative damage, increasing the adaptive response in stress-induced aging, and decreasing heavy metal-induced toxicity.
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The gastrointestinal tract (GIT), one of the essential organs of the human body is susceptible to various diseases. GI disorders such as constipation, diarrhea, GI reflux disease, gastric ulceration, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), also in addition to some other functional disorders, have become prevalent in a large part of the world population. Majority of the world’s population relies on herbal medicines nowadays for the management and treatment of GI diseases. However, the use of herbal medicines in various manifestations are traditionally derived, and further controlled trials suggest certain benefits of using ginger in nausea and vomiting, extract of licorice in peptic ulcers, Chinese herbal medicine in IBS, opium derivatives in diarrhea, and senna and ispaghula in constipation. The presence of various bioactive components in herbal preparations makes them suitable for potential therapeutic effects in GIT problems. In this chapter, we have discussed a number of single herbal formulations or herbal combinations for the treatment of different types of GIT ailments.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance With over 950 species, Cyperus is one of the most promising health boosting genera in the Cyperaceae family. Traditional uses of Cyperus sp. Have been described for gastrointestinal blood abnormalities, menstrual irregularities, and inflammatory diseases, among others. Cyperus tegetum Roxb belonging to Cyperaceae family, is used in traditional medicine to treat skin cancers. Aim of the study The present study was carried out to explore the potential effect of the extract of the plant Cyperus tegetum against different pharmacological activity namely inflammatory, analgesic activity as well as skin cancer activity in mice. Materials and methods Cytotoxicity of the extract was measured by MTT and Live/death assay on HeLa cell line. Skin cancer was induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice to measure its effects. Result Stigmasterol and some poly phenolic compounds are identified using HPTLC process from the methanol extract of the rhizome of the plant Cyperus tegetum (CT-II). After confirmation of the presence of different polyphenolic compound and triterpenoids in the extract, it was subject to MTT and Live/death assay on HeLa cell line. From the observation it could be concluded that the IC50 of the extract is 300 μg/ml. Thus, the CT II was evaluated further for its in vivo anticancer property. In the tumorigenesis study, the number of tumor growths, the area and weight of the tumor are significantly decreases with increment in the dose of CT-II extract and some elevated enzyme release in renal (creatinine, urea) as well as hepatic (AST, ALT, ALP) enzymes are also controlled with the increased dose of the same extract. The elevated enzyme release may be due to cancer induced rupture of the plasma and cellular damage. This CT-II extract also exhibits some other pharmacological activity like anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Conclusion As metabolic activation via carcinogens and inflammation response plays important role in development of cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties can be correlated with anti-cancer properties. Taken all the above studies, it was illustrated that the extract of Cyperus tegetum might be a promising compound to reduce skin cancer risk.
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Cyperus rotundus (nut grass in English) is a perennial erect sedge plant and is distributed in over 90 countries of the world, where it has been mostly classified as a highly invasive weed. Despite this classification, the plant has been considered from traditional times to be medicinally important. The traditional uses of the plant in various countries include uses against various gastrointestinal tract disorders, skin diseases, leprosy, fever, and neurological disorders. Evaluation of the plant and especially its rhizomes in a scientific manner has revealed the presence of numerous phytochemicals and wide-ranging pharmacological activities, which include anti-microbial, gastrointestinal, wound healing, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-malarial, anti-obesity, hepatoprotective, and anti-pyretic activity. The scientific validation of a number of traditional uses strongly indicates that the plant may prove useful in the discovery of a number of lead compounds and novel drugs.
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Cyperus rotundus, (Cyperaceae), commonly known as Nagarmotha (H) and Nutgrass (E). Its pharmacological claims are anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, diuretic, wound healing property, post-parturition use and other reproductive disorders in females. Charak Samhita is grouped under "lekhniya dravya", a group of medicinal plants acclaimed to clean the channels, by removing fat deposits and body weight-reducing effects. Here, we have reviewed its pharmacological and phytochemical properties by using keywords like metabolic syndrome (MetS), Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, Anti-oxidant, Anti-inflammation, Type II diabetes, Obesity, Blood pressure, Fatty liver and Atherosclerosis in the PubMed and Web of sciences. Result-We found 250 articles in PubMed and 226 in the web of sciences. The duplicates were excluded by using Mendeley software, and finally 23 papers were reviewed for experimental data. Conclusion-We found that Cyperus rotundus is effective in the management of MetS in clinical studies and experimental models. Some papers have highlighted the mechanistic approach of its phytoconstituents concerning various diseases of MetS, which is mainly through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials.
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Diarrhea remains one of the serious threats to global health. Developing countries are the most stricken as they continue to struggle with the economic burden associated with accessing quality health care as well as access to clean water and sanitation. The situation is even made worse in the military. All the same, medicinal plants that are abundant in developing countries avail vivid alternatives to the management of diarrheal diseases. Rich in phytochemicals that are active in the management of diarrhea at different phases, medicinal plants offer a cheaper and more accessible form of therapy. Exploration of the different methods of preparation, elucidation of structures of active molecules together with their mechanism of action, guarantees their potentials as remedies for the troops, refugees, and persons in areas of conflicts.
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Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It covers various physiology and pathology of diseases and their therapies. Since ancient times, several diseases have been treated by administration of plant extracts based on traditional medicine. Investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs, and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus which are used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of stomach, bowel disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cyperus rotundus contains essential oils, terpenes, flavonoids, b-sitosterol, and ascorbic acid. The main terpenes in Cyperus rotundus are cyperenes, which include sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical uses and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.
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Essential oil from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus, obtained by steam distillation, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In total, 33 compounds were identified. The oil was characterized by its high content of sesquiterpenes with cyperene (30.9%) being major. The antibacterial activity of oil from tubers of Cyperus rotundus, showed more important activity against Gram-positive bacteria specially Staphylococcus aureus than Gram-negative bacteria. The antimutagenic activity was tested by the “SOS Chromotest” and the “Ames” test. C. rotundus oil acted as an antimutagen against Afl atoxin B1 in both Salmonella strains (TA100 and TA98) and Escherichia coli strain (PQ37) and against nifuroxazide in Escherichia coli strain (PQ37), where its mutagenicity is not expressed. The highest rates of AFB1 mutagenesis inhibition tested by Ames assay, ranged from about 82.56% for TA100 strain to 85.47% for TA98 strain at the same dose of 50 μg AFB1 per plate. Whereas, the mutagenic effect of respectively nifuroxazide and AFB1 (50 μg/assay) were reduced by aproximately 58.19% and 81.67% when tested by the SOS chromotest assay.
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Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae, is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, stomachaches, and indigestion. However, the effect of the leaf extract of P. guajava on the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea has not been studied. The present study evaluates the effect of a hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried leaves of P. guajava on parameters associated with pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. The aim was to understand its possible mechanism(s) of action in controlling infectious diarrhoea and compare it with quercetin, one of the most reported active constituents of P. guajava with antidiarrhoeal activity. The crude decoction and quercetin were studied for their antibacterial activity and effect on virulence features of common diarrhoeal pathogens viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production and action of enterotoxins. Colonization as measured by adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri was assessed using HEp-2 cell line. The production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid (GM1) were studied by GM1-ELISA whereas the production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. The decoction of P. guajava showed antibacterial activity towards S. flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It decreased production of both LT and CT and their binding to GM1. However, it had no effect on production and action of ST. The decoction also inhibited the adherence of EPEC and invasion by both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Quercetin, on the other hand, had no antibacterial activity at the concentrations used nor did it affect any of the enterotoxins. Although it did not affect adherence of EPEC, it inhibited the invasion of both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Collectively, the results indicate that the decoction of P. guajava leaves is an effective antidiarrhoeal agent and that the entire spectrum of its antidiarrhoeal activity is not due to quercetin alone.
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Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1) were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST. The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases.
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Diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children under age of 5 years. In view of this problem, the World Health Organization has a Diarrhoea Disease Control Program, which includes studies of traditional medical practices together with the evaluation of health education and prevention approaches. In this paper a review of the last 7 years about the studies of extracts of plants used to combat diarrhoea in different countries has been done.
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The antidiarrhoeic activity of the Euphorbia hirta whole plant was investigated. The lyophilized decoction demonstrated antidiarrhoeic activity in experimental models of diarrhoea induced by castor oil, arachidonic acid, and prostaglandin E2. It showed no activity when magnesium sulphate was used to provoke the diarrhoea. The lyophilized decoction delayed small intestinal transit when this was accelerated by castor oil but not in normal conditions. A flavonoid, quercitrin, with antidiarrhoeic activity was isolated from this crude drug.
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Vibrio cholerae produce a variety of extracellular products that have deleterious effects on eukaryotic cells. The massive diarrhoea produced by V. cholerae is caused by cholera toxin (CT). CT is composed of 1A and 5B units. CT causes a significant amount of fluid secretion and haemorrhage in the ligated rabbit ileal loops. Its action involves the role of various biochemical pathways. CT acts by activation of adenylate cyclase-cAMP system located at the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. The increase in cyclic AMP levels is mainly responsible for the altered transport of Na+ and Cl-. Besides activating cAMP, CT is also known to act through release of prostaglandins and involvement of intramural nerves. Besides CT, other bacterial toxins like Escherichia coli LT, Salmonella toxin, Shigella toxin and Campylobacter toxin also possess A-B structure. The structure and function of E. coli LT resembles closely that of CT. Most of the bacterial toxins exert their effect through involvement of ADP-ribosylating proteins whereas other toxins involve guanylate cyclase system, calcium and protein kinases for their ultimate action.