Article

Gastrointestinal Pythiosis in 10 Dogs from California

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA, USA.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.88). 07/2008; 22(4):1065-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0123.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes severe segmental thickening of the canine gastrointestinal (GI) tract, resulting in weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, and death. Infection in dogs previously has been observed primarily in the southeastern United States.
To describe the clinicopathologic and epidemiologic findings associated with GI pythiosis in 10 dogs from California.
Dogs were initially identified on the basis of supportive clinical findings and routine histology. Pythiosis was confirmed in each dog with at least one of the following: immunoblot serology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology, immunohistochemistry, and culture followed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction, rRNA gene sequencing, or both.
Between September 2003 and December 2006, GI pythiosis was confirmed in 1 dog from central California and 9 dogs that lived within a 30-mile radius of Davis, CA. Seven of 8 dogs for which environmental data were available had frequent access to flooded rice fields or other water sources. Esophageal lesions were present in 2 of 10 dogs. Common laboratory findings included eosinophilia (7/9), hypoalbuminemia (9/9), and hyperglobulinemia (8/9). Median survival time was 26.5 days (range, 0-122 days), and the disease was ultimately fatal in all 10 dogs.
The geographic distribution of pythiosis has widened in recent years to include the western United States. Factors that may have contributed to this change include altered rice-farming practices and landscape irrigation. Veterinarians in California should be familiar with the clinicopathologic features associated with GI pythiosis to aid in early diagnosis and effective treatment.

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    • "s the diagnostic efficiency of the molecular-based assay. Alternatively, several investigators have developed immunoperoxidase staining assays (IPS) to facilitate histodiagnosis of pythiosis, using antiserum raised against P. insidiosum antigens. (Brown et. al, 1988; Howerth et. al, 1989; Reis et. al, 2003; Camus et. al, 2004; Rakich et. al, 2005; Berryessa et. al, 2008; White et. al, 2008; Martins et. al, 2012; Pessoa et. al, 2012; Ubiali et. al, 2013). These IPS assays show good detection sensitivity, but some of them have limited detection specificity (Keeratijarut et. al, 2009). Cross reactivity of IPS with some fungi, i.e., Fusarium species, may due to endogenous activity of fungal peroxidase. An "
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    ABSTRACT: Pythiosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals living in tropical and subtropical countries. The etiologic agent is the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The disease has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Patients usually presented with symptoms associated with arterial or ocular infection. Most patients underwent surgical removal of an infected organs (i.e., legs and eyes) to control the infection. Early and accurate diagnosis is important because it leads to prompt treatment and better prognosis for patients with pythiosis. Here, we developed and evaluated an immunofluorescent staining assay (IFA) for histodiagnosis of pythiosis. Rabbit anti-P. insidiosum antibodies were generated for direct detection of P. insidiosum in paraffin-embedded samples. Sixteen P. insidiosum isolates and 16 other fungi were used to prepare paraffin-embedded culture blocks for diagnostic performance evaluation of IFA. As a result, all culture blocks prepared from P. insidiosum were stained positive, while those prepared from the other fungi (control) were stained negative. IFA was further evaluated using paraffin-embedded tissue blocks prepared from infected tissues of patients with vascular pythiosis (n=3) and other fungal infections (2 Candida albicans, 1 Aspergillus flavus, and 1 Fusarium sp). All infected-tissue blocks from pythiosis patients were tested positive, while those from patients with other mycoses were tested negative. Taken together, the developed IFA provided high diagnostic performance (100% sensitivity and specificity), and could be used to facilitate diagnosis of pythiosis.
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    • "Em um caso de zigomicose afetando o trato respiratório em um cão, o diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados histopatológicos , histoquímicos e cultura micológica. A zigomicose gastrointestinal em cães e gatos deve ser diferenciada da infecção por P. insidiosum (Grooters 2003, Berryessa et al. 2008). Dentre as micoses que afetaram principalmente a pele destacaram-se a dermatofitose, a malasseziose e a esporotricose . "
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    • "The epidemiology and distribution of the genus Pythium was described in soil and aquatic environments around the world and the life cycle of P. insidiosum occurs necessarily in flooded environment. This organism affects several species of animals including horses, cats, dogs, cattle, sheep, camels, bears, and birds resulting in various pathological conditions (Pier et al. 2000, Wellehan et al. 2004, Berryessa et al. 2008, Pesavento et al. 2008). In Brazil, the disease in horses was described in northern state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Reis Jr. et al. 2003), in cattle in flooded areas of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, and Rio Grande do Sul (Santurio et al. 2004, Gabriel et al. 2008, Grecco et al. 2009), and in flocks of sheep, in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil (Tabosa et al. 2004). "
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