Integrating HIV care and HIV prevention: legal, policy and programmatic recommendations

HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, NY State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 5.55). 08/2008; 22 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S57-65. DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000327437.13291.86
Source: PubMed


Since the start of the HIV epidemic we have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of the impact of HIV disease worldwide. Furthermore, breakthroughs in treatment and the rapid expansion of HIV care and treatment programmes in heavily impacted countries over the past 5 years are potentially critical assets in a comprehensive approach to controlling the continued spread of HIV globally. A strategic approach to controlling the epidemic requires continued and comparable expansion and integration of care, treatment and prevention programmes. As every new infection involves transmission, whether vertically or horizontally, from a person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the integration of HIV prevention into HIV care settings has the potential to prevent thousands of new infections, as well as to improve the lives of PLWHA. In this paper, we highlight how to better utilize opportunities created by the antiretroviral roll-out to achieve more effective prevention, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. We offer specific recommendations for action in the domains of healthcare policy and practice in order better to utilize the advances in HIV treatment to advance HIV prevention.

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Available from: Robert Remien, Nov 25, 2014
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    • "These include AIDS denialism and official questioning of the efficacy of ART in South Africa; the federal ban on needle exchange programmes in the US; the prohibition of methadone to opiate-dependent people in Russia; and American funding via the PEPFAR programme that requires abstinence-only prevention programmes (Remien et al. 2008). Public information campaigns on the effectiveness of ART require full prominence in the public health system and there may be a role for traditional healers in correcting such false understandings associated with AIDS care. "
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    ABSTRACT: Structural barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence are economic, institutional, political and cultural factors, that collectively influence the extent to which persons living with HIV follow their medication regimens. We identify three sets of structural barriers to ART adherence that are salient in Southern Africa: poverty-related, institutional, and political and cultural. Examples of poverty-related barriers are competing demands in the context of resource-constrained settings, the lack of transport infrastructure, food insecurity, the role of disability grants and poor social support. Examples of institutional factors are logistical barriers, overburdened health care facilities, limited access to mental health services and difficulties in ensuring adequate counselling. Examples of political and cultural barriers are controversies in the provision of treatment for AIDS, migration, traditional beliefs about HIV and AIDS, poor health literacy and gender inequalities. In forging a way forward, we identify ways in which individuals, communities and health care systems may overcome some of these structural barriers. Finally, we make recommendations for further research on structural barriers to ART adherence. In all likelihood, enhancing adherence to ART requires the efforts of a variety of disciplines, including public health, psychology, anthropology, sociology and medicine.
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    ABSTRACT: To provide a state-of-the-science review of the literature on secondary prevention of HIV infection or 'prevention for positives' (PfP) interventions. Early work on PfP focused on understanding the dynamics of risky behavior among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and on designing, implementing, and evaluating a limited number of interventions to promote safer sexual and drug use behavior in this population (i.e., PfP interventions). Previous meta-analyses demonstrated that PfP interventions can effectively promote safer behavior. However, the understanding of risk dynamics among PLWH and the extant number and breadth of effective PfP interventions were scant. Recent work has addressed some of these problems, yielding greater understanding of risk dynamics and providing additional, effective interventions. Still, only a modest number of recent, rigorously evaluated, effective interventions have been identified. New ideas for creating stronger, more integrated, and effective PfP interventions have emerged that will guide future intervention research and practice. There remains much to be done to understand why, when, and under what conditions PLWH practice risk. Substantial work also needs to be performed to design, implement, rigorously evaluate, and when effective, to disseminate widely, additional, evidence-based PfP interventions targeting diverse populations. Directing such interventions to populations of PLWH at greatest risk for transmission of HIV has the potential to yield significant impact on the pandemic.
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