ArticleLiterature Review

Herpes simplex virus sepsis and acute liver failure

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Abstract

Acute liver failure is a life threatening disease mostly triggered by drug-induced or toxic liver damage or viral hepatitis. Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is rare and accounts for only 1% of all acute liver failures. The importance of HSV-induced acute liver failure is based on its extremely severe clinical course with lethality rates of almost 75%. HSV hepatitis is just one of several clinical manifestations of HSV sepsis leading more frequently to encephalitis, pneumonia and esophagitis. Local herpes infection or recurrence of dermal lesions (herpes labialis, herpes genitalis), however, is common and account for the high prevalence of HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection in adults. Another rare entity is visual dissemination, which mostly affects immunocompromised patients. Compromised cellular immunity is a major risk factor for HSV sepsis because of either primary infection or reactivation of occult chronic HSV infection. Delayed diagnosis without antiviral therapy significantly contributes to the unfavorable outcome. Typically, anicteric hepatitis is seen in patients with HSV hepatitis. Because of its low incidence, however, and the lack of dermal manifestations, HSV hepatitis is rarely considered in the context of acute liver failure. In addition, diagnostic tests might not always be available. Therefore, it is a generally accepted consensus to begin antiviral therapy pre-emptively with acyclovir in cases of acute liver failure of unknown origin, in which high urgency (HU) liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical option. Even in the case of early specific therapy, sepsis may prevail and the indication for HU transplantation must be evaluated carefully. The outcome after liver transplantation for HSV-induced liver failure with reported survival rates of more than 40% is good. Because of the risk of recurrence, lifelong prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended.

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... However, HSV-induced hepatic failure is rare, and has been estimated to account for approximately 1% of all causes of fulminant hepatic failure [2]. De-spite being first described in 1969 [3], herpes simplex hepatitis has been an often unrecognized form of fulminant hepatic failure which is rapidly (within days) fatal and with mortality rate approaching 90% [4]. Most case reports have shown to be in patients who are immunocompromised, frequently pregnant women in 3rd trimester, newborns, or patients otherwise immunosuppressed either by HIV or by immunomodulatory agents treating other diseases. ...
... In some patients, fulminant hepatic failure progresses, and orthotopic liver transplantation is required for survival. One-year survival rates after liver transplantation have been reported to be around 40% [4]. However, because HSV sepsis is a systemic illness, patient's requiring liver transplantation from fulminant liver failure have increased risk of HSV recurrence and lifelong treatment with acyclovir is recommended [4]. ...
... One-year survival rates after liver transplantation have been reported to be around 40% [4]. However, because HSV sepsis is a systemic illness, patient's requiring liver transplantation from fulminant liver failure have increased risk of HSV recurrence and lifelong treatment with acyclovir is recommended [4]. However, viral resistance to acyclovir has been reported [12] leading some to suggest using foscarnet in the setting of acute liver failure in the immunosuppressed patient after OLT [4]. ...
... HSV infection is endemic with an estimated 80% of adults likely to contract HSV throughout their lifetime [1] . Although HSV infection may present with mild nonspecific viral symptoms, most HSV infections are asymptomatic. ...
... The majority of patients with HSV hepatitis (as high as 90%) have a characteristic liver profile described as "anicteric hepatitis" [5,7] . Anicteric hepatitis is a pattern of liver injury in which a significant increase in transaminases (100-1,000 fold) occurs in the setting of relatively normal or low bilirubin levels [1,3,5,7,8] . This pattern is often associated with a marked elevation of AST greater than ALT. ...
... Acute liver failure develops in 74% of patients with HSV hepatitis. Of these cases, the mortality rate approaches 90% [1,3,5,8] . Data support the use of acyclovir to treat HSV hepatitis, and early initiation of treatment is vital to transplantfree survival [7] . ...
Article
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Fulminant hepatitis is a rare complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). Another rare cause of fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women is acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP). Here we present a female with fulminant hepatitis after a cesarean section whose infant clinically decompensated in the early neonatal period. Mother and child were diagnosed with fulminant hepatic failure from HSV, and the mother was found to have coexistent fatty liver of pregnancy on biopsy. Thus, two rare causes of fulminant hepatitis were co-morbid in the same patient. Rapid diagnosis enabled successful treatment, and both mother and infant recovered well.
... Our case is of particular interest given the rarity of viral hepatitis secondary to disseminated HSV-2 in an immunocompetent host. Viral hepatitis accounts for only 1-2% of all viral causes of acute liver failure [6][7][8][9][10]. Risk factors for disseminated disease include immunodeficiency, immunocompromised state, posttransplantation, and pregnancy (primarily in the third trimester); however, up to 25% of cases occur in immunocompetent patients [8]. ...
... HSV hepatitis remains difficult to diagnose given the nonspecific nature of presenting signs and symptoms. Most commonly, patients present in an anicteric state with elevated aminotransferases, low bilirubin, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia with concurrent fever or abdominal pain [9][10][11][12][13][14]. Although peak aminotransferases are often greater than 1000, values less than 1000 can be seen [15]. ...
... We also highlight that only 30-50% of patients present with, or develop, characteristic herpetic lesions, further emphasizing that clinicians should not rely on classic cutaneous findings in diagnosing disseminated HSV [9]. Early diagnosis and treatment with intravenous acyclovir remains essential as 74% of cases progress to acute liver failure, with mortality rates as high as 90% [7][8][9][10]12,13,17]. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) affects nearly 1 in 5 adults in the United States. Complications such as viral hepatitis and dissemination are rare in immunocompetent hosts. In this report, we describe a case of viral hepatitis secondary to disseminated HSV-2 in an immunocompetent patient with recurrent fevers and elevated aminotransferases. CASE REPORT A 57-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes and hypertension was admitted with a right index finger lesion concerning for an abscess. He underwent successful incision and drainage and was started on ampicillin-sulbactam. On Day 2 of hospitalization, he developed recurrent fevers and elevated aminotransferases and inflammatory markers. An extensive infectious, rheumatologic, and malignancy workup were pursued without immediate findings. Imaging demonstrated cirrhotic morphology of the liver and splenomegaly, but lab markers were intact for liver synthetic function. On Day 7 of hospitalization, fever frequency decreased, and HSV-2 titers resulted, with positive IgM and negative IgG. He subsequently developed erythematous, raised lesions in multiple dermatomes. Nucleic acid amplification testing of biopsied lesions was positive for HSV-2, confirming viral hepatitis secondary to disseminated HSV-2. He was started on intravenous acyclovir and discharged on valacyclovir following improvement in symptoms. CONCLUSIONS We report a case of viral hepatitis secondary to disseminated HSV-2 in an immunocompetent host. Up to 25% of cases occur in immunocompetent hosts and many patients do not develop characteristic skin lesions. Early diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis secondary to disseminated HSV remains vital to minimize morbidity and mortality.
... The recommended antiviral treatment for HSV-1 systemic infection is acyclovir at a dose of 10-20 mg/kg every 8 h [3,14,15]. However the clinical experience is limited with regard to HSV-1 hepatitis. In addition, renal dysfunction in our patient required the adaptation of acyclovir doses. ...
... In addition, renal dysfunction in our patient required the adaptation of acyclovir doses. Monitoring of the treatment was performed by HSV-1 quantitative PCR [10,[15][16][17][18]. Although the "gold standard" for diagnosis is liver biopsy, the presence of coagulopathy may be a contraindication, further supporting the use of HSV PCR in whole blood as a diagnostic tool [3,12,15]. ...
... Monitoring of the treatment was performed by HSV-1 quantitative PCR [10,[15][16][17][18]. Although the "gold standard" for diagnosis is liver biopsy, the presence of coagulopathy may be a contraindication, further supporting the use of HSV PCR in whole blood as a diagnostic tool [3,12,15]. The initially very high HSV-1 viremia (9 log 10 ) decreased to 7 and 5 log 10 after respectively 7 and 13 days of treatment (Fig. 2). ...
Article
Herpes simplex Virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare complication of HSV-1 primary infection, with a delayed diagnosis, affecting mainly immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of HSV-1 hepatitis after primary infection occurring in the postoperative days after a pancreas-kidney transplantation. The patient presented with an unusual evolution of a persistent severe hepatitis associated with a persistent viremia (Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) despite an adequate intravenous (iv) antiviral treatment. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a miliary hepatitis. The diagnosis of HSV-1 hepatitis was confirmed by immuno-chemistry on liver biopsy. The donor was negative for anti-HSV antibodies, excluding contamination by the graft. This case report emphasizes a rather seldom risk of care-associated viral infections, predominantly in immunocompromised patients.
... Herpes hepatitis is a well-known, albeit rare cause of fulminant hepatic failure [1]. The case fatality rate of herpetic hepatitis is quite high (41-79%) partly due to its atypical presentation and rapid progression [2]. ...
... HSV hepatitis is one of the rare manifestations of disseminated herpes, as compared to encephalitis and pneumonia [1]. HSV hepatitis, although known to exist in immunocompetent individuals, is predominantly seen in immunocompromised patients and pregnant women. ...
... Our patient could have benefited from empiric acyclovir therapy, which as per general consensus, can be institut- ed without tissue diagnosis [4,19,20]. Liver transplantation would also have been a viable option, given the survival rate of over 40% in such cases [1]. The patient then would have been a candidate for lifelong acyclovir prophylaxis [21]. ...
Article
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Herpes hepatitis is a rare cause of fulminant hepatic failure contributing to less than 1% of all cases. It is most often seen in persons who are immunosuppressed and in pregnant women. The presentation is usually non-specific and rapidly progressive, thus making antemortem diagnosis of this condition rare. We present a patient who was on chronic immunosuppressive therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus and subsequently developed multi-organ failure with anicteric transaminitis as a result of disseminated herpes infection. The diagnosis was only made post-mortem. A confounding factor in this case was the fact that the patient underwent plasmapheresis, which skewed the interpretation of liver function tests in the setting of acute liver failure.
... 19 In the absence of characteristic clinical findings, the antemortem diagnosis of HSV hepatitis is essentially based on liver biopsy. Liver biopsy, although considered a gold standard for diagnosing HSV hepatitis, 3,6,8,14,19,20 is often times not performed due to the presence of significant coagulopathy associated with the disease. 6,19,20 Histological sections demonstrate extensive necrosis with adjacent congestion and minimal inflammatory infiltrates. ...
... Liver biopsy, although considered a gold standard for diagnosing HSV hepatitis, 3,6,8,14,19,20 is often times not performed due to the presence of significant coagulopathy associated with the disease. 6,19,20 Histological sections demonstrate extensive necrosis with adjacent congestion and minimal inflammatory infiltrates. Due to extensive necrosis or ballooning degeneration, the characteristic cytopathic changes associated with HSV infection (including viral inclusions) may not be appreciated. ...
... 6,19 Viral serology is nonspecific for diagnosing HSV infections. [6][7][8]19,20 HSV DNA polymerase chain reaction testing can, however, be a useful diagnostic tool. 3,6,8,19,20 HSV hepatitis is associated with high mortality, which is often rapid, in up to 90% of the cases. ...
Article
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is an uncommon cause of fulminant hepatic failure, seen mostly in immunocompromised patients. Conventional treatment modalities for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as steroids and azathioprine, have been known to cause HSV hepatitis. However, the reported incidence of HSV hepatitis in IBD patients undergoing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor therapy is very rare. In this case report, we describe a rare case of fulminant HSV hepatitis that developed in a patient with Crohn’s disease after treatment with the TNF-α inhibitor, adalimumab.
... Most cases are mucocutaneous infections, however, in a lower percentage they develop systemic infections. The acute liver failure (ALF) due to primary or reactivated infection is an extremely rare and potentially fatal entity [3]. We report 3 solid-organ transplantation patients who developed ALF due to HSV-1 primary infection in the immediate post-transplant period. ...
... It has been reported an incidence of herpes infection (HSV and herpes zoster virus) of 8% in the first month posttransplant, 10% in the first 6 months and 16% at 6 months' posttransplant [4]. The prevalence of herpes simplex virus seropositivity in SOT is 75% with an incidence of primary infection of 6.7% at the first year [3], the majority of them are mild infections and less frequently severe systemic infections. HSV hepatitis is a rare and fatal entity that could be a donor-derived infection. ...
Article
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Herpes virus infections is not uncommon in solid organ transplantation patients. We report 3 cases with primary Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV1) infection with acute liver failure (ALF). This is a rare and potentially fatal entity that could be a donor-derived infection. Although the initial clinical presentation is non-specific, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in HSV-negative serology patients with liver failure and empirical treatment must be started in combination with a drastic reduction of immunosuppression. A strategy of HSV prophylaxis for pre-transplant HSV seronegative patients must be stablished in order to reduce the risk of clinical disease.
... In recent years, real-time PCR has been increasingly applied to simplify the overall procedure and reduce performance time in detecting and quantifying virus in clinical samples [15,16]. Multiplex qPCR has been suggested as an efficient alternative for simultaneous detection of HCMV, HHV-6 and HHV-7 within the same reaction [9,17]. In the current study, the incidence of betaherpesvirus infection in patients with ALF of unknown etiology was investigated using the multiplex qPCR approach. ...
... One major reason for delayed diagnosis is the lack of specific symptoms. Typical mucocutaneous lesions are absent in half of the patients developing hepatitis [3,17], highlighting the need for early diagnosis for optimizing therapy. In this study, 23.6% samples from ALF patients displayed positivity for at least one of the betaherpesviruses. ...
Article
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Background: The etiology of acute liver failure (ALF) is often unknown and reported to be associated with herpesviruses in a number of cases. In this study, we examined for betaherpesviruses infections in patients with ALF of unknown etiology using a multiplex qPCR to Betaherpesviruses subfamily. Methods: Liver explant and serum samples from 27 patients with ALF of unknown etiology were analyzed with the aid of multiplex qPCR to identify betaherpesviruses. All positive samples were sequenced to confirm herpes infection and liver enzyme levels evaluated. Results: Betaherpesviruses infection was effectively detected using multiplex qPCR. Six (22%) HHV-6, one (3%) HCMV and two (7%) dual infections (one with HHV-7/HHV-6, and the other with HHV-7/ HCMV). Interestingly, HHV-7 was only detected in the presence of other betaherpesviruses. Sequencing information confirmed betaherpesviruses infection. High hepatic enzyme levels and INR values> 1.5 were determined in all betaherpesvirus-positive patients. Conclusions: Multiplex qPCR facilitated efficient quantification, indicating that differentiation between betaherpesviruses is possible with the sole use of real-time PCR. Liver explant and serum samples were positive for some betaherpesviruses, and coinfection of HHV-7 with HHV-6 and HCMV was additionally detected. Based on these results, we propose that ALF patients should be screened for the presence of betaherpesviruses.
... It has the capacity to infect epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces and establish latency in sensory neurons becoming reactivated in a later time. The consequences can result in either symptomatic or asymptomatic virus shedding near the site of original infection [Milligan et al., 2005;Riediger et al., 2009]. ...
... The appropriate treatment of HSV hepatitis is the systemic therapy with acyclovir. Nevertheless if a possible resistance occur for some patients, therapy with foscarnet is applied [Riediger et al., 2009]. ...
Article
Herpes simplex viruses can cause uncommon systemic complications as acute liver failure or urinary tract dysfunctions. Diphenyl diselenide, (PhSe)2, a classical studied organic selenium compound, has a novel antiviral action against HSV-2 infection and well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate if (PhSe)2 reduces oxidative stress and systemic toxicity caused by HSV-2 infection in mice. Adult BALB/c mice were pre-treated with (PhSe)2 (5 mg kg−1/day, intragastric, i.g.) during 5 days; at day 6 mice were infected with HSV-2 (10 µl-105 PFU/ml−1) and post-treated with (PhSe)2 for more 5 days. At day 11, they were killed and samples of liver and kidney were obtained to determine: reactive species (RS); malondialdehyde (MDA) and non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels; the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The activities of adenosine deaminase (ADA), Na+/K+-ATPase (liver and kidney); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the levels of urea (plasma) were determined as markers of hepatic and renal toxicity. The results revealed that (PhSe)2 treatment was effective against the increase of renal and hepatic oxidative stress in infected mice and also normalized hepatic and renal ADA activity. It recovered the activity of Na+/K+- and was not effective against the increase in urea levels in infected mice. Different from (PhSe)2, acyclovir (positive control), caused an increase in ADA activity and a decrease in hepatic CAT activity. Considering the interest of alternative therapies to treat HSV-2 infections and secondary complications, (PhSe)2 become a notable candidate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Additionally, there is evidence that a delay in administration of Acyclovir is associated with increased mortality rates [12]. The significantly reduced mortality of HSV hepatitis with Acyclovir treatment, as well as its relatively safe drug profile [13,14], has prompted some clinicians to recommend empiric Acyclovir therapy in any patient presenting with hepatitis who is at risk of HSV infection [15,16]. ...
... It also further emphasizes the need to have a high clinical suspicion for HSV hepatitis in any patient presenting with acute hepatitis who is immunosuppressed as early Acyclovir administration has been demonstrated to significantly reduce mortality [1,12]. Due to this reduced mortality, the challenge of diagnosing HSV hepatitis, and the relatively safe drug profile of Acyclovir [16], we recommend that any patient who is immunosuppressed and presenting with hepatitis of unknown origin should be started on empiric Acyclovir therapy. ...
Article
Full-text available
HSV hepatitis is a rare but often fatal cause of liver failure which tends to affect immunocompromised individuals. Early treatment with Acyclovir has been shown to reduce mortality in HSV hepatitis making recognition of the condition critically important. Here, we present a case of HSV hepatitis in a young woman with Crohn’s disease on Prednisone, Azathioprine, and Infliximab. We discuss the clinical presentation of HSV hepatitis as well as the possible causes of hepatitis in a patient on these medications. This case helps demonstrate the importance of early clinical suspicion for HSV in undifferentiated fulminate liver failure. It is also the first reported case of HSV hepatitis in a patient on Infliximab, raising the possibility of HSV reactivation in patients on Infliximab.
... Clinical symptoms of oesophagitis are independent of the aetiology and most often include retrosternal burning, odynophagia, dysphagia, epigastric pain, sitofobia, fagofobia, or fever and influenza-like illness. The initial clinical presentation of esophagitis may also come from its complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding, oesophageal stricture, perforation, or fistula to neighbouring organs [2,[4][5][6][7]. ...
... These conditions were ruled out in our patient. Oesophagus viral infections in patients with an intact immune system are very rare, although several cases of esophagitis caused by HSV in patients without perceptible risk factor were reported [2][3][4][5][6]. A propensity for oesophageal infection may result from disturbance of oesophagus motility, chronic antibiotic therapy, significant malnutrition, chronic metabolic disease (e.g. ...
Article
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We present a 22-year-old male who developed a severe erosive oesophagitis extending to the pharynx and oral cavity without obvious risk factors. Endoscopic image suggested viral aetiology that could not be confirmed by routine serological diagnostics of infections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpes simplex virus. The histopathological evaluation also gave no definite clues to the aetiology of the inflammation. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. Two months later the patient presented febrile diarrhoea that was a symptom of ileocecal Crohn's disease proven by endoscopy, enterography, and histopathology. It is the first report of severe viral oesophagitis preceding clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. This observation warrants further study towards the viral aetiology of oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal erosions, frequently associated with Crohn's disease.
... In particular, HSV hepatitis can cause fatal acute liver failure even in immunocompetent hosts if it is not diagnosed in time [7]. Compromised cellular immunity after transplantation is a major risk factor for reinfection with and the recurrence of HSV [12]. One study reported that 42% of patients with positive HSV IgG before transplantation experienced changes of HSV polymerase chain reaction from negative to positive early after liver transplantation [13]. ...
... However, considering the clinical course, in which liver failure occurred several days after the aggravation of skin lesions, HSV hepatitis was thought to be secondary vis-ceral dissemination. Further, the HSV infection in our case report was likely to involve other organs as well as the skin and liver because the typical clinical presentations of HSV hepatitis are anicteric hepatitis without skin lesions [12]. ...
... In immunocompetent patients, HVS hepatitis is a particularly rare condition, with few reported cases, (5,6) progression to acute liver failure in 74% and a mortality rate up to 90%. (1) Due to its rarity, there are no widely accepted guidelines for its diagnosis; thus patient history, physical examination, and blood tests with a high degree of suspicion are critical to adequate management. ...
... He also did not show typical mucocutaneous lesions of herpes infection, however absence of this lesions are described in half of the patients. (6) In the article published by Little L et al., the authors retrospectively analyzed all the HSV hepatitis-related cases within the Acute Liver Failure Study Group database, the median AST level was nearly 7800 U/l as compared to much lower levels in non-HSV hepatitis. (8) In fact, clinical sings of HSV hepatitis can include the so called "anicteric hepatitis" or "transaminitis", characterized by normal or slightly elevated bilirubin with transaminases levels 100-1000x the upper normal limit, in association with leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. ...
Article
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) are challenging eti-ologic agents with a wide range of clinical manifestations. We present a case of a 34-year-old im-munocompetent male who was brought to the Emergency Department (ED) with fever and prostration. In the first approach, blood tests revealed an acute hepatitis without an identified etiology. Besides the use of N-acetylcysteine, he. became worse and evolved to acute liver failure and coma. HSV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood. Although acyclovir was started on day 3, he developed cardiovascular shock with multiple organ failure and died on the 7th day of hospitalization. A high index of suspicion is needed, and early diagnosis should be promoted between clinicians.
... Редко, но встречаются случаи заболевания и у иммунокомпетентных взрослых людей. Факторами риска фульминантного герпетического гепатита являются: большая доза инокулята при первичном инфицировании, активация латентной инфекции, реинфекция вторым штаммом вируса герпеса и/или гепатотропным штаммом вируса [43]. ...
... В большинстве случаев герпетический гепатит диагностируется посмертно, на секции. В идеале его диагностика должна включать в себя серологическое обследование и ПЦР [43]. «Золотым стандартом» диагностики герпетического гепатита является биопсия печени, но подход к этому исследованию должен быть осторожным из-за повышенного риска возникновения осложнений (кровотечений) [44]. ...
Article
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The review deals with the problem of liver affection by viruses that traditionally are not referred to hepatotropic ones, but present a great threat to the group of newborn children, immunosuppressed individuals and patients with histories of transplantation of organs. The authors describe liver lesions in infections caused by viruses of the herpetic group, enteroviruses, parvovirus В19, paromyxovirus, rubella virus. Special attention is paid to the histological picture of these lesions.
... For HSV-sepsis, the high mortality is largely due to the non-specific clinical presentation, lack of awareness, delay in diagnosis and therapy. [2] Our report suggested that NGS might be helpful in identification of certain microbial pathogens in sepsis as etiologic agents and subsequently beneficially impact patient care. [3] Fulminant HSV hepatitis with liver failure should be considered in this patient for international normalized ratio 2.01 and status epilepticus. ...
... Viral DNA is present in brain, liver and lungs in moribund wild type and IL-36β KO mice. In humans HSV can disseminate to internal organs such as the brain, liver and lungs, where it causes organ damage leading to significant morbidity and mortality [2][3][4][5][6] . We previously showed that in the HSV-1 flank model the virus disseminates to internal organs such as the brain, liver and lungs 12 . ...
Article
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Interleukin-36 (IL-36) represents three cytokines, IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ, which bind to the same receptor, IL-1RL2; however, their physiological function(s) remain poorly understood. Here, the role of IL-36 in immunity against HSV-1 was examined using the flank skin infection mouse model. Expression analyses revealed increased levels of IL-36α and IL-36β mRNA in infected skin, while constitutive IL-36γ levels remained largely unchanged. In human keratinocytes, IL-36α mRNA was induced by HSV-1, while IL-1β and TNFα increased all three IL-36 mRNAs. The dominant alternative splice variant of human IL-36β mRNA was isoform 2, which is the ortholog of the known mouse IL-36β mRNA. Mice deficient in IL-36β, but not IL-36α or IL-36γ, succumbed more frequently to HSV-1 infection than wild type mice. Furthermore, IL-36β−/− mice developed larger zosteriform skin lesions along infected neurons. Levels of HSV-1 specific antibodies, CD8⁺ cells and IFNγ-producing CD4⁺ cells were statistically equal in wild type and IL-36β−/− mice, suggesting similar initiation of adaptive immunity in the two strains. This correlated with the time at which HSV-1 genome and mRNA levels in primary skin lesions started to decline in both wild type and IL-36β−/− mice. Our data indicate that IL-36β has previously unrecognized functions protective against HSV-1 infection.
... Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is an uncommon disorder occurring almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, such as solid organ transplant recipients. In most cases, it leads to acute liver failure requiring emergency liver transplantation or to death (1)(2)(3), even though it is a treatable disease, provided an early diagnosis is made. Lack of awareness and its nonspecific clinical presentation might explain why the diagnosis is often retrospective at post-mortem examination (2,4). ...
Article
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare and serious complication in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of an HSV hepatitis occurring 4 years after lung transplantation in a cystic fibrosis patient. The presentation was nonspecific, mimicking acute cholecystitis; oro-genital signs were absent. The diagnosis was made based on viral cultures performed during cholecystectomy and confirmed by blood quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the diagnosis and treatment were delayed, the patient fully recovered with acyclovir, reduced immunosuppression, and intravenous immunoglobulins. The diagnostic difficulties, prognostic factors, and treatments of this infection are discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... To the best of our knowledge, this feature has not previously been described. Although it is well known that hepatic cytolysis can occur in viral infections [27,28], liver dysfunction can be associated with lymphoma. It remains to be established whether a high aspartate transaminase value could help to distinguish between infectious triggers (and especially viral infections) and haematological triggers in patients with HS. ...
Article
Reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) is a rare condition that occurs in patients with infections, hematological malignancies or autoimmune diseases. Although various microorganisms are thought to trigger HS, most of the literature data on this topic have been gathered in single-center case series. Here, we sought to characterize infectious triggers in a large, multicenter cohort of HS patients. Patients were included in the present study if HS was solely due to one or more infections. Detailed microbiological data were recorded. Of the 162 HS patients in the cohort, 40 (25%) had at least one infection and 38 of the latter (including 14 women, 36.8%) were included. The median age was 46. Patients were presumed to be immunocompetent in 7 cases (18.4%), whereas 19 patients (50%) were infected with HIV and 12 patients (31.6%) were immunocompromised for other reasons. Twenty-seven patients (71.1%) had a single infection, whereas 6 (15.8%) and 5 patients (13.1%) had respectively 2 and 3 concomitant infections. We observed pyogenic bacterial infections (n=7), tuberculosis (n=10), nontuberculous mycobacteriosis (n=3), viral infections (n=17: 11 CMV, 3 EBV, 2 HHV8, 1 HSV2), parasitic infections (n=8: 4 cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis, 1 leishmaniasis, 3 malaria), fungal infections (n=5: 4 cases of pulmonary pneumocystosis and 1 candidemia). Eighteen patients (47.4%) received corticosteroids and/or etoposide. Twelve patients died (31.6%). All multiple infections and all deaths occurred in immunocompromised patients. When compared with patients suffering from malignancies-associated HS, patients suffering from infection-triggered HS were younger and more likely to be immunocompromised, and had a better outcome.
... Thus, early initiation of antiviral therapy may be regarded mandatory to prevent fatal outcomes. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in the context of disseminated HSV infection should be evaluated carefully, as the risk for HSV recurrence seems increased and lifelong treatment with acyclovir may be needed following OLT [10]. Although there is a lack of conclusive data, intensivists should consider treating this life-threatening condition with antiviral medication over a sustained period of time until profound clinical improvement is observed. ...
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Background Pyogenic tonsillitis may often be observed in the general Western population. In severe cases, it may require antibiotic treatment or even hospitalization and often a prompt clinical response will be noted. Here we present an unusual case of progressive multiple organ failure including fulminant liver failure following acute tonsillitis initially mistaken for “classic” pyogenic (that is bacterial) tonsillitis. Case presentation A 68-year-old previously healthy white man was referred with suspicion of pyogenic angina. After tonsillectomy, he developed acute liver failure and consecutive multiple organ failure including acute hemodynamic, pulmonary and dialysis-dependent renal failure. Immunohistopathological analysis of his tonsils and liver as well as serum polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed herpes simplex virus-2 to be the causative pathogen. Treatment included high-dose acyclovir and multiorgan supportive intensive care therapy. His final outcome was favorable. Conclusions Fulminant herpes simplex virus-2-induced multiple organ failure is rarely observed in the Western hemisphere and should be considered a potential diagnosis in patients with tonsillitis and multiple organ failure including acute liver failure. From a clinical perspective, it seems important to note that fulminant herpes simplex virus-2 infection may masquerade as “routine” bacterial severe sepsis/septic shock. This persevering condition should be diagnosed early and treated goal-oriented in order to gain control of this life-threatening condition.
... Peritonitis in particular is often associated with peritoneal dialysis [9,10]. Dissemination to abdominal organs in immunocompetent patients is rare, and when described it usually associated with fulminant necrotic hepatitis [11,12]. ...
... Around 74% of HSV hepatitis cases result in acute liver failure. This can result in emergent need for liver transplantation with high mortality rates of >80% in untreated patients and >50% in those treated with acyclovir, making timely diagnosis essential [4]. In patients receiving liver transplantation, HSV reactivation occurs more commonly during the first month after transplantation, making a diagnosis of HSV difficult owing to overlapping features of acute organ rejection during this time period [5]. ...
Article
Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) is mainly seen in immunocompromised individuals. Atypical lesions can be present in both primary infection and reactivation disease. Compared with the general population, inmunocompromised hosts are at greater risk of increased persistency and severity of clinical manifestations, including severe systemic involvement such as esophagitis, meningitis, and hepatitis. Herein, we report the case of a liver transplant recipient with atypical disseminated herpes simplex virus-1 complicated by HSV-related hepatitis. Dermatological consultation and histological assessment were crucial for a correct diagnosis and treatment.
... 18 There are only a small number of cases of ACV-resistant treatment for HSV hepatitis. 6,19,20 In conclusion, our case illustrates an unusual presentation of HSV hepatitis. Diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion. ...
Article
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare cause of acute liver failure (ALF). It carries a mortality rate of 80% if untreated, thus early identification and treatment are critical. Without high clinical suspicion, HSV hepatitis is difficult to diagnose. A 48-year-old Hispanic female presented with a 4-day history of abdominal pain and a vaginal cuff tear requiring laparoscopic repair. She subsequently developed postsurgical disseminated HSV, resulting in ALF. Acyclovir was initiated, but she was resistant to treatment. She was given additional foscarnet and responded without requiring a liver transplant.
... [3][4][5][6] In healthy, immunocompetent persons at any age, EBV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection are usually self-limiting, rarely lead to complications and are both uncommon causes of acute liver failure (ALF). [7][8][9][10][11] The case presented in this report highlights the possibility of a synergistic effect of these two closely succeeding viral primary infections in the development of a severe systemic disease in an immunocompetent person. In addition, it emphasises that SHLH should be suspected routinely when severe systemic illness with multiorgan failure develops following a viral infection and that the diagnosis should be confirmed rapidly by laboratory and histopathological investigations. ...
Article
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We present a case of severe fatal hepatitis in a young patient presumably triggered by two ubiquitous viral diseases which occurred in close succession. This case is unusual because of the exceptional chronological sequence of primary Epstein–Barr virus and herpes simplex virus type 1 infection causing systemic immune dysregulation associated with rapidly developing liver failure and consecutive multiorgan failure. Clinical, laboratory and histopathological findings indicated the development of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis triggered by these closely succeeding viral primary infections.
... As seen in our case, patients can present with a vague, "flu-like" illness most often associated with fever, malaise, and diffuse abdominal pain [4,9,10]. Our patient's laboratory results were consistent with the characteristic "anicteric hepatitis" seen in over 90% of HSV hepatitis cases [4,11,12]. While significant increases in transaminases (100-1000 fold) are also commonly seen in HSV hepatitis, our patient had only a mild transaminitis. ...
Article
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis represents a rare complication of HSV infection, which can progress to acute liver failure and, in some cases, death. We describe an immunocompetent 67-year-old male who presented with one week of fever and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen showed multiple bilobar hepatic lesions, some with rim enhancement, compatible with liver abscesses. Subsequent liver biopsy, however, revealed hepatocellular necrosis, HSV-type intranuclear inclusions, and immunostaining positive for herpes virus type 2 (HSV-2). Though initially treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, following histologic diagnosis of HSV hepatitis, the patient was transitioned to intravenous acyclovir for four weeks and he achieved full clinical recovery. Given its high mortality and nonspecific presentation, one should consider HSV hepatitis in all patients with acute hepatitis with multifocal hepatic lesions of unknown etiology. Of special note, this is only the second reported case of HSV liver lesions mimicking pyogenic abscesses on CT and MRI.
... Результати ПЦР та ІФА часто не співпадають [12], а верифікація результатів біопсії (зокрема імуногістохімії печінки) у пацієнтів з печінковою недостатністю не завжди виявляє ВПГ [7]. Між тим несвоєчасне виявлення інфекції і відсутність противірусної терапії в значній мірі визначають несприятливий результат [8,9]. ...
... Treatment of HSV hepatitis, and subsequent prognosis, is highly contingent on time. Rapidly progressive acute liver failure occurs in 74% of cases, with mortality rates reaching 90% [17]. Studies have demonstrated better clinical outcomes in patients who were started on acyclovir early in their hospital course. ...
Article
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rarely reported cause of viral hepatitis. Aggressive in nature, most cases of HSV hepatitis rapidly progress to fulminant hepatic failure. Present day, its pathogenesis is yet to be elucidated, but its complications and associated high mortality rate are clear. Clinically, its symptoms mimic those of other causes of acute hepatic failure thus making the diagnosis of HSV hepatitis a precarious task. Although treatment in the form of acyclovir is readily available, most cases have a poor prognosis due to late initiation of therapy. This makes the early identification of HSV essential in improving outcomes and potentially preventing mortality.
... Moreover, the global incidence of HSV-2 was estimated to be about 417 million in 2012 [5]. Sometimes, the incidence of HSV infection leads to other diseases like the Alzheimer's disease and liver failure [6,7]. ...
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Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is an infectious virus that is responsible for various types of orofacial and genital infections. Two types of HSV viruses, HSV-1 and HSV-2, are the most dangerous HSV viruses. Every year, millions of people get infected with this menacing virus, however, no satisfactory treatment or vaccine has not yet been discovered to fight against HSV. Although there are some anti-viral therapies, however, studies have showed that such anti-viral therapies may also fail to provide good impact. In this study, a possible subunit vaccine against HSV-1, strain-17, was designed using the tools and reverse vaccinology and bioinformatics. Three potential antigenic envelope glycoproteins were selected from nine envelope glycoproteins, for possible vaccine construction. Potential epitopes capable of inducing high immunogenic response and at the same time have non-allergenicity and conservancy across other strains and species, were selected by some robust analysis, for vaccine construction. Finally, three possible vaccines were designed. Each of the vaccine construct differ from each other only in their adjuvant sequences and based on molecular docking analysis, one best vaccine construct was selected for molecular dynamics simulation study and in silico codon adaptation. The experiment showed that the selected best vaccine should be good candidate against HPV-1, strain-17. However, wet lab study should be conducted on the suggested vaccine(s) for confirming their potentiality, safety and efficacy.
... In septic patients, liver dysfunction can vary from subclinical injury to overt failure. [12] Sepsis-associated liver dysfunction can roughly be categorized as hypoxic hepatitis and sepsis-induced cholestasis, but acknowledged diagnostic tools to detect early liver dysfunction are still lacking. Kramer et al [13] defined hepatic dysfunction as a bilirubin concentration of greater than 2 mg/dL (>34 mmol/L) within 48 h of admission in a large cohort study, while Bakker et al [14] defined acute liver failure using the following criteria: bilirubin >2.5 mg/dL (>43 mmol/L), serum ALT concentration more than twice the upper limit, and prothrombin time of greater than 1.5 times the control value or an international normalized ratio of greater than 1.5. ...
Article
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Rationale: Sepsis-associated liver failure is characterized by increased bilirubin levels and coagulation disorders, which has a significant impact on mortality due to the insufficient understanding of its complicated pathogenesis pathophysiology and a lack of standardized treatment. Patient concerns: A 56-year-old woman presented signs of sepsis on the 2nd day after undergoing ureteroscopy for left ureter and laparoscopy for lysis of adhesions around left ureter due to hydronephrosis. Her condition seemed to have been improved after treatment, but the bilirubin levels suddenly increased drastically with presence of coagulation disorders. Diagnosis: Laboratory tests combined with her medical history confirmed the diagnosis as sepsis-associated liver failure. Interventions: Plasma exchange was applied after hepatoprotective drugs, and other supportive therapies were given which did not significantly improve the condition. Outcomes: Laboratory liver function tests indicated the restoration of damaged liver function after plasma exchange was performed and the patient was soon transferred from intensive care unit back to the general ward. Lessons: Plasma exchange might be a vital and effective therapy to improve outcome of sepsis associated liver failure especially when conventional support therapy is ineffective.
... Одним з найбільш частих органів -мішеней вірусу простого герпесу у новонароджених є печінка. Вірусний герпетичний гепатит характеризується нейтропенією, тромбоцитопенією, підвищенним рівнем трансаміназ, прямою гіпербілірубінемією з подальшим приєднанням ДВЗсиндрому, асциту та розвитком гострої печінкової недостатності, що потребує трансплантації печінки [26,31]. Нерідко супроводжується ураженням інших органів, а саме геморагічним пневмонітом, менінгоенцефалітом та ознаками некротичного ентероколіту. ...
Article
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Herpes infection in neonates leads to significant morbidity and adverse long-term effects. Currently, the level of herpes simplex virus infection among pregnant women is rather high (30-65%), therefore, all children are potentially susceptible to the risk of neonatal herpes infection. Frequency of neonatal herpes according to the world literature data ranges from 1:2500 to 1:60000 live births. So, it is necessary to study the current epidemiological data, the modes of transmission, maternal immune status, peculiarities of clinical signs and management of infants with confirmed or suspected neonatal HSV infection according to the latest international guiderlines, and implement them in the national practice. Key words: herpes infection, the newborn, diagnosis, treatment, acyclovir.
... В условиях наших опытов внутрибрюшинное заражение мышей вызывало серьёзные неврологические симптомы и гибель 90% животных. Высокий уровень летальности (около 75%) наблюдается и при острых заболеваниях ВПГ-этиологии у людей [13]. Стратегии лечения, направленные на подавление функций вирусных генов, имеют ряд известных ограничений [14]. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to evaluate immunoregulatory and protective potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a mouse model of lethal HSV1 infection. MSC were isolated from bone marrow of DBA mice and cultured in flasks with DMEM containing 10% FBS, insulin, transferrin, selenite, fbroblast growth factor, glutaminе and gentamicin. Antiviral activity was tested on HSV1-infected Vero cells. In vivo experiments were performed on DBA mice divided into 5 groups (10 animals each): group 1, intact (naïve) mice; group 2, intravenous (iv) MSC injection; group 3, ntraperitoneal infection with 20 LD50 HSV1 followed by MSC injection; group 4, HSV1 infection followed by acyclovir (ACV) injection; group 5, HSV1 infection and iv injection of saline. Isolated cells were consistent with MSC morphologically, by adhesive ability and surface receptors. Conditioned media from MSC collected after 4-5 passages inhibited HSV1 infection in vitro by 64-70% and contained IL-6 and TNF-α, whose concentrations were 5- and 20-fold higher, respectively, than in the control. MSC and ACV injections protected 70% and 60% of DBA mice, respectively, compared with the control (group 5, 10% survival). High activity of virus neutralizing anti-HSV1 antibodies and activation of T cell proliferation were observed in survived mice from group 3. Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in these mice were lower and that of INF-γ much higher than in agonizing animals of this group (Р<0.05). These fndings indicate that MSC therapy is a prospective approach to the development of new effective management of generalized HSV1 infection.
... LFUE could have an autoimmune etiology, as evidenced by concurrent development of aplastic anemia in some cases [35]. Among viruses, hepatitis E, adenovirus, echovirus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and influenza virus, along with rarer causes, such as dengue virus and yellow fever virus, have been implicated in liver failure [36][37][38][39]. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing has been used to identify possible viral etiologies in 187 adult patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group, and found viruses including HSV-1, parvovirus B19, and human herpesvirus-7. ...
Article
Background: Liver failure of unknown etiology (LFUE) has a transplant-free survival rate of less than 25%. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) may be associated with LFUE, but existing studies are limited by small sample size. Methods: We identified all children who underwent liver transplant for LFUE at a single quaternary children's hospital. 51/65 cases were able to be age-matched with controls (children who underwent liver transplant for metabolic liver disease). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HHV-6 was performed on DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver explant tissue. Results: HHV-6 was detected in 34/51 cases (66.7%), and 19/51 controls (37.3%) (p=0.005). Average HHV-6 viral load was 213,207 copies/10 6 cells in positive cases (range: 7,293-1,102,030), and 38,115 copies/10 6 cells in positive controls (range: 1,382-122,375) (p=0.0008). HHV-6 was present significantly more often in cases compared to controls in patients less than 6 years in age; in particular, in patients less than 3 years in age, HHV-6 was present in 13/27 cases (48.1%), and 2/27 controls (7.4%) (p=0.0009). Conclusions: HHV-6 was detected in liver explants significantly more often and in higher quantities in children transplanted for LFUE compared to controls. This suggests HHV-6 should be evaluated for in young children who present with LFUE.
Article
Context: -Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue biopsy specimens is a crucial tool in diagnosis of both rejection and infection in patients with solid organ transplants. In the past 15 years, the concept of antibody-mediated rejection has been refined, and diagnostic criteria have been codified in renal, heart, pancreas, and lung allografts (with studies ongoing in liver, small intestine, and composite grafts), all of which include immunoanalysis for the complement split product C4d. Objectives: -To review the general concepts of C4d biology and immunoanalysis, followed by organ-allograft-specific data, and interpretative nuances for kidney, pancreas, and heart, with discussion of early literature for lung and liver biopsies. Additionally, practical applications and limitations of immunostains for infectious organisms (Polyomavirus, Adenoviridae [adenovirus], and the herpes virus family, including Herpes simplex virus, Cytomegalovirus, Human herpes virus 8, and Epstein-Barr virus) are reviewed in the context of transplant recipients. Data sources: -Our experience and published primary and review literature. Conclusions: -Immunohistochemistry continues to have an important role in transplant pathology, most notably C4d staining in assessment of antibody-mediated rejection and assessment of viral pathogens in tissue. In all facets of transplant pathology, correlation of morphology with special studies and clinical data is critical, as is close communication with the transplant team.
Article
Herpes virus hepatitis varies in presentation, ranging from asymptomatic to acute liver failure, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Hepatitis caused by herpes viridae family is uncommon and usually results in mild diseases. It is also often self‐limited, although in certain populations especially immunosuppressive patients it can cause severe infections, leading to acute to fulminant hepatic failure. In addition, some isolated cases of fulminant disease in immunocompetent individuals have been reported. As the presentation is frequently non‐specific, it is important to keep a high suspicion for these viral etiologies, and start empiric therapy sooner than later with antiviral agents. Liver transplantation is the last resort. Mortality remains high in fulminant hepatic failure caused by herpes viridae without liver transplantation. In this article, we reviewed the current literatures on hepatitis caused by three members of the herpes viridae family, cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus and herpes simplex virus to discuss the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, clinical features and current management in literatures, and also to determine which aspects need to be investigated in further detail. Herpes viridae‐mediated acute liver failure is rare, but is associated with a poor prognosis even with early treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a highly infectious virus that is responsible for various types of orofacial and genital infections. Two types of HSV exist i.e. HSV-1 and HSV-2, that are infecting millions of people around the world. However, no satisfactory treatment or counter-measure has yet been discovered to fight against the HSV infections. In this study, three possible polyvalent subunit vaccines against multiple strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2, targeting the envelope glycoproteins- E, B, and D, were designed using the tools of reverse vaccinology and immunoinformatics. The highly antigenic, non-allergenic, non-toxic, non-homolog (to the human proteome), and 100% conserved epitopes across the selected strains and species (eight epitopes from each of the CTL, HTL, and BCL epitope groups), were selected for vaccine construction. These designed vaccines are expected to be effective against the selected viral types simultaneously (as a polyvalent vaccine), without producing any unwanted adverse reaction within the body. Finally, from the three vaccine constructs, one best vaccine was determined by molecular docking analysis and thereafter, the MD simulation and immune simulation studies of the best vaccine construct also yielded satisfactory results, pointing towards quite good stability of the complex. Finally, in silico cloning was performed for analyzing the effective mass production strategy of the best vaccine construct. However, wet lab-based study should be conducted on the suggested vaccines for validating their potentiality, safety, and efficacy. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
Chapter
Histopathological evaluation of the liver is among the most diverse in transplantation and desearves considerable attention. Indeed, the pathologist is an integral part of the clinical liver transplant team providing real-time input influencing the clinical management of the transplant recipient from organ acceptance through the life of the allograft, including retransplantation when necessary. This chapter focuses on unique aspects of common diseases modified by transplantation as well as on conditions unique to allografts, such as rejection, small-for-size syndrome, and preservation/reperfusion injury.
Chapter
Infections involving the hepatobiliary tract contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients, particularly recipients of a hepatic allograft. Bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract may colonize a dysfunctional biliary system, thereby increasing the risk for ascending cholangitis. Additionally, infections such as cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus may trigger life-threatening acute illness and foster risk for other opportunistic infections and malignancies, respectively during the posttransplant period. Fungal and protozoal pathogens may also find refuge within the biliary tract of immunosuppressed host, and approach toward such infections often requires a combined medical and surgical intervention. Screening for clinical, subclinical, and latent infections, early institution of prophylactic drug therapy, and appropriate immunization form the central tenet for evaluation of patients being considered for allograft transplantation. A high level of suspicion for biliary tract infections or infections involving the liver in at risk allograft recipients may assist in early diagnosis and prompt initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy. Risk mitigation by lowering drug-induced immune suppression, when possible, is important for effective management of such infections. In this chapter, a comprehensive review of hepatobiliary tract infections is presented with an emphasis on complications in patients undergoing solid-organ transplantation.
Article
Although exceedingly rare, fulminant hepatic failure in patients can develop with primary or reactivation of infection due to herpes simplex virus (HSV). The diagnosis is frequently suggested by the presence of mucocutaneous involvement. Markedly elevated transaminases with leucopenia and a relatively low bilirubin level may provide clues to the diagnosis. Here we present the case of a 83-year-old male who developed herpes simplex virus hepatitis leading to fulminant liver failure and death after being on steroids.
Article
Background: An 11-year old girl with DOCK8 deficiency was proposed for potentially curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the donor being her haploidentical mother. However, end-stage liver disease, caused by chronic Cryptosporidium infection required liver transplantation before HSCT. Methods: Consequently, a staged approach of a sequential liver transplant followed by a HSCT was planned, with her mother as the donor for both liver and HSCT. Results: The patient successfully underwent a left lobe orthotopic liver transplant, however, she developed a biliary leak delaying the HSCT. Notably, the recipient demonstrated 3 percent donor lymphocyte chimerism in her peripheral blood immediately prior to HSCT. Haploidentical related donor HSCT performed two months after liver transplantation was complicated by the development of acyclovir-resistant HSV viremia, primary graft failure, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). The patient died from SOS associated multiorgan failure with Candida sepsis on day +40 following HSCT. Conclusions: We discuss the many considerations inherent to planning for HSCT preceded by liver transplant in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, including the role of prolonged immunosuppression and the risk of infection prior to immune reconstitution. We also discuss the implications of potential recipient sensitization against donor stem cells precipitated by exposure of the recipient to the donor lymphocytes from the transplanted organ.
Article
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) hepatitis in liver transplant patients is a rarely reported infective complication of HSV with severe consequences, often leading to fulminant hepatitis if left untreated. The clinical signs are often atypical, leading to under-reporting in the literature and potential delays in treatment. Our case report describes such atypical mucocutaneous lesions in a liver transplant recipient. We highlight the need for further reports, especially those with images, in order to aid the diagnosis of HSV infection, and to allow prompt treatment to prevent complications such as HSV hepatitis.
Article
We present the case of a patient, with history of myelodysplastic syndrome and recent bone marrow transplant, who developed fulminant liver failure secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis. His presentation was unique, as findings of liver microabscesses on computed tomography scan have not been described previously in this patient population. Despite initial treatment with acyclovir, he continued to deteriorate, and later sensitivities found the HSV strain to be resistant to acyclovir. HSV hepatitis with secondary liver failure is rare and, without appropriate treatment, its mortality is > 80%. Early suspicion and immediate therapy are the keys to improve patient survival. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Sepsis is responsible for the highest economic and mortality burden in critical care settings around the world, prompting the World Health Organization in 2018 to designate it as a global health priority. Despite its high universal prevalence and mortality rate, a disproportionately low amount of sponsored research funding is directed toward diagnosis and treatment of sepsis, when early treatment has been shown to significantly improve survival. Additionally, current technologies and methods are inadequate to provide an accurate and timely diagnosis of septic patients in multiple clinical environments. For improved patient outcomes, a comprehensive immunological evaluation is critical which is comprised of both traditional testing and quantifying recently proposed biomarkers for sepsis. There is an urgent need to develop novel point-of-care, low-cost systems which can accurately stratify patients. These point-of-critical-care sensors should adopt a multiplexed approach utilizing multimodal sensing for heterogenous biomarker detection. For effective multiplexing, the sensors must satisfy criteria including rapid sample to result delivery, low sample volumes for clinical sample sparring, and reduced costs per test. A compendium of currently developed multiplexed micro and nano (M/N)-based diagnostic technologies for potential applications toward sepsis are presented. We have also explored the various biomarkers targeted for sepsis including immune cell morphology changes, circulating proteins, small molecules, and presence of infectious pathogens. An overview of different M/N detection mechanisms are also provided, along with recent advances in related nanotechnologies which have shown improved patient outcomes and perspectives on what future successful technologies may encompass. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing.
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Importance: Herpes simplex virus type-1 is an incurable viral infection with the most significant morbidity and mortality occurring in neonates and patients with compromised immune systems. Severe pathologies from HSV include the blindness-inducing herpetic stromal keratitis, highly debilitating and lethal herpes simplex encephalitis, and generalized infections that can lead to herpes simplex-induced acute liver failure. While immune compromise is a known factor, the precise mechanisms that lead to generalized HSV infections are unknown. In this study we used and developed a mouse model system in combination with real-time bioluminescence imaging to demonstrate the relative importance of the immune and non-immune compartments for containing viral spread, and promoting host survival after corneal infection. Our results shed light on the pathogenesis of HSV infections that lead to generalized infection and acute liver failure.
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Hepatitis is an unusual manifestation of herpesvirus infection. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis is a difficult diagnosis to establish, and the infection is often fatal. We report one case of herpes simplex virus hepatitis and review 51 cases in the literature. Impaired immunity resulting from pregnancy, malignancy, immunosuppression, or inhalational anesthetics may be predisposing factors. Fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and a marked rise in serum transaminase levels are invariably present. Liver biopsy is the procedure of choice for diagnosis. The liver appears mottled and has a minimal inflammatory response. Mortality rates associated with herpes simplex virus hepatitis are high, and early diagnosis and treatment with acyclovir or vidarabine may produce a favorable outcome.
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We determined the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies in a cohort of adolescents 12 to 22 years of age in anticipation of the development of vaccines to control HSV and CMV infections. For the overall study population, we found that 62% were seropositive for HSV type 1 (HSV-1), 12% were seropositive for HSV type 2 (HSV-2), and 65% were seropositive for CMV. Race was not related to HSV-1 seropositivity, but African-American adolescents were more likely than Caucasian adolescents to be seropositive for HSV-2 and CMV. Girls also were more likely than boys to be seropositive for HSV-2 and CMV. For boys, history of a sexually transmitted disease was identified as a risk factor for HSV-2 seropositivity; for girls, a greater number of sexual partners increased the risk of being seropositive for HSV-2. Our data demonstrating a high prevalence of infection during adolescence suggest that immunization for HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV may need to occur in childhood.
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Five cases of fulminant hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus were identified among patients admitted to the Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute between January 1991 and September 1994. The diagnosis was established in three of the five patients on the basis of transjugular liver biopsy specimen results. These three patients were treated with acyclovir; two survived and one required liver transplantation. Early histologic diagnosis, specific antiviral treatment, and liver transplantation in selected patients may improve the clinical outcome of this almost uniformly fatal disease.
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Because acute liver failure is rare, related data have been sparse. Studies have suggested that viral hepatitis is the most common underlying cause of this condition. To describe the clinical features, presumed causes, and short-term outcomes of acute liver failure. Prospective cohort study. 17 tertiary care centers participating in the U.S. Acute Liver Failure Study Group. 308 consecutive patients with acute liver failure, admitted over a 41-month period. Detailed clinical and laboratory data collected during hospitalization, including outcome 3 weeks after study admission. 73% of patients were women; median age was 38 years. Acetaminophen overdose was the most common apparent cause of acute liver failure, accounting for 39% of cases. Idiosyncratic drug reactions were the presumptive cause in 13% of cases, viral hepatitis A and B combined were implicated in 12% of cases, and 17% of cases were of indeterminate cause. Overall patient survival at 3 weeks was 67%. Twenty-nine percent of patients had liver transplantation, and 43% survived without transplantation. Short-term transplant-free survival varied greatly, from 68% for patients with acetaminophen-related liver failure to 25% and 17% for those with other drug reactions and liver failure of indeterminate cause, respectively. Coma grade at admission appeared to be associated with outcome, but age and symptom duration did not. Acetaminophen overdose and idiosyncratic drug reactions have replaced viral hepatitis as the most frequent apparent causes of acute liver failure. Apparent cause and coma grade at admission were associated with outcome. Although transplantation may improve patient survival, it was unavailable or unnecessary for most patients.
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A panel of 23 real-time PCR assays based on TaqMan technology has been developed for the detection and monitoring of 16 different viruses and virus families including human polyomaviruses BK virus and JC virus, human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, human adenoviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, parvovirus B19, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 3, enteroviruses, and respiratory syncytial virus. The test systems presented have a broad dynamic range and display high sensitivity, reproducibility, and specificity. Moreover, the assays allow precise quantification of viral load in a variety of clinical specimens. The ability to use uniform PCR conditions for all assays permits simultaneous processing and detection of many different viruses, thus economizing the diagnostic work. Our observations based on more than 50,000 assays reveal the potential of the real-time PCR tests to facilitate early diagnosis of infection and to monitor the kinetics of viral proliferation and the response to treatment. We demonstrate that, in immunosuppressed patients with invasive virus infections, surveillance by the assays described may permit detection of increasing viral load several days to weeks prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. In virus infections for which specific treatment is available, the quantitative PCR assays presented provide reliable diagnostic tools for timely initiation of appropriate therapy and for rapid assessment of the efficacy of antiviral treatment strategies.
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Hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a potentially fatal disorder that is often not considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hepatitis. This disease occurs most often in patients with impaired immunity and is very uncommon in healthy patients. HSV hepatitis presents with a wide clinical spectrum, and the clinical diagnosis is difficult. We describe a case of disseminated herpes virus infection with fulminant hepatitis mimicking an acute human immunodeficiency virus infection in a 33-year-old healthy man. Preliminary studies suggest that early treatment of HSV hepatitis with acyclovir may be beneficial in these patients. A high index of suspicion and the availability of early diagnostic tools, such as HSV DNA detection, may dramatically improve the clinical outcome of severe HSV hepatitis.
Article
Fulminant hepatic dysfunction in the third trimester of pregnancy accompanied by fever may result from disseminated herpes simplex virus.Since 1969, 24 cases of herpes simplex hepatitis, including the current case, have been reported. Mucocutaneous lesions are present in only half of cases; therefore, suspicion for diagnosis of this disease is low. Twenty-five percent of cases were not diagnosed until autopsy. Maternal and perinatal mortality are high, approaching 39 percent for both mother and fetus. Early recognition with initiation of antiviral therapy appears to be most important in maximizing survival. Target Audience: Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians Learning Objectives: After completion of this article, the reader will be able to understand the typical presentation of HSV hepatitis during pregnancy and the other conditions that can resemble HSV hepatitis, to be aware of the mortality of the disease in pregnancy, and to know which is the most appropriate therapy for HSV hepatitis during pregnancy.
Article
Viral hepatitis has previously been the major cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States. We aimed to determine the incidence of viral hepatitis-related ALF and to compare the outcome and clinical and biochemical variables in patients with hepatitis A and B.MethodsA total of 354 patients with ALF from multiple centers were screened for possible acute viral etiology.ResultsForty-three patients (12.1% of all ALF cases) had acute viral hepatitis: hepatitis A (n = 16), hepatitis B (n = 26), and herpes simplex virus infection (n = 1). There was no difference between groups with regard to age, gender, body mass index, admission or peak coma grade, symptom duration, admission mean arterial pressure, temperature, or biochemical liver tests, creatinine, arterial pH, or rate of infections. Platelet count was significantly higher in hepatitis A patients than in hepatitis B patients. The transplantation-free (spontaneous) survival rate was significantly higher for hepatitis A patients (69%) than for hepatitis B patients (19%, p = 0.007), whereas the liver transplantation rate was higher in hepatitis B patients (62%) than in hepatitis A patients (19%, p = 0.017). Spontaneous survivors had significantly higher mean arterial pressure, higher platelet count, and lower AST/ALT ratio than patients who did not survive spontaneously.Conclusions Viral hepatitis now comprises only one-eighth of all ALF cases in the United States. The marked difference in spontaneous survival between hepatitis A and B cannot be explained by the severity of hepatic dysfunction on admission but may rather be an inherent feature of the infections or a bias toward transplanting patients with hepatitis B.
Article
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is defined by the appearance of severe liver injury with hepatic encephalopathy in a previously healthy person. There are an estimated 2,000 cases of FHF in the United States yearly, representing 0.1% of all deaths and, perhaps, 6% of liverrelated deaths. The causes of FHF are many, the chief ones in the United States being hepatitis A; B; non-A, non-B and drug induced liver disease. There are no specific therapies for FHF, however, liver transplantation is recommended for situations in which spontaneous recovery appears unlikely. Factors that are valuable in assessing the likelihood of spontaneous recovery are static features such as patient age and etiology of FHF and dynamic features including encephalopathy grade, prothrombin time, and serum bilirubin. Presently, approximately 7% of all liver transplants are done for FHF and the 1-year patient survival rates average 63%, somewhat less than survival rates for nonfulminant liver disease, averaging 78%. The management of patients with FHF is challenging, particularly important being monitoring and early treatment of infections, hemodynamic abnormalities, and brain edema. Innovative approaches to management and therapy include use of cytoprotective or antiviral medications, hepatic support systems, extracorporeal liver support, hepatocyte transplantation, auxiliary liver transplantation, and xenotransplantation. None of these are of proven benefit, but many are promising as a means to support the patient with FHF until spontaneous recovery occurs or a suitable liver graft is available for transplantation. (Hepatology 1995;21:240–252).
Article
We report our results with orthotopic liver transplantation in children with fulminant liver failure. Thirty-five children with fulminant liver failure were evaluated for liver transplantation. The main causes of liver failure were viral hepatitis (54.2%), drug-induced liver injury (14.2%) and Wilson's disease (11.4%). Children were considered as candidates for liver transplantation only if hepatic encephalopathy was associated with a decrease in the level of factor V to below 25%. Seven children (20%) did not meet this criterion and recovered spontaneously. Six children (17.1%) had contraindications for liver transplantation and died. In three of these six children, contraindications included irreversible brain damage at the time of admission. Twenty-two children (62.8%) met the criteria for liver transplantation and were placed on the emergency transplant list. Three of them died awaiting grafts. Nineteen children underwent liver transplantation; 13 of them (68.4%) are alive without sequelae, after 6 mo to 4 yr of follow-up, at this writing. Four of the children who died after surgery had severe encephalopathy on admission that did not improve after liver transplantation. In conclusion, emergency liver transplantation appears to be an effective treatment for children with fulminant liver failure. Nevertheless, irreversible brain damage developed in 10 patients, and they died before or after surgery. We postulate that many of these deaths could have been avoided if children had been transferred to a liver transplantation facility and had undergone transplantation earlier. We emphasize that children with acute liver failure should be transferred to a center that performs liver transplantation before the development of hepatic encephalopathy. (HEPATOLOGY 1992;16:1156–1162.)
Article
Percutaneous liver biopsy is the procedure of choice for most patients because of its simplicity and the high percentage of adequate biopsies obtained. It is a bedside procedure that does not require specialized equipment or the services of a highly trained angiographer. Nevertheless, complications are not uncommon unless strict contraindications are observed. It is usually recommended that patients be excluded who present with ascites, a prothrombin time less than 50%, a partial thromboplastin time greater than 10 s, or a platelet count less than 50 000. Mahal et al (1979) cite lack of attention to the contraindications as the most important factor in 22 bleeding episodes which occurred following 3800 percutaneous biopsies (0.7%). It is these contraindications that are the main indication for transjugular biopsy. Despite the highly selective nature of the patients who have undergone transjugular biopsy, the frequency of post-biopsy bleeding is only 0.35% and of death 0.13% (Table 1). These figures include the earliest experiences with this technique and can be expected to improve with increased experience and the development of new instruments that make the procedure safer and easier. Transjugular liver biopsy should be an essential procedure in every hospital that is involved in treating patients with liver disease. Unfortunately, although Lebrec et al (1982) estimated that approximately 30% of patients are rejected for percutaneous biopsy because of the presence of contraindications, relatively few centres have adopted this technique. This may be in part due to the reluctance of clinicians to subject their patients to a procedure they perceive as stressful, although a study by Poynard and Lebrec (1982) showed patients rated transjugular biopsy as less painful and inconvenient than percutaneous biopsy.
Article
Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection may lead to acute liver failure (ALF) and the need for emergency liver transplantation (LT). The primary aim of this study was to determine the utility of HSV serological testing and HSV DNA testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis and management of indeterminate, pregnancy-related, and known HSV-related ALF. Stored sera obtained on study day 1 or 2 from patients enrolled in the United States ALF Study Group with indeterminate (n = 51), pregnancy-related (n = 12), and HSV-related (n = 4) ALF were screened for HSV DNA by PCR and serology. While 7 of the indeterminate and pregnant patients had positive anti-HSV immunoglobulin M, none had detectable HSV DNA. The 4 known HSV cases all had high-titer HSV DNA on presentation (range: 3.5 to 36 x 10(8) copies/mL). Two HSV patients underwent LT but developed posttransplant extrahepatic HSV infection despite suppression of HSV DNA with acyclovir treatment, and one of them eventually died. The 2 other fulminant HSV patients died within 48 hours of presentation. In conclusion, serum HSV DNA indicative of occult HSV infection was not detected in 51 indeterminate and 12 pregnancy-related ALF patients. The 4 patients with known HSV-related ALF all had high HSV DNA levels at presentation, and despite the rapid use of antiviral therapy and emergency LT, substantial morbidity and mortality were encountered, highlighting the poor prognosis with severe disseminated HSV infection.
Article
A healthy 20-year-old woman developed herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis. The diagnosis was made by needle biopsy of the liver, and the patient was intravenously treated with acyclovir for 15 consecutive days (total dose, 21 g). The liver biopsy specimen and liver tissue obtained at autopsy were processed for immunoperoxidase staining with rabbit anti-HSV and for DNA-DNA in situ hybridization. The liver biopsy tissue revealed massive necrosis of hepatocytes, which were strongly positive for HSV with both immunoperoxidase and in situ hybridization methods. The liver tissue obtained at autopsy showed regenerative nodules of hepatocytes, surrounded by connective tissue stroma. Within the connective tissue there were completely necrotic hepatocytes, which were positive for HSV with the immunoperoxidase method but almost completely negative with the in situ hybridization method, except for a very few HSV DNA-positive hepatocytic nuclei. It was concluded that immunoperoxidase staining with anti-HSV is a sensitive method with which to detect ongoing and previous HSV infection, whereas the in situ hybridization method is specific for HSV-DNA from viable HSV.
Article
Although transjugular liver biopsy requires the availability of trained personnel, takes more time than percutaneous biopsy and is moderately expensive, it is a safe alternative technique for obtaining adequate liver tissue for diagnosis in special clinical situations. The usual indications for transjugular rather than percutaneous liver biopsy are (a) coagulation disorder (prothrombin time greater than 3 sec over control value and/or platelet count less than 60,000/cm3), (b) massive ascites and (c) desire to perform ancillary procedures, such as measurement of pressures or opacification of the hepatic veins and inferior vena cava. Less common indications for transjugular liver biopsy include failed percutaneous biopsy, massive obesity, small cirrhotic liver (increased risk and lower success rate) and suspected vascular tumor or peliosis hepatis. Results from several centers indicate that adequate or diagnostic liver tissue is obtained in 81% to 97% of cases. The typical length of the biopsy core ranges from 0.3 cm to 2.0 cm. Modification of the classic technique, particularly the adaptation of a Tru-Cut needle, shows promise in yielding longer cores of tissue with less fragmentation. Transjugular liver biopsy is performed with an acceptable complication rate that ranges 0% to 20%. The reported mortality of transjugular liver biopsy was 0 in three major centers and ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in three other centers. Transjugular liver biopsy may be useful in obtaining diagnostic liver tissue not only in advanced chronic liver disease with coagulopathy, ascites or both, but also in patients with fulminant hepatic failure to better determine prognosis and the need for liver transplantation.
Article
Eight cases of hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) (five “confirmed,” three “possible”) were identified among marrow-transplant recipients at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center between 1975 and 1988. The clinical and pathological characteristics of these patients are described and compared with published findings for non-marrow-transplant recipients with HSV hepatitis. Clinical syndromes in the marrow-transplant recipients ranged from fever associated with abdominal pain and elevations in serum aminotransferase levels to fulminant hepatitis. Evidence of hepatic infection appeared before day 20 following transplantation unless prophylaxis with acyclovir was given, in which case HSV hepatitis did not appear until after day 40. All patients died, although the one patient who was given early, empirical high-dose acyclovir therapy clearly improved with antiviral therapy and may have died of other causes. Involvement of multiple organs with HSV was found in three of four patients with confirmed HSV hepatitis who underwent autopsy. In all cases, reactivation of latent HSV was the presumed source of the HSV hepatitis. HSV hepatitis should be considered when HSV-seropositive recipients of marrow transplants develop abdominal pain, fever, and elevations in aminotransferase levels.
Article
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is rare in adults, usually occurring in immunocompromised individuals and in otherwise healthy women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Three cases of HSV hepatitis occurring in pregnant women were diagnosed at our institution between 1981 and 1990. This diagnosis was not suspected clinically, and in each case was made on the basis of histology, immunoperoxidase studies, and viral cultures of liver tissue. Clinically, the patients had severe anicteric liver failure with markedly elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels; two of the three patients died. None had mucocutaneous lesions at the time of diagnosis. Histologically, two distinct patterns of necrosis and inflammation were seen. Two of the cases had well-demarcated foci of necrosis scattered randomly throughout the lobules with neutrophilic infiltration, giving the impression of abscess formation. Hepatocytes at the periphery of these areas of necrosis had enlarged nuclei with "ground-glass" inclusions; however, no Cowdry type A inclusions were seen. Rare multinucleated cells were present. Immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies to HSV was positive primarily in the hepatocytes with inclusions. The third case had diffuse, almost total hepatic necrosis with no viral inclusions and virtually no inflammatory response. This histologic pattern is similar to that seen in neonates with HSV infection. Immunoperoxidase studies in this case were negative; however, viral cultures were positive. While HSV hepatitis may be suspected or diagnosed on the basis of histology alone, viral cultures are an important adjunct since viral inclusions may be absent. Prompt diagnosis is important since antiviral therapy is now available.
Article
Herpes simplex hepatitis is a rare disease in adults and with high mortality (81%). Most cases are seen in immunocompromised hosts or in the third trimester of pregnancy. A 43-year-old woman with psoriatic arthritis, treated with prednisone and methotrexate (MTX), presented with an acute abdomen and elevated liver enzymes. The diagnosis was made by liver biopsy. MTX was stopped and acyclovir was started. The patient survived. The diagnosis of Herpes simplex should be suspected in immunocompromised hosts and established by liver biopsy and viral cultures. Treatment includes parenteral acyclovir and discontinuation or reduction of immunosuppressive therapy.
Article
Two cases of herpes simplex virus hepatitis in pregnancy are presented. Each case was characterized by extremely high serum aminotransferase levels with minimal bilirubin elevation. In both cases, liver biopsy was instrumental in arriving at the diagnosis. In addition, computed tomography showed a radiographic appearance of the liver not characteristically seen in other hepatic disorders of pregnancy. A high index of suspicion in the second case led to early recognition and treatment. Despite the presence of fulminant liver failure and evidence of herpes encephalitis in the other case, institution of therapy with acyclovir was associated with complete recovery in both patients. The present cases are compared and contrasted with the literature. The incidence of two cases within a 6-month period suggests that herpes simplex virus hepatitis in pregnancy may occur more frequently than previously reported.
Article
We report three cases of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection presenting as fulminant hepatitis. None of the patients had clear risk factors for HSV infection and they all died. Antiviral treatment for HSV is currently available but must be administered early in the course of the disease before irreversible liver tissue damage is present. Since the diagnosis may be difficult to establish, we wish to draw the attention of clinicians to the presentation of neonatal HSV infection and suggest that in such cases viral cultures, including culture of liver tissue, should be obtained early and antiviral treatment administered while awaiting the culture results.
Article
A pathological study was carried out in 200 autopsied cases experienced in our department from 1981 to 1988. Eight patients (4.0%) had herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in their visceral organs. Another one patient was diagnosed as HSV hepatitis through necropsy of liver. The nine patients (five of them were male) ranged in age from 34 to 70 years (mean, 58). Four patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the other included one with adult T-cell leukemia, one with multiple myeloma, one with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and one with bronchial asthma, however, one did not have any underlying disease. Two patients died of HSV fulminant hepatitis and one died of HSV diffuse interstitial pneumonia. The most commonly involved organ was esophagus (7/8), followed by tongue (5/8), liver (3/9), spleen, pancreas, lymph node (2/8), and lung, adrenal, tonsil (1/8). Typical herpetic changes such as ballooning degeneration of cells, multinucleated giant cells, ground-glass nuclei and Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusions were observed at the margin of the ulcer or coagulation necrosis. Indirect immunoperoxidase stain revealed HSV-1 antigen in all of the 9 cases, HSV particles were demonstrated in 2. Seven patients had concomitant infections with one or more pathogens in addition to HSV, which included cytomegalovirus in 5, aspergillus in 4, candida in 3 and bacteria in 3.
Article
A 16 year old girl with ulcerative colitis developed hepatitis with a high fever, leukopenia and a marked rise in serum transaminases without jaundice. There were no skin, oral, or genital lesions. Liver biopsy was precluded by abnormalities in coagulation. Postmortem examination of the liver by light and electron microscopy, culture, immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescent staining confirmed the diagnosis of hepatitis due to type 1 herpes simplex virus. Despite the rarity, this viral aetiology should be included in the differential diagnosis of all patients with severe hepatitis. The absence of mucocutaneous lesions should not exclude the diagnosis, especially when other clinical features are compatible.
Article
Herpes simplex viral (HSV) hepatitis is uncommon in adults. Two new cases are reported herein; a literature review revealed an additional 33 patients. Ages ranged from 13 to 87 years; the mean age was 32.6 years, and the median was 28 years. HSV hepatitis usually occurs as part of disseminated HSV infection and is characterized by fulminant hepatic necrosis with serum transaminase levels frequently elevated 100- to 1,000-fold. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was present in 90% of the cases. Outcome was poor; 86% of the patients died. Eighty-six percent of the patients had an underlying condition associated with impaired host defenses. Renal transplantation (26%), steroid use other than in renal transplant patients (26%), and pregnancy (23%) were the most frequent underlying conditions. Early recognition and prompt initiation of antiviral therapy may offer a chance for improved survival rates.
Article
Herpes simplex virus hepatitis in pregnancy was first reported in 1969. Seven other cases have since been reported, and this communication describes two additional cases. The clinical presentation and laboratory profiles of these two cases parallel those described. Unreported, however, is the sharp contrast between the presentation of pregnant patients with herpes simplex virus hepatitis and the presentation of pregnant patients with other life-threatening forms of hepatitis. Nine of ten patients reported to date have been anicteric with peak total bilirubin levels of less than 1.3 mg/dL before cesarean section or laparotomy. That this presentation may not be unique to pregnancy is suggested by three case reports of fatal, anicteric herpes simplex virus hepatitis in previously healthy, nonpregnant adults. The cause of this phenomenon is unknown.
Article
A case is described of herpetic hepatitis in a pregnant woman with primary herpetic stomatitis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies and virus particles were found in hepatocytes, and herpes virus was isolated from a liver biopsy and from oral swabs but not from blood. From rising titres of neutralizing and complement-fixing antibody it is concluded that the oral infection was a primary one. Factors predisposing to the hepatitis are discussed.
Article
In this article the authors attempt to explain the immunologic alterations occuring in the mother with regard to the immunology of the maternal-fetal interaction. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the nonrejection of the fetus and placenta, recently summarized by Beer et al.
Article
To determine whether abnormalities in T-cell subsets might help to explain the immunodeficient state in pregnancy, we used monoclonal antibodies to enumerate the proportion and absolute number of subsets of T cells and other peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from normal pregnant women, post-partum women, and newborns. We found a significant decrease in relative and absolute numbers of helper T lymphocytes (T4+ cells) throughout pregnancy. Normalization of T4+ cells occurred during the third to fifth month post partum. Our findings support previous evidence of maternal immunodeficiency during pregnancy and indicate that it may occur because of a reduction in the population of helper T cells.
Article
During the last 31 months, 50 children between 3 months and 15 years of age have undergone living related liver transplantation (LRLT) for end-stage liver diseases (39 biliary atresia, 2 Budd-Chiari syndrome, 2 progressive intrahepatic cholestasis, 3 liver cirrhosis, 1 Wilson disease, 1 protoporphyria, 1 tyrosinemia, and 1 fulminant hepatitis). Combined FK-506 and low-dose steroids were routinely used for immunosuppression. There were seven deaths, two of which were related to infection (Candida pneumonia and Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]-associated lymphoproliferative syndrome [LPS]). Five patients had a bacterial infection, all of which were associated with surgical complications. Three patients had Candida infection, all of which were malnourished, had biliary atresia, and had been managed with prolonged antibiotics against obstinate ascending cholangitis. There were 14 symptomatic viral infections (1 herpes simplex virus, 1 herpes zoster virus, 5 cytomegalovirus [CMV], 6 EBV, and 1 EBV-associated LPS). Three of the five CMV infections appeared in patients whose graft was ABO-incompatible, who were managed with prophylactic OKT-3. Most of the viral infections (except 1 EBV-associated LPS) were minor and were treated successfully. The low incidence and successful treatment of CMV infection are related to the high compatibility and low incidence of allograft rejection in LRLT. Bacterial and fungal infections can be decreased by greater refinement of surgical technique and more aggressive preoperative management. Treatment of EBV infection is still an unsolved problem.
Article
Hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) developed in a pregnant women at 38 weeks' gestation. She delivered a live-born infant who had serologically documented HSV 2 infection but did well with acyclovir therapy. The mother, however, died five days postpartum from fulminant hepatic failure despite antiviral treatment, and HSV was demonstrated in the liver. Twenty-three reported cases clearly establish pregnancy as a condition that can predispose to disseminated HSV infection. The majority of cases have been due to HSV 2, and primary infection in the latter part of pregnancy appears to constitute the greatest risk. The major disease manifestations appear to be hepatitis and encephalitis. Historically, maternal and fetal mortality rates have been high, but there is a trend toward improved survival in the acyclovir era.
Article
Fulminant hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in adults is a rare and deadly disease. We describe a 23-year-old woman with a 20-year history of Crohn's disease (CD) who was hospitalized with an acute febrile illness and diarrhea. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen demonstrated an intramural sigmoid colon abscess and multiple abscesses in the liver. Despite high-dose parenteral corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, the patient remained acutely ill, with high fever and markedly elevated serum transaminase levels, but no jaundice. Sigmoid resection and wedge liver biopsy were performed at laparotomy. Histologic examination documented HSV-type intranuclear inclusions and inflammation with necrosis in both the sigmoid colon and liver specimens. The patient subsequently died despite parenteral acyclovir treatment. Although rare, fulminant hepatitis due to HSV simplex virus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients with severe hepatitis. Of special note, the necrotizing liver lesions may be mistaken for pyogenic abscesses on CT scan.
Article
With the aim of evaluating liver disturbances after BMT in 76 patients, the hepatic venous pressure gradient was measured and a transvenous liver biopsy was performed through the jugular vein. Catheterization was successful in 71 patients (93%). In 11 cases the procedure was performed twice, yielding a total number of 82 studies. In five (6%) liver biopsies were non-evaluable. Complications were rare (7%), minor and reversible. As a result of this procedure, the diagnosis was modified in 45%, with both the diagnosis and treatment being modified in 30% of patients. Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) was histologically demonstrated in 15 out of 26 patients (58%) in whom this complication was suspected and in two out of 33 (6%) in whom it was not. Acute GVHD of the liver was confirmed in 15 out of the 35 patients (43%) in whom this complication was suspected and in four of 24 (17%) in whom it was not. The hepatic venous pressure gradient was significantly higher in VOD than in liver GVHD. Whereas 14/17 (82%) patients with VOD had a gradient pressure higher than 9 mmHg, no patient with GVHD had a gradient above this value. We conclude that transjugular liver biopsy is an effective, safe, and useful technique to evaluate BMT related liver dysfunction.
Article
Liver transplantation is the therapeutic choice for fulminant hepatic failure in children. All 66 cases of fulminant hepatic failure in the pediatric population seen at UCLA from May, 1985 to November, 1993 were reviewed to determine changes in survival rates since the advent of liver transplantation. We evaluated the clinical course and events leading to the exclusion of surgical management of nonsurvivors, who otherwise would have benefited from a liver transplant. We also compared the latter's clinical course with the nontransplant survivors to determine parameters for screening patients for liver transplantation. Fifty-one patient (77%) were put on the transplant list initially but eventually, only 38 (58%) patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and of these 30 (79%) patients survived. Of the remaining 29 (42%) patients who did not undergo liver transplantation, only 10 (36%) patients survived. Nine patients died while waiting for a donor liver secondary to complications of hepatic failure. The majority of nonsurvivors in the OLT and no-OLT groups succumbed because of irreversible neurologic deterioration. In the no-OLT group, comparisons between survivors and non-survivors were made. There were no significant demographic differences. It took a mean of 8 days (+/-8) versus 22 days (+/-15), (p = 0.009), from onset of illness to first hospital admission for survivors and nonsurvivors, respectively. Time to reach stage II encephalopathy was a mean of 5 days (+/-5) for survivors versus 18 days (+/-16), (p = 0.05) for nonsurvivors. Nonsurvivors were transferred to the transplant center at a mean of 12.2 days (+/-12) after being first admitted elsewhere as compared to a mean of 1.9 days (+/-18) for survivors, (p = 0.02). Mean prothrombin time decreased by a mean of 13.4 s/day (+/-16) for survivors as against 2.25 s/day (+/-6) for nonsurvivors, (p = 0.06). Mean peak total bilirubin for nonsurvivors was 460 mumol/L (27 mg/dl) versus 220 mumol/L (13 mg/dl) for survivors, (p = 0.06). Nonsurvivors died at a mean of 30 days (+/-19) from onset and survivors' liver tests started to improve at a mean of 11 days (+/-9) from onset. From these studies, we conclude that liver transplantation remains the therapeutic choice for fulminant hepatic failure in children. Early referral and closer follow-up is necessary for timely admission to liver transplant centers to enable screening and proper preparation of these patients for liver transplantation.
Article
Hepatitis due to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a rare and severe infection in patients with impaired immunity, as bone marrow transplanted. The antemortem diagnosis is often difficult to establish because the clinical features are nonspecific. We report an uncommon cause of fulminant hepatic failure in a neutropenic patient, 14 days after bone marrow transplantation. HSV-2 fulminant hepatitis occurred during acyclovir prophylactic treatment. No observation of HSV hepatitis in this context has been reported since prophylaxis is used. Because of the extremely high apparent mortality associated with HSV hepatitis, and the improved survival noted among the non-marrow-transplant recipients and prolonged survival seen in one marrow transplant recipient, it seems reasonable to urge early and aggressively acyclovir therapy. A liver biopsy seems to be indispensable in the case of hepatic failure in post-marrow-transplantation in order to make rapidly a diagnosis.
Article
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare complication of HSV infection with a high reported mortality rate in untreated patients. The authors present a case of HSV hepatitis in a 26-year-old female with focal proliferative lupus nephropathy who was status post one cycle of pulse high-dose (1 gm/ m2) cyclophosphamide. Treatment with parenteral acyclovir was successful. A meta analysis of well-documented cases of HSV hepatitis treated with acyclovir, excluding those that omit initial serum concentrations of hepatic transaminases, suggests that the early administration of parenteral acyclovir may have been instrumental in the achievement of a successful outcome, and that a patient's serum levels of hepatic transaminases at the time of treatment initiation may predict outcome. This is the first reported case of successful parenteral acyclovir treatment of HSV hepatitis in a patient with lupus nephritis who has recently undergone cyclophosphamide immunosuppression, and includes a meta analysis to examine the hypothesis that initial markers of hepatic injury may predict outcome of acyclovir treatment.
Article
Herpes simplex virus hepatitis (HSV hepatitis) is an uncommon and severe complication of HSV type 1 and HSV type 2 infection. HSV hepatitis affects mostly immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a young man without any previous known immunodeficiency who developed fatal HSV hepatitis in the first 8 days of oral corticotherapy given for ulcerative colitis. A prompt diagnosis was possible because HSV was recovered from peripheral blood leukocytes.