Can a Manager Have a Life and a Career? International and Multisource Perspectives on Work-Life Balance and Career Advancement Potential

ArticleinJournal of Applied Psychology 93(4):789-805 · July 2008with18 Reads
DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.4.789 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The present study was the first cross-national examination of whether managers who were perceived to be high in work-life balance were expected to be more or less likely to advance in their careers than were less balanced, more work-focused managers. Using self ratings, peer ratings, and supervisor ratings of 9,627 managers in 33 countries, the authors examined within-source and multisource relationships with multilevel analyses. The authors generally found that managers who were rated higher in work-life balance were rated higher in career advancement potential than were managers who were rated lower in work-life balance. However, national gender egalitarianism, measured with Project GLOBE scores, moderated relationships based on supervisor and self ratings, with stronger positive relationships in low egalitarian cultures. The authors also found 3-way interactions of work-life balance ratings, ratee gender, and gender egalitarianism in multisource analyses in which self balance ratings predicted supervisor and peer ratings of advancement potential. Work-life balance ratings were positively related to advancement potential ratings for women in high egalitarian cultures and men in low gender egalitarian cultures, but relationships were nonsignificant for men in high egalitarian cultures and women in low egalitarian cultures.
    • "The aim of this study is to extend previous work on the impact of passion for work in the domains of work and non-work by taking into account the process of worklife balance highlighting the absence of interference, and the harmony achieved from active participation from both domains. Work-life balance entails experiencing satisfaction in all life domains by attaining optimum functioning at work and home domains with minimum role conflict, and a potential for consonance between work and non-work domains, such as adequate allotment of resources like time, energy and commitment (Clark, 2000; Greenblatt, 2002; Kirchmeyer, 2000, as cited in Lyness & Judiesch, 2008; Fisher, 2001, as cited in Bulger et al., 2007). The recognition of 'work-life balance' emerged as a response to the evolution of traditional working schema, with the introduction of technological advances and the increasing globalisation of businesses giving rise to the notion of working " 24/7 " "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guided by the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP; Vallerand, et al., 2003), border (Clark, 2000) and enrichment (Rothbard, 2001; Sieber, 1974; Marks, 1977) theories, this dissertation tested a mediated model that examined the role of work-life balance in the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion (HP and OP, respectively), with performance indicators such as in-role and organisational citizenship behaviours, and well-being indicators such as job and life satisfaction. HP for work was hypothesised to positively relate with employee performance and well-being, while OP for work will be negatively related. This relationship is mediated by work-life balance. Employees with HP will have higher levels of work-life balance, enabling them to have favourable performance and well-being outcomes. In contrast, employees with OP will experience less work-life balance, preventing them from attaining optimum work outcomes. This dissertation utilised a field survey methodology across three studies— validation of the passion for work scale (Study 1), main effects of passion for work (Study 2), and mediating effects work-life balance to employee outcomes (Study 3). Study 1 tested the two-factor structure of the passion for work scale using confirmatory factor analysis (Study 1a) and established convergent and divergent validity through correlations of conceptually similar and dissimilar constructs (Study 1b). Results concurred with previous validation of the original passion scale (Vallerand, et al., 2003), where harmonious and obsessive passion for work serve as two separate factors. Results also showed that HP and OP for work are distinct constructs in comparison with work involvement, goal orientation, workaholism, work engagement, and calling. Study 2 tested the role of passion for work on in-role and organisational citizenship behaviours, and job and life satisfaction. Hypotheses were partially supported. Findings showed that HP for work was positively related to indicators of employee performance and well-being, while OP for work was not significantly related to all outcomes. Study 3 tested the indirect effect of work-life balance in the relationship between passion for work and performance and well-being outcomes. Findings lend partial support to the hypotheses. The indirect effects of work-life balance in the relationship between HP and OP for work and performance outcomes were not significant. However, significant indirect effects of work-life balance were found between both types of workplace passion and indicators of employee well-being. This research program contributes to the workplace passion literature in several ways. First, further validation of the passion for work scale among samples from a non-Western developing context further broadens the applicability of the Dualistic Model of Passion. Second, examining the role of passion for work substantiates the claims of popular press and also determines the extent to which passion can be an enabler or deterrent of optimum work performance and well-being. Finally, integrating the DMP, and border and enrichment perspectives further extends our understanding of how passionate employees manage work and non-work life domains to attain balance, and its consequences to employee work outcomes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
    Thesis · May 2016 · Journal of Management
    • "This supports Lyness and Judiesch (2008) and Kirchmeyer (2000). Moreover, this paper examined WLB in the context of satisfaction with work and family situations (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007; Lyness & Judiesch, 2008), but most employees viewed WLB as; enjoyment, effectiveness (Greenhaus & Allen, 2011), stability (Crooker et al., 2002), time (Parasuraman & Greenhaus, 1999) and subjectivity (Darcy et al., 2012; Goodman, 2012). Other employees wished they could reclaim balance while others indicated their intention to leave the organization and suggested that only then balance could be achieved. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inability of workers to achieve balance between work and family responsibilities has led to heightened incidence of illnesses associated with stress. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the role of Sense of Coherence (SOC) on the achievement of work life balance by focusing on individual managers at a municipality in the South African public service. These individual managers often struggle with work-life balance (WLB) challenges like HIV/AIDS, relational tension, single parenthood, child and elder care, alcohol and substance abuse, debt and financial issues, absence of job autonomy, function vagueness/role conflict and job stress. A sequential transformative mixed methods research design is adopted. Data were collected using self-report questionnaire administered to 364 individual managers; additional eleven members of top management were interviewed. Quantitative data gathered are analyzed using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 to test the reliability and validity of the instrument as well as the bivariate association between the variables. NVIVO is used in organizing qualitative data for ease of content analysis. The findings indicate that SOC should be considered when designing strategies to address employee work-life needs. Furthermore, it confirmed that the presence of strong SOC does not lead to achievement of WLB.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
    • "We then conducted our own test of potential moderators, guided by theories that have been used to argue the business case: country-level gender egalitarianism (a proxy for gender supportive climate) and board meeting frequency/activity and board size (proxies for opportunities for women leaders to make unique contributions). For gender supportive climate, we used the gender egalitarianism score for the country where each study's sample was collected (as indicated by Project GLOBE country scores; see House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004; Lyness & Judiesch, 2008). Following Hedges and Olkin (1985) and Lipsey and Wilson (2001), we tested all continuous moderating effects by using weighted least squares (WLS) regression, where we weighted each effect size by its inverse variance and used the resulting Fisher's z–transformed corrected correlations (see Butts, Casper, & Yang, 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the 1990s, a growing body of research has sought to quantify the relationship between women’s representation in leadership positions and organizational financial performance. Commonly known as the “business case” for women’s leadership, the idea is that having more women leaders is good for business. Through meta-analysis (k = 78, n = 117,639 organizations) of the direct effects of women’s representation in leadership (as CEOs, on top management teams, and on boards of directors) on financial performance, and tests that proxy theoretical arguments for moderated relationships, we call attention to equivocal findings. Our results suggest women’s leadership may affect firm performance in general and sales performance in particular. And women’s leadership—overall and, specifically, the presence of a female CEO—is more likely to positively relate to firms’ financial performance in more gender egalitarian cultures. Yet taking our findings as a whole, we argue that commonly used methods of testing the business case for women leaders may limit our ability as scholars to understand the value that women bring to leadership positions. We do not advocate that the business case be abandoned altogether but, rather, improved and refined. We name exemplary research studies to show how different perspectives on gender, alternative conceptualizations of value, and the specification of underlying mechanisms linking leadership to performance can generate changes in both the dominant ontology and the epistemology underlying this body of research.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016
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