Pycnogenol®, a procyanidin-rich extract from French maritime pine, inhibits intracellular replication of HIV-1 as well as its binding to host cells

Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-5819, Japan. .
Japanese journal of infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 1.16). 07/2008; 61(4):279-85.
Source: PubMed


A procyanidin-rich extract from French maritime pine, Pycnogenol(R) (PYC), is known as an antioxidant that exerts a variety of physiological activities and is widely used in human beings. We report here that PYC inhibits not only human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) binding to host cells, but also its replication after entry in susceptible cells in vitro. Prominent biochemical alterations induced by PYC were the elevated expression of an intracellular antioxidant protein, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), and the inhibition of phosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 protein. Interestingly, ectopic expression of Mn-SOD inhibited HIV-1 replication as well. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication associated with induced expression of Mn-SOD in cells treated with PYC suggests the potential of this natural antioxidant inducer as a new anti-HIV-1 agent.

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    • "A recent report suggests that PYC can inhibit encephalomyocarditis virus replication in the mouse heart by suppressing expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and genes related to cardiac remodelling and mast cells (Matsumori et al., 2007). PYC has also been reported to inhibit binding of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 to host cells, and to cause other significant changes, including increased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Feng et al., 2008). HCV gene expression elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels via calcium signalling. "
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    • "Additionally, the ectopic expression of Mn-SOD also inhibits HIV-1 replication, providing another route by which PYC acts as an anti–HIV-1 agent (Feng et al., 2008). PYC also inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori, albeit to a limited extent, and also perturbs their adherence to gastric cells (Rohdewald and Beil, 2008). "
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    • "PBE is a promising agent for inhibi-tion of encephalomyocarditis viral replication, prevention of development of viral myocarditis, and improvement of inflamma-tion and myocardial necrosis. It was reported that Pycnogenol® (100 mg/kg) had beneficial effects on viral myocarditis by inhibition of viral replication and by suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, genes related to cardiac remodeling, and mast cell-related genes in the heart muscle of mice (gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor, type-1 procollagen, stem cell factor, and mast cell tryptase)(8182). "
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