Effectiveness and tolerability of pharmacologic and combined interventions for reducing injection pain during routine childhood immunizations: Systematic review and meta-analyses

ArticleinClinical Therapeutics 31 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S104-51 · January 2009with33 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.08.001 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Immunization is the most common cause of iatrogenic pain in childhood. Despite the availability of various analgesics to manage vaccine injection pain, they have not been incorporated into clinical practice. To date, no systematic review has been published on the effectiveness of pharmacologic and combined interventions for reducing injection pain. The objectives of this article were to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of various pharmacologic and combined interventions for reducing the pain experienced by children during immunization. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs pertaining to pharmacologic and combined interventions to reduce injection pain in children 0 to 18 years of age using validated child self-reported pain or observer-reported assessments of child pain and distress. We included trials that (1) investigated the effects of pharmacologic interventions (ie, topical local anesthetics, sweet-tasting solutions, vapocoolants, and oral analgesics [acetaminophen or ibuprofen]); (2) compared 2 different analgesic interventions; and (3) evaluated combinations of >or= 2 analgesic interventions, including breastfeeding. Meta-analyses were performed using a fixed-effects model. Thirty-two studies, involving 3856 infants and children 2 weeks to 15 years of age, were included in this systematic review; 23 of these trials were included in meta-analyses. Ten trials, including 1156 infants and children, evaluated topical local anesthetics. In a meta-analysis of 2 trials, including 276 children, child self-reported pain ratings were lower in children who received topical local anesthetics than in those who received a placebo. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was -0.25 (95% CI, -0.49 to -0.01; P = 0.04). The use of topical local anesthetics was associated with less pain than was placebo in 4 trials (527 infants) based on the difference between Modified Behavioral Pain Scale scores (range, 0-10) before and after vaccination: the weighted mean difference (WMD) was -0.79 (95% CI, -1.10 to -0.48; P < 0.001) and the SMD was -0.43 (95% CI, -0.60 to -0.26; P = 0.001). Observer-rated pain, using visual analog scale (VAS) scores (range, 0-100 mm), was significantly lower (WMD, -16.56 mm; 95% CI, -22.11 to -11.01; P < 0.001; and SMD, -0.75; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.49; P < 0.001). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 child from having clinically significant pain, measured using the Faces Pain Scale (FPS; score, >-3), was 3.7 (95% CI, 2.5 to 7.7) from 1 study. Eleven trials (1452 infants and children) evaluated sweet-tasting solutions. In a meta-analysis of 6 studies (665 infants), administration of sucrose with or without non-nutritive sucking (NNS; use of a pacifier) was associated with less pain than no intervention or sterile water with or without NNS; the SMD was -0.56 (95% CI, -0.72 to -0.40; P < 0.001). Total cry duration was lower in infants who received sucrose than in those who received sterile water (WMD, -9.41 sec; 95% CI, -13.18 to -5.64; P < 0.001; and SMD, -0.43; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.25; P < 0.001). The NNT to prevent 1 child from having clinically significant pain, using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (score, >3), was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.0 to 2.5). In 3 trials that evaluated sweet-tasting solutions longitudinally, administration of sucrose or glucose (vs sterile water, with or without NNS) was associated with reduced pain based on cry duration or the University of Wisconsin Children's Hospital Pain Scale (all, P < 0.05). Data were pooled for 2 studies conducted in 100 children who received a spray with a vapocoolant or placebo at the injection site before the procedure. Child self-rated pain (4-point scale) was lower in the group treated with the vapo-coolant (SMD, -0.43; 95% CI, -0.83 to -0.02; P = 0.04); significant heterogeneity was reported for this outcome (chi(2) = 5.51; P = 0.02; I(2) = 82%). In 2 studies (117 children), no significant difference was found between vapocoolants and typical care (no treatment) based on child self-reports; significant heterogeneity was reported for this outcome (chi(2) = 9.89; P = 0.02; I(2) = 90%). None of the studies identified in the literature search evaluated oral analgesics (acetaminophen or ibuprofen). Four studies (318 infants and children) compared 2 different analgesic interventions; there was insufficient evidence to suggest superiority of 1 intervention over another. Combinations of >or=2 analgesic interventions were more effective than the individual interventions used alone. Child self-reported pain ratings were combined for 4 studies (350 children); the SMD was -0.52 (95% CI, -0.73 to -0.30; P = 0.001). Data on cry duration were pooled for 3 studies (229 infants and children); the WMD was -18.87 seconds (95% CI, -32.05 to -5.69; P = 0.005). Parent-rated child pain (VAS) scores were combined for 3 studies (365 infants and children); the WMD was -15.66 mm (95% CI, -19.74 to -11.57; P < 0.001). Nurse- or physician-rated child pain (VAS) scores were combined for 3 studies (368 infants and children); the WMD was -17.85 mm (95% CI, -21.43 to -14.28; P < 0.001). In a meta-analysis of 4 studies (474 infants), infants who were breastfed before, during, and after the procedure had less pain than did those who were not breastfed (SMD, -2.03; 95% CI, -2.26 to -1.80; P < 0.001). A meta-analysis of 3 studies (344 infants) found a shorter cry duration for infants who were breastfed than for those who were not breastfed (WMD, -38.00 sec; 95% CI, -42.27 to -33.73; P < 0.001; and SMD, -2.00; 95% CI, -2.27 to -1.73; P < 0.001). The NNT to prevent 1 infant from having clinically significant pain, using the Facial Pain Rating Scale (pain vs no pain), was 7.7 (95% CI, 4.5 to 25.0) from 1 study. Topical local anesthetics, sweet-tasting solutions, and combined analgesic interventions, including breastfeeding, were associated with reduced pain during childhood immunizations and should be recommended for use in clinical practice.
    • "There is broad consensus that sweet-tasting solutions provide effective pain relief during immunisation of children up to one year of age (Shah et al. 2009, Harrison et al. 2010, 2011, Kassab et al. 2012, Stevens et al. 2013). This study shows that, compared with a placebo, a 30% sucrose solution reduces the DOC during MMR immunisation of 15-month-old children. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of 30% sucrose compared with a placebo (water) as pain relief and comfort during immunisation of 15-month-old children in health care centres. Children experience different levels of pain and distress during immunisation. Sweet solutions function as pain relief during immunisation for infants up to one year of age. However, there are few studies of older children. An experimental design in which the participants (15-month-old infants) were randomly assigned to an intervention group that received a 30% sugar solution or a control group that received a placebo (water). The study was performed at three health care centres in a large Norwegian municipality. The parents of all 15-month-old infants who were recommended for vaccination (for measles, mumps and rubella) between 5 September 2013 and 31 March 2014 were invited to have their infant participate. Duration of crying was the outcome measure. A total of 114 children were included (59 in the intervention group, 55 in the control group). The intervention group infants’ crying was shorter (18 seconds mean) compared with the control group infants (33 seconds mean). The difference in crying duration between the groups was both statistically and clinically significant. This trial revealed that 30% sucrose orally has a calming and pain-relieving effect on 15-month-old infants during immunisation. Public health nurses should use a 30% sucrose solution for pain relief during immunisation of 15-month-old infants.
    Article · Feb 2016
    • "This arrangement may explain the reduced acceptability recorded in this study. Vaccination is one of the most common causes of iatrogenic pain in the paediatric population [54]. This pain is a source of distress for children and their guardians and can lead to pre-procedural anxiety , needle phobia in later life, a mistrust in healthcare providers and healthcare avoidance, including non-adherence with vaccination schedules [55]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine published research which explores the perception and acceptability of microneedle technology for immunisation and to investigate the suitability of this technology for paediatric use. Methods: A series of keywords and their synonyms were combined in various combinations and permutations using Boolean operators to sequentially search four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and CINAHL). Following removal of duplications and irrelevant results, 12 research articles were included in the final literature review. Results: The opinions of patients, parents, children and healthcare professionals (HCP) were collated. A positive perception and a high level of acceptability predominated. Conclusion: Microneedle technology research has been focussed on demonstrating efficacy with minimal focus on determining HCP/public perception and acceptability for paediatric use, exemplified by the paucity of studies presented in this review. Commercial viability will depend on HCP/public acceptability of microneedle technology. An effort must be made to identify the barriers to acceptance and to overcome them by increasing awareness and education in stakeholder groups pertaining to the paediatric population.
    Article · Dec 2015
    • "Over 90% of young children exhibit serious distress during vaccine injections, defined as a distress score of 3 or greater on a scale of 1 to 5 [1] and both parents and clinicians report being concerned about injection-related distress in children2345 . Numerous pain-relieving interventions are available to mitigate vaccination pain678; however, they are not consistently administered in clinical practice [4,9]. A knowledge-to-care gap therefore exists between what is known about vaccination pain management and what is being done to manage pain during routine vaccinations. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adapting educational tools to meet user needs is a critical aspect of translating research evidence into best clinical practices. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness of educational tools about infant vaccination pain management directed to postnatal nurses. Mixed methods design. A template pamphlet and video included in a published clinical practice guideline were subjected to heuristic usability evaluation and then the revised tools were reviewed by postnatal hospital nurses in three rounds of interviews involving 8 to 12 nurses per round. Nurses' knowledge about evidence-based pain management interventions was evaluated at three time points: baseline, after pamphlet review, and after video review. Of 32 eligible postnatal nurses, 29 agreed to participation and data were available for 28. Three overarching themes were identified in the interviews: 1) utility of information, 2) access to information, and 3) process for infant procedures. Nurses' knowledge improved significantly (p < 0.05) from the baseline phase to the pamphlet review phase, and again from the pamphlet review phase to the video review phase. This study demonstrated usability and knowledge uptake from a nurse-directed educational pamphlet and video about managing infant vaccination pain. Future studies are needed to determine the impact of implementing these educational tools in the postnatal hospital setting on parental utilization of analgesic interventions during infant hospitalization and future infant vaccinations.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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