Chlamydophila psittaci infections in Turkeys: Overview of economic and zoonotic importance and vaccine development
Laboratory of Immunology and Animal Biotechnology, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain: 1998)
(Impact Factor: 1.2).
11/2009; 45 Suppl B:147-50.
We provide evidence on the multifactorial infectious etiology of respiratory disease in turkeys. Although Chlamydophila psittaci is difficult to diagnose, this entity should not be neglected in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The present results suggest a pathogenic interplay between chlamydophila, avian metapneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. Additionally, we demonstrate zoonotic transmission from turkeys to humans. Psittacosis due to contact with poultry probably occurs more often than is thought and the infection can be asymptomatic or symptomatic. There is no commercial C. psittaci vaccine available and currently the best option is an experimental major outer membrane protein-based DNA vaccine.
Available from: Si Yang Huang
- "Chlamydia is a genus comprising important zoonotic obligate intracellular pathogens that affect humans and a wide range of animals, including birds [1,2]. Chlamydia infection causes a wide spectrum of diseases in nonhuman mammals and birds, including atypical pneumonia, enteritis, conjunctivitis, endocarditis, and even abortion, resulting in heavy economic losses [3-6]. Several Chlamydia species are transmissible to humans and are of serious public health significance because they may lead to pneumonia, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and other severe diseases. "
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Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogens with a worldwide distribution in many animal species, including humans. No information exists on the prevalence of Chlamydia felis infections in cats and dogs in Lanzhou, the geographical center of China. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of cats and dogs in Lanzhou and document the seroprevalence of C. felis exposure in these companion animals.
In this study, blood samples were collected from 485 animals (221 cats and 264 pet dogs) in Lanzhou between November 2010 and July 2011 to identify antibodies against C. felis. Thirteen of 221 (5.9%) cats and 32 of 264 (12.1%) pet dogs were positive for C. felis infection using indirect hemagglutination at a cutoff of 1:16. The seroprevalence in household and stray cats was 3.9% and 14.3%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among different age groups, the seroprevalence in cats varied from 1.9 to 7.9%, and that in dogs ranged from 9.6 to 20.4%; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
This is the first report of the seroprevalence of C. felis exposure in cats and dogs in Lanzhou, northwestern China. Our results indicate that the presence of C. felis exposure in cats and dogs may pose a potential threat to human health.
Available from: Deseada Parejo
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ABSTRACT: The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus) and lesser (Falco naumanni) kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus), an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae) and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.
Available from: Valmore Bermudez
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This study was aimed at investigating the frequency of infection by Cp. psittaci and determining its genotype in individuals at potential risk of exposure to the bacteria.
The study involved 170 individuals: a risk group (n= 96) and a low-risk control group (n=74). Cp. psittaci was detected and genotyped by single-tube nested PCR and ompA gene sequencing.
Eight (8.3 %) positive cases were detected in the risk group and 1 (1.4 %) in the control group (p<0.04). Cp. psittaci was found in 16.7 % of pigeons' fecal samples. Cp. psittaci infection with was more frequent in symptomatic (17.7 %) than asymptomatic (6.3 %) individuals in the risk group. Analysing the genomes isolated from human and bird specimens revealed the presence of genotype B.
The presence of Cp. psittaci genotype B in the population being evaluated could have been attributed to zoonotic transmission from pigeons to humans, an underestimated potential public health problem in Venezuela requiring the health authorities' involvement.
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