Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer managment

Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92612, USA.
Medical Physics (Impact Factor: 2.64). 06/2008; 35(6):2443-51. DOI: 10.1118/1.2919078
Source: PubMed


Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a noninvasive optical technique that employs near-infrared (NIR) light to quantitatively characterize the optical properties of thick tissues. Although NIR methods were first applied to breast transillumination (also called diaphanography) nearly 80 years ago, quantitative DOI methods employing time- or frequency-domain photon migration technologies have only recently been used for breast imaging (i.e., since the mid-1990s). In this review, the state of the art in DOI for breast cancer is outlined and a multi-institutional Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) is described, which has been formed by the National Cancer Institute to advance diffuse optical spectroscopy and imaging (DOSI) for the purpose of improving breast cancer detection and clinical management. DOSI employs broadband technology both in near-infrared spectral and temporal signal domains in order to separate absorption from scattering and quantify uptake of multiple molecular probes based on absorption or fluorescence contrast. Additional dimensionality in the data is provided by integrating and co-registering the functional information of DOSI with x-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide structural information or vascular flow information, respectively. Factors affecting DOSI performance, such as intrinsic and extrinsic contrast mechanisms, quantitation of biochemical components, image formation/visualization, and multimodality co-registration are under investigation in the ongoing research NTROI sites. One of the goals is to develop standardized DOSI platforms that can be used as stand-alone devices or in conjunction with MRI, mammography, or ultrasound. This broad-based, multidisciplinary effort is expected to provide new insight regarding the origins of breast disease and practical approaches for addressing several key challenges in breast cancer, including: Detecting disease in mammographically dense tissue, distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions, and understanding the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapies.

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Available from: Albert Cerussi, Sep 04, 2014
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    • "DOS allows the non-invasive characterization of the wavelength dependent absorption and scattering properties of tissues from which the microvascular total hemoglobin concentration (THC), blood oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) and the concentration of water, lipids and other tissue chromophores can be derived. It has been widely applied in characterizing tumor tissues, specially in optical mammography, and for the monitoring of the local tissue response to ther- apy222324. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)[19,25,26]is another related technique which allows the direct measurement of the deep local microvascular blood flow[27]. DCS hascollection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. "
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    ABSTRACT: The in vivo optical and hemodynamic properties of the healthy (n = 22) and pathological (n = 2) human thyroid tissue were measured non-invasively using a custom time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) system. Medical ultrasound was used to guide the placement of the hand-held hybrid optical probe. TRS measured the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa, μs') at three wavelengths (690, 785 and 830 nm) to derive total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and oxygen saturation (StO2). DCS measured the microvascular blood flow index (BFI). Their dependencies on physiological and clinical parameters and positions along the thyroid were investigated and compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle. The THC in the thyroid ranged from 131.9 μM to 144.8 μM, showing a 25-44% increase compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle tissue. The blood flow was significantly higher in the thyroid (BFIthyroid = 16.0 × 10-9 cm2/s) compared to the muscle (BFImuscle = 7.8 × 10-9 cm2/s), while StO2 showed a small (StO2, muscle = 63.8% to StO2, thyroid = 68.4%), yet significant difference. Two case studies with thyroid nodules underwent the same measurement protocol prior to thyroidectomy. Their THC and BFI reached values around 226.5 μM and 62.8 × 10-9 cm2/s respectively showing a clear contrast to the nodule-free thyroid tissue as well as the general population. The initial characterization of the healthy and pathologic human thyroid tissue lays the ground work for the future investigation on the use of diffuse optics in thyroid cancer screening.
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    • "See for more information. with magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles has been proposed in conjunction with FMT [20]–[24]. While FMT can benefit from the excellent soft-tissue contrast of MRI, realization of hybrid FMT-MRI systems is limited due to several technical challenges [23], [25], [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The implementation of hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a necessary development, not only for combining anatomical with functional and molecular contrast, but also for generating optical images of high fidelity and quantification accuracy. FMT affords highly sensitive three-dimensional imaging of fluorescence bio-distribution throughout animal bodies but in stand-alone form it offers images of low resolution. It was shown that FMT accuracy significantly improves by considering anatomical priors from X-ray computed tomography (CT). Conversely, X-ray CT generally suffers from low soft tissue contrast. Therefore utilization of X-ray CT data as prior information to the fluorescence inversion problem is challenging in applications where different internal organs are not clearly differentiated. Instead, we combined herein FMT with emerging X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT). PCCT relies on the phase shift differences in tissue to deliver anatomical images of biological samples with superior soft tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based CT. We demonstrate for the first time hybrid FMT-PCCT imaging of different animal models, where FMT and PCCT scans were performed in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The results show that FMT-PCCT expands the potential and utility of FMT in imaging lesions which show otherwise low or no contrast in conventional CT, while retaining the cost benefits and technical simplicity of CT and single hybrid devices. The results point to the most accurate hybrid FMT performance to date.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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    • "Fiber-coupled illumination and photo-detection have been adopted since the very early stage of development of diffuse optics and are still being widely used. It can be found in diffuse optical tomography (DOT), fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT), and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the human brain [12, 13, 14], human breast [15, 16, 17], and small animals [18, 19, 20, 21]. The fiber optics can be in direct contact with the surface of imaging subject or in indirect contact via optical matching fluid. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle - light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast.
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