Article

Consumption of Low-Nutrient, Energy-Dense Foods and Beverages at School, Home, and Other Locations among School Lunch Participants and Nonparticipants

Mathematica Policy Research, Inc, 600 Maryland Ave, Ste 550, Washington, DC 20024-2512, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 02/2009; 109(2 Suppl):S79-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.064
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Access to foods and beverages on school campuses, at home, and other locations affects children's diet quality, energy intake, and risk of obesity.
To describe patterns of consumption of "empty calories"--low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, including sugar-sweetened beverages--by eating location among National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants and nonparticipants.
Cross-sectional study using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2004-2005 third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study.
A nationally representative sample of 2,314 children in grades one through 12, including 1,386 NSLP participants.
Comparisons, using t tests, of the proportion of children consuming low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, mean daily energy and energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, and energy density by NSLP participation status.
On a typical school day, children consumed 527 "empty calories" during a 24-hour period. Eating at home provided the highest mean amount of energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods (276 kcal vs 174 kcal at school and 78 kcal at other locations). NSLP participants consumed less energy from sugar-sweetened beverages at school than nonparticipants (11 kcal vs 39 kcal in elementary schools and 45 kcal vs 61 kcal in secondary schools, P<0.01), but more energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense solid foods such as french fries and higher-fat baked goods in secondary schools (157 kcal vs 127 kcal, P<0.01). Participants were not more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages or low-nutrient, energy-dense foods at home or other locations. School lunch participants' consumption at school was less energy-dense than nonparticipants' consumption at school (P<0.01). Energy density was highest for consumption at locations away from home and school.
Improving home eating behaviors, where the largest proportion of total daily and energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods are consumed (especially from sugar-sweetened beverages, chips, and baked goods) is warranted. At schools, consumption of energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods may be reduced by limiting access to competitive foods and beverages, enforcing strong school wellness policies, and minimizing the frequency of offering french fries and similar potato products and higher-fat baked goods in school meals or à la carte.

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    • "Although SD are still the most commonly consumed CB and source of added sugars in the 6-11 years old age group, there has been a consistent downward trend in overall consumption that coincides with a reduction in availability in U.S. public elementary schools dating back to 2006-2007 [17]. Consumption levels are still above desirable levels and SD are consumed largely away from the school setting [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Soft drinks, fruit juice and milk are the most common caloric-beverages consumed by adolescents and teens. We report the ten-year trends in the percentage of daily calories consumed in the form of caloric-beverages from a broad sample of fifth-grade students in the United States. This is a major area of concern related to dietary quality and body weight amongst children. The study was conducted from 2001-2011 through the Healthy Hearts for Kids (HH4K) online instructional program. A total of 17,559 students from 1,048 schools in 49 US states participated. Results reveal there were no changes across the ten-year period in reported fruit juice and milk consumption in the past week. There was a significant downward trend in soft drink consumption in the ten-year period. Juice consumption was positively correlated with soft drink and milk consumption in the past week. Soft drink consumption was positively correlated with milk consumption. The intent to drink two or more soft drinks tomorrow was significantly related to soft drink consumption in the last week and to expected soft drink consumption a year from now. The intent to drink two or more soft drinks in a day one year from now was not related to reported soft drink consumption in the last week. The intent to drink two or more soft drinks tomorrow was not correlated with juice consumption in the past week or with milk consumption in the past week. In conclusion, soft drink consumption declined, but there were no changes in consumption of milk and fruit juice. Soft drinks did not appear to displace either milk or fruit juice. These participants appear to be aware that soft drinks are a less healthy choice.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    • "Although SD are still the most commonly consumed CB and source of added sugars in the 6-11 years old age group, there has been a consistent downward trend in overall consumption that coincides with a reduction in availability in U.S. public elementary schools dating back to 2006-2007 [17]. Consumption levels are still above desirable levels and SD are consumed largely away from the school setting [18]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soft drinks, fruit juice and milk are the most common caloric-beverages consumed by adolescents and teens. We report the ten-year trends in the percentage of daily calories consumed in the form of caloric-beverages from a broad sample of fifth-grade students in the United States. This is a major area of concern related to dietary quality and body weight amongst children. The study was conducted from 2001-2011 through the Healthy Hearts for Kids (HH4K) online instructional program. A total of 17,559 students from 1,048 schools in 49 US states participated. Results reveal there were no changes across the ten-year period in reported fruit juice and milk consumption in the past week. There was a significant downward trend in soft drink consumption in the ten-year period. Juice consumption was positively correlated with soft drink and milk consumption in the past week. Soft drink consumption was positively correlated with milk consumption. The intent to drink two or more soft drinks tomorrow was significantly related to soft drink consumption in the last week and to expected soft drink consumption a year from now. The intent to drink two or more soft drinks in a day one year from now was not related to reported soft drink consumption in the last week. The intent to drink two or more soft drinks tomorrow was not correlated with juice consumption in the past week or with milk consumption in the past week. In conclusion, soft drink consumption declined, but there were no changes in consumption of milk and fruit juice. Soft drinks did not appear to displace either milk or fruit juice. These participants appear to be aware that soft drinks are a less healthy choice.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    • "Department of Agriculture [USDA], 2012). The school environment is where children consume almost half of their daily calories, making it a prime location to improve children's nutritional status (Briefel, Wilson & Gleason, 2009). It is also a feasible setting to stimulate positive eating behaviors and preferences (Kubik, Lytle & Story, 2005). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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