Article

Fibromyalgia syndrome: Definition and diagnostic aspects

Unit of Rehabilitative Medicine, Hospital of Circolo, Saronno (VA), Italy.
Reumatismo 09/2011; 60 Suppl 1:3-14. DOI: 10.4081/reumatismo.2008.1s.3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ever since it was first defined, fibromyalgia (FM) has been considered one of the most controversial diagnoses in the field of rheumatology, to the point that not everybody accepts its existence as an independent entity. The sensitivity and specificity of the proposed diagnostic criteria are still debated by various specialists (not only rheumatologists), whose main criticism of the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria is that they identify subsets of particular patients that do not reflect everyday clinical reality. Furthermore, the symptoms characterising FM overlap with those of many other conditions classified in a different manner. Over the last few years, this has led to FM being considered less as a clinical entity and more as a possible manifestation of alterations in the psychoneuroendocrine system (the spectrum of affective disorders) or the stress reaction system (dysfunctional symptoms). More recently, doubts have been raised about even these classifications; and it now seems more appropriate to include FM among the central sensitisation syndromes, which identify the main pathogenetic mechanism as the cause of skeletal and extra-skeletal symptoms of FM and other previously defined "dysfunctional" syndromes.

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    ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a rheumatic disease that is characterised by chronic musculoskeletal pain, stiffness, fatigue, sleep and mood disorder. FM patients demonstrate dysregulation of pain neurotransmitter function and experience a neurohormone-mediated association with sleep irregularities. There are currently no instrumental tests or specific diagnostic markers for FM, and many of the existing indicators are only significant for research purposes. Anti-depressants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), opioids, sedatives, muscle relaxants and antiepileptics have all been used to treat FM with varying results. It has been shown that interdisciplinary treatment programmes lead to greater improvements in subjective pain and function than monotherapies. Physical exercise and multimodal cognitive behavioural therapy are the most widely accepted and beneficial forms of non-pharmacological therapy.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology
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    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology
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    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology
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