Gastrointestinal Pythiosis in 10 Dogs from California
Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes severe segmental thickening of the canine gastrointestinal (GI) tract, resulting in weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, and death. Infection in dogs previously has been observed primarily in the southeastern United States. To describe the clinicopathologic and epidemiologic findings associated with GI pythiosis in 10 dogs from California. Dogs were initially identified on the basis of supportive clinical findings and routine histology. Pythiosis was confirmed in each dog with at least one of the following: immunoblot serology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology, immunohistochemistry, and culture followed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction, rRNA gene sequencing, or both. Between September 2003 and December 2006, GI pythiosis was confirmed in 1 dog from central California and 9 dogs that lived within a 30-mile radius of Davis, CA. Seven of 8 dogs for which environmental data were available had frequent access to flooded rice fields or other water sources. Esophageal lesions were present in 2 of 10 dogs. Common laboratory findings included eosinophilia (7/9), hypoalbuminemia (9/9), and hyperglobulinemia (8/9). Median survival time was 26.5 days (range, 0-122 days), and the disease was ultimately fatal in all 10 dogs. The geographic distribution of pythiosis has widened in recent years to include the western United States. Factors that may have contributed to this change include altered rice-farming practices and landscape irrigation. Veterinarians in California should be familiar with the clinicopathologic features associated with GI pythiosis to aid in early diagnosis and effective treatment.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pythiosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals living in tropical and subtropical countries. The etiologic agent is the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The disease has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Patients usually presented with symptoms associated with arterial or ocular infection. Most patients underwent surgical removal of an infected organs (i.e., legs and eyes) to control the infection. Early and accurate diagnosis is important because it leads to prompt treatment and better prognosis for patients with pythiosis. Here, we developed and evaluated an immunofluorescent staining assay (IFA) for histodiagnosis of pythiosis. Rabbit anti-P. insidiosum antibodies were generated for direct detection of P. insidiosum in paraffin-embedded samples. Sixteen P. insidiosum isolates and 16 other fungi were used to prepare paraffin-embedded culture blocks for diagnostic performance evaluation of IFA. As a result, all culture blocks prepared from P. insidiosum were stained positive, while those prepared from the other fungi (control) were stained negative. IFA was further evaluated using paraffin-embedded tissue blocks prepared from infected tissues of patients with vascular pythiosis (n=3) and other fungal infections (2 Candida albicans, 1 Aspergillus flavus, and 1 Fusarium sp). All infected-tissue blocks from pythiosis patients were tested positive, while those from patients with other mycoses were tested negative. Taken together, the developed IFA provided high diagnostic performance (100% sensitivity and specificity), and could be used to facilitate diagnosis of pythiosis.0Comments 0Citations
- "s the diagnostic efficiency of the molecular-based assay. Alternatively, several investigators have developed immunoperoxidase staining assays (IPS) to facilitate histodiagnosis of pythiosis, using antiserum raised against P. insidiosum antigens. (Brown et. al, 1988; Howerth et. al, 1989; Reis et. al, 2003; Camus et. al, 2004; Rakich et. al, 2005; Berryessa et. al, 2008; White et. al, 2008; Martins et. al, 2012; Pessoa et. al, 2012; Ubiali et. al, 2013). These IPS assays show good detection sensitivity, but some of them have limited detection specificity (Keeratijarut et. al, 2009). Cross reactivity of IPS with some fungi, i.e., Fusarium species, may due to endogenous activity of fungal peroxidase. An "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Para determinar as principais micoses e oomicoses que acometeram animais domésticos na área de abrangência do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo em 9.487 protocolos de necropsias e 20.199 exames histopatológicos (totalizando 29.686 casos), realizados no LPV-UFSM, entre janeiro de 1990 e dezembro de 2012. Do total de protocolos analisados, 230 apresentaram micoses ou pitiose (oomicose), sendo 179 casos (78%) de micoses e 51 casos (22%) de pitiose. Os protocolos foram revisados para determinar os principais achados referentes à epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e às alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas. Em dois casos (0,8%) não foi possível determinar o gênero ou o grupo do fungo observado. As principais doenças diagnosticadas, em ordem decrescente de prevalência, foram: pitiose, candidíase, aspergilose, zigomicose, dermatofitose, malasseziose, criptococose, megabacteriose e esporotricose. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única ocorrência cada foram histoplasmose e pneumocistose. Os equinos foram os mais acometidos pela pitiose e os animais de companhia (cães e gatos) foram os mais acometidos pelas micoses.0Comments 3Citations
- "Em um caso de zigomicose afetando o trato respiratório em um cão, o diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados histopatológicos , histoquímicos e cultura micológica. A zigomicose gastrointestinal em cães e gatos deve ser diferenciada da infecção por P. insidiosum (Grooters 2003, Berryessa et al. 2008). Dentre as micoses que afetaram principalmente a pele destacaram-se a dermatofitose, a malasseziose e a esporotricose . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete, a fungal like microorganism, which infects mammals, causing pythiosis in animals and humans, especially in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The treatment for this infection is very difficult, and therapeutic options commonly comprise surgery, immunotherapy and antimicrobial drugs. The present report describes the clinical healing of a dog with gastrointestinal pythiosis by treatment with a combination of antifungals and immunotherapy, as well as reviews the cases reported in the literature that used some type of therapy for canine pythiosis. A 2.5-year-old male beagle initially showed sporadic vomiting episodes, and this symptom became more frequent 5 months after the onset of clinical signs. Celiotomy procedure found thickness of the stomach wall extending to the pylorus and duodenum. A biopsy was performed, and the diagnosis of pythiosis was made by mycological, histopathological analyses and molecular identification. Therapy was based on an association of terbinafine plus itraconazole during 12 months and immunotherapy for 2.5 months. The healing of the dog reported here allows us to propose the use of immunotherapy associated with antifungal therapy to treat canine gastrointestinal pythiosis. However, additional studies should be performed on a larger number of patients to establish a standard treatment protocol for canine pythiosis.0Comments 2Citations
- "Canine gastrointestinal pythiosis often occurs along with clinical signs of anorexia, vomiting and weight loss5678910 18]. Additionally, gastrointestinal lesions are characterized by the formation of large masses in the stomach and intestinal walls and may occlude the gastrointestinal lumen56789 18]. All characteristics observed in the present case report are in agreement with the existing literature. "
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