Surgical outcome following a decompressive craniectomy for acute epidural hematoma patients presenting with associated massive brain swelling

Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan.
Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement 01/2010; 106(106):261-4. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-211-98811-4_49
Source: PubMed


Acute epidural hematomas (AEDH) are generally managed with rapid surgical hematoma evacuation and bleeding control. However, the surgical outcome of patients with serious brain edema is poor. This study reviewed the clinical outcome for AEDH patients and evaluated the efficacy of the DC, especially in patients with associated massive brain swelling. Eighty consecutive patients surgically treated with AEDH were retrospectively assessed. The patients were divided into two groups: (a) hematoma evacuation (HE: 46 cases) and (b) HE+ an external decompression (ED: 34 cases). The medical charts, operative findings, radiological findings, and operative notes were reviewed. In the poor outcome group, there were 18 patients (72%), with a GCS score of less than 8 (severe injury), and 22 patients (88%) who showed pupil abnormalities. Many more patients showed a midline shift, basal cistern effacement, and brain contusion in comparison to the favorable outcome group. In the favorable outcome group, almost all of the patients (98%) showed less than 12 mm of a midline shift. The influential factors may be age, GCS, pupil abnormalities, size, midline shift, basal cistern effacement, coincidence of contusion and swelling. We conclude that an A DC may be effective to manage the AEDH patients with cerebral contusion or massive brain swelling.

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    • " haematoma evacuation ( n ¼ 46 ) or haematoma evacuation and DC ( n ¼ 34 ) . They concluded that DC helps to reduce the morbidity and mortality by controlling the ICP for AEDH patients in critical condition . However , further investigations are required to clarify the usefulness of DC for treating long - term higher cortical function after AEDH ( Otani et al . , 2009 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is the surgical management removing part of the skull vault over a swollen brain used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to maximal medical therapy. The commonest indication for DC is traumatic brain injury (TBI) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction, though DC has been reported to have been used for treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and venous infarction. Despite an increasing number of reports supportive of DC, the controversy over the suitability of the procedure and criteria for patient selection remains unresolved. Although the majority of published studies are retrospective, the recent publication of several randomised prospective studies prompts a re-evaluation of the use of DC. We review the literature concerning the pathophysiology, indication, surgical techniques and timing, complications and long-term effects of DC (including reversal with cranioplasty), in order to rationalise its use. We conclude that at the time of this review, though we cannot support the routine use of DC in TBI or MCA stroke, there is evidence that early and aggressive use of DC in TBI patients with intracranial haematomas or younger malignant MCA stroke patients may improve outcome. Though the results of the DECRA trial suggest that primary DC may worsen outcome, the decision to perform DC after diffuse TBI is still individualised. We await the results of the RESCUEicp trial to ascertain whether an evidence-based protocol for its use can be agreed in the future.
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
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