Surgical therapeutic management for menorrhagia
In patients with dysfunctionnal uterine bleeding, endometrial hypertrophy or endometrial hyperplasia without atypie, the curettage is the only surgical conservative treatment which allows preservation of fertility. Its efficacy is limited to about 50%. In women without wish for further childbearing, endometrial destruction techniques are effective with high satisfaction levels. Second generation devices should be preferred because they are as effective as first generation techniques, but are easier and faster to perform with less complications. There is no indication for systematic use of pre operative thinning agents. Endometrial destruction techniques are an alternative to hysterectomy that should be offered to women with heavy menstrual bleeding, because there are shorter operation time and hospital stay, earlier recovery and reduced post operative complications. The possibility of further surgery should however be discussed pre-operatively. In case of hysterectomy, abdominal route is not recommended, and vaginal or laparoscopic routes are preferred.
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ABSTRACT: Importin13 (IPO13) is a novel potential marker of corneal epithelial progenitor cells. We investigated the expression and localization of IPO13 in endometrial, endometriotic and endometrial carcinoma tissue.
IPO13 expression in endometrial, endometriotic and endometrial carcinoma tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry, qPCR and Western blot.
Immunohistochemistry studies showed that IPO13 protein was expressed mainly in cytoplasm of glandular epithelial cell and stromal cells. The rate of importin13-positive cells in proliferative phase endometrium was higher (by about 6-fold) than that in secretory endometrium (P<0.05) and the rate of importin13-positive cells in endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma was higher than that in normal secretory phase endometrial tissues (by about 4- and 9-fold, respectively). Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of IPO13 with CD34, CD45, c-kit, telomerase, CD90 and CD146. QPCR revealed significantly increased IPO13 mRNA in endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma versus secretory phase endometrium (by about 2- and 10-fold, respectively). Western blot analysis showed that IPO13 protein is enhanced in endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma versus secretory phase endometrium (p<0.05).
These results demonstrate an increased expression of IPO13 in endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma; IPO13 can serve as an endometrial progenitor/stem cell marker.
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To evaluate the reproductive safety and long-term efficacy of hysteroscopic superficial endometrial resection for polypoid endometrium in symptomatic patients (menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea and unexplained infertility).
Patients and methods
The present retrospective descriptive case series study included 44 patients of reproductive age who underwent superficial hysteroscopic endometrial resection between January 1st, 2004 and December 31, 2009. Reproductive outcome, and the patients’ perceptions of menstrual symptoms after the surgical intervention were collected from the clinical notes and a semi-structured telephone interview.
Of the patients presenting abnormal uterine bleeding, 59% reported long-term improvement of this symptom; of those with dysmenorrhea, 52% reported long-term relief. Among 26 infertile women who wanted to become pregnant immediately after the procedure, 58% succeeded (n = 15), with a live-born rate of 38%. The pregnancy rate in primary and secondary infertility cases was respectively 53% (n = 8/15) and 64% (n = 7/11).
Superficial endometrial resection is an alternative for treating polypoid endometrium when it is associated with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea and infertility. It treats menstrual symptoms successfully, with no adverse impact on fertility.
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Hysteroscopic endometrial destruction procedures for abnormal uterine bleeding are an alternative to hysterectomy. Such procedures are not contraceptive and are performed on fertile patients, requiring long-term contraception. This is the first study evaluating long-term results of a combined procedure associating endometrial destruction and concomitant hysteroscopic tubal sterilization by Essure(®) micro-inserts. Our goal is to evaluate efficacy of endometrial destruction as well as hysteroscopic sterilization and satisfaction after a combined procedure in the case of abnormal uterine bleeding in non-menopausal patients.
This is a retrospective study (Canadian task force II-2) that includes 131 patients operated with combined endometrial destruction and hysteroscopic tubal sterilization between 2002 and 2011 at our university hospital. The patients were contacted to answer a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS© version 9.2. (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).
Ninety-three patients out of 131 could be reached. The mean follow-up was of 37.8 months (min=8, max=87, SD=6.2). Thirty-eight patients (29%) were lost to follow-up. Essure(®) micro-inserts introduction success rate (evaluated on 131 patients) was 95.8%, and their position was appropriate in 81.1% of the 106 patients with position control. Efficacy of the procedure on the haemorrhagic symptoms (evaluated on 93 patients) was 80.6%. Twelve patients (12.9%) underwent a hysterectomy, 7 of which (58.3%) were a direct consequence of treatment failure. No pregnancies were reported. Satisfaction rate was of 90.3%.
Inadequate position rates of the micro-inserts after 3 months seem somewhat above literature findings, though no pregnancy has been reported. However, recurrent bleeding symptoms and hysterectomy rates are consistent with those observed after an endometrial destruction procedure alone. Limitations are the limited number of patients, the bias inherent to retrospective studies (lost of follow-up, selection bias). The concomitant endometrial destruction and tubal sterilization by micro-inserts is a safe and efficient procedure.
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