School Breakfast Program but Not School Lunch Program Participation Is Associated with Lower Body Mass Index

ArticleinJournal of the American Dietetic Association 109(2 Suppl):S118-28 · February 2009with39 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.058 · Source: PubMed
Rates of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically during the past 2 decades. Children obtain a large fraction of their food energy while at school. To estimate the relationship between participation in school meal programs and children's body mass index (BMI) and their likelihood of being overweight or obese, testing the hypothesis that school meal participation influences students' weight status, as measured by their BMI and indicators of overweight and obesity. A cross-sectional design in which a regression model was used to estimate the association between participation in the School Breakfast Program and National School Lunch Program and children's BMI and risk of overweight or obesity, controlling for a wide range of student and school characteristics. Participants included a nationally representative sample from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study of 2,228 students in grades 1 through 12 for whom height and weight measurements were obtained. These students, along with their parents, each completed a survey. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationship between usual school meal participation and BMI and indicators of whether students were overweight or obese. These models controlled for students' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, levels of physical activity, usual eating habits, screen time, and school characteristics. No evidence was found of any relationship between usual school lunch participation and any of four different measures of weight status based on students' BMI. School breakfast participation was associated with significantly lower BMI, particularly among non-Hispanic, white students. There was no evidence that either the school breakfast or lunch program is contributing to rising rates of childhood obesity. In fact, School Breakfast Program participation may be a protective factor, by encouraging students to consume breakfast more regularly.
    • "There is a strong evidence that having access to the School Breakfast Program (SBP) cognition, attendance, and scholastic achievement, especially in nutrition of deficient or malnourished children may be improved [40,41]. High-quality universal breakfast programs that allow students to eat breakfast in the classroom are especially needed for youth who are not likely to get good food for the rest of a day [28]. There is a great diversity of programs and structures for healthy eating in schools in Europe but a national comprehensive policy regarding the prevention of obesity in schools does not yet exist in every European country [21,42,43]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
    • "Consistent with Versmeersch et al. Gleason and colleagues found an inverse, significant relationship between SBP participation and BMI z score [42]. Breakfast skipping is prevalent in the US and elsewhere throughout the world. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The USDA child meal programs (CMPs) (National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) were established in 1946 (NSLP) and 1975 (SBP and SFSP) to improve the diet and nutritional health of US children. There is concern that participation in these programs may in fact be a contributor to the current childhood obesity epidemic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the CMPs are meeting their intended goal by reviewing the historical changes to nutrition standards of the CMPs in correspondence with the literature that examines the nutritional adequacy of meals served as part of these programs, as well as the dietary intakes and nutritional status of participants. Methods: Public Law and the Federal Register were reviewed and websites and online databases were systematically searched. Results: NSLP and SBP first underwent updates to the nutrition standards in 1994 and subsequently 2010, whereas SFSP last underwent modifications in 2000. The majority of data, all collected prior to 2010, demonstrate that meals served as part of the NSLP and SBP are not meeting nutrition standards. In addition, the dietary intakes of NSLP and SBP participants are high in calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and low in fiber. Studies examining the weight status and other nutrition-related health outcomes of NSLP and SBP participants have produced mixed results. In contrast, no studies published in the peer-reviewed literature have been conducted examining the nutritional adequacy of SFSP meals or the dietary intakes or nutritional health of SFSP participants. There are public reports available on the nutritionally adequacy of SFSP meals, however, they are severely outdated (1988 and 2003). Due to this dearth of information, a case study on a sample SFSP menu from summer 2015 was conducted; results showed that the meals are high in carbohydrate and protein content and insufficient in vegetable servings. Conclusions: There is critical need for policy change that would enable updates to the SFSP nutrition standards to match those of the NSLP and SBP. In addition, strategies are needed to facilitate development of CMP menus that meet current nutrition standards. Finally, rigorously designed studies are needed to understand the direct impact of CMP participation on child diet and health, particularly the SFSP for which there is limited published data.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
    • " Positive effect (Ask et al., 2010; Chang, 2014; Jones et al., 2003a)  No effect (Baxter et al., 2010; Department for Education, 2013; Gleason and Dodd, 2009; Hinrichs, 2010; Ramirez-Lopez et al., 2005; Williams et al., 2013)  Negative effect (Henry, 2006; Hernandez, Francis and Doyle, 2011; Li and Hooker, 2010; Miller, 2011; Millimet, Tchernis and Husain, 2008) o Given children longer to eat their lunch reduced the probability of them being overweight (Bhatt, 2014) o School breakfasts appear to be protective (Gleason and Dodd, 2009; Jones et al., 2003b; Millimet and Tchernis, 2009; Millimet, Tchernis and Husain, 2008; Williams et al., 2013) "
    [Show description] [Hide description] DESCRIPTION: An assessment of the options for evaluating the provision of free school meals for all children in the first three years of primary school in Scotland.
    Full-text · Research · Sep 2015 · Nutrients
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