Article

Underarm antiperspirants/deodorants and breast cancer

School of Biological Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Hopkin's Building, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB, UK.
Breast cancer research: BCR (Impact Factor: 5.49). 12/2009; 11 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S5. DOI: 10.1186/bcr2424
Source: PubMed
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    • "Aluminum salts approximately forms 25% of antiperspirant volume that each time used. In addition, 12% of Aluminum is absorbed by cells in axillary region [8], and absorbed materials have been observed in the breast biopsy of individual who used antiperspirant [9]. with regard to increasing level of breast malignancy and involvement axillary lymph nodes and also considering the increase in using hygiene antiperspirant that often contain aluminum salts, this study was conducted to measure the axillary nodes size in Iranian females and to compare the size of these nods in cases with and without antiperspirant usage. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Size of axillary lymph nodes can be a predictor for breast abnormalities. The agents in the antiperspirants such as Aluminum were observed in the breast biopsy of individual with abnormalities and antiperspirants usage. In this study, the relation between using antiperspirants and the size of axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in Iranian women. Methods: In this study, 120 women were enrolled and asked for using the antiperspirant agents. Then ultrasound and mammography were taken from these cases and axillary lymph nodes were measured in both sides. Then, the sizes were compared in the cases with regular use of antiperspirants and without use of these agents. Results: In the present study, 120 normal women were studied. Mean age of sample group was 38.02 and all samples were female. Seventy eight cases (65%) used antiperspirant agents as usual and 42 cases (35%) did not. There were no significant differences between age, right and left nodes size of the cases with and without the use of antiperspirant agents (P≤0.05). Conclusion: The results confirmed that size index is not a sufficient factor for malignancy and using antiperspirant wasn't producing abnormal statue in axillary lymph nodes and node with large size wasn't from lymphadenopathy or malignancy in Iranian women.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Aluminium is not a physiological component of the breast but has been measured recently in human breast tissues and breast cyst fluids at levels above those found in blood serum or milk. Since the presence of aluminium can lead to iron dyshomeostasis, levels of aluminium and iron-binding proteins (ferritin, transferrin) were measured in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a fluid present in the breast duct tree and mirroring the breast microenvironment. NAFs were collected noninvasively from healthy women (NoCancer; n = 16) and breast cancer-affected women (Cancer; n = 19), and compared with levels in serum (n = 15) and milk (n = 45) from healthy subjects. The mean level of aluminium, measured by ICP-mass spectrometry, was significantly higher in Cancer NAF (268.4 ± 28.1 μg l(-1) ; n = 19) than in NoCancer NAF (131.3 ± 9.6 μg l(-1) ; n = 16; P < 0.0001). The mean level of ferritin, measured through immunoassay, was also found to be higher in Cancer NAF (280.0 ± 32.3 μg l(-1) ) than in NoCancer NAF (55.5 ± 7.2 μg l(-1) ), and furthermore, a positive correlation was found between levels of aluminium and ferritin in the Cancer NAF (correlation coefficient R = 0.94, P < 0.001). These results may suggest a role for raised levels of aluminium and modulation of proteins that regulate iron homeostasis as biomarkers for identification of women at higher risk of developing breast cancer. The reasons for the high levels of aluminium in NAF remain unknown but possibilities include either exposure to aluminium-based antiperspirant salts in the adjacent underarm area and/or preferential accumulation of aluminium by breast tissues.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Applied Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of inorganic biochemistry
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