Anther smut fungi on monocots

Universität Tübingen, Botanisches Institut, Lehrstuhl Spezielle Botanik und Mykologie, Tübingen, Germany.
Mycological Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 11/2008; 112(Pt 11):1297-306. DOI: 10.1016/j.mycres.2008.06.002
Source: PubMed


Teliospores, hyphal septa, cellular interactions, and nucleotide sequences from the ITS and LSU region of the rRNA gene of specimens of Ustilago vaillantii s. lat. on Muscari and Scilla species were examined and compared with findings in other Ustilaginomycotina. The data show that U. vaillantii s. lat. specimens belong to the Urocystales and represent the sister group of the Urocystaceae, standing well apart from Vankya heufleri and V. ornithogali. Within the Urocystales, U. vaillantii s. lat. is unique in sporulating in the anthers of the host plants. Accordingly, the new genus Antherospora is proposed for the anther smuts on Hyacinthaceae. In addition, our data show that there is a stringent phylogenetic correlation between the specimens of Antherospora and their respective hosts. Thus, the specimens on Scilla spp. as well as those on Muscari spp. form highly supported monophyla. Furthermore, on Scilla a phylogenetic dichotomy exists between the specimens infecting Scilla bifolia and those infecting S. vindobonensis, with the specimens of the two host species showing a difference of 17bp in the ITS nucleotide sequences. Therefore, A. vindobonensis is described as a new species, and A. scillae and A. vaillantii are proposed as new combinations. Consequently, because of their sporulation in anthers and their parasitism on species of other genera of the Hyacinthaceae, Ustilago albucae, U. peglerae, U. tourneuxii, and U. urgineae are also ascribed to Antherospora as new combinations. Descriptions are given for all species.

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Available from: Matthias Lutz
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    • "Thus, the combination of morphological, ecological and molecular characters are valuable for correct species identification. This polyphasic approach has often been used to differentiate fungal species including smuts (Lutz et al. 2008; Bauer et al. 2008; Piątek et al. 2012, 2013; Savchenko et al. 2013, 2014; Vasighzadeh et al. 2014), and it was recently named the Consolidated Species Concept (Quaedvlieg et al. 2014). Strictly defined species, with reference sequences deposited in public repositories (such as NCBI's GenBank), are essential for progress in plant pathology. "
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    • "Indeed, high speciation is not rare among smut fungi and was reported for Microbotryum Lév. (Freeman et al. 2002; Lutz et al. 2005, 2008; le Gac et al. 2007; Denchev et al. 2008; Devier et al. 2010), Antherospora R. Bauer et al. (Bauer et al. 2008, Piątek et al. 2013), "
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    • "In all analyses, the Antherospora species included in previous studies (Bauer et al. 2008, Piątek et al. 2011) were inferred with high support values, and phylogenetic relationships were as in Bauer et al. (2008), Piątek et al. (2011), and Vánky et al. (2008). All Antherospora specimens from Muscari spp. "
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    ABSTRACT: The anther smut fungi in the ustilaginomycetous genus Antherospora (Floromycetaceae, Urocystidales) that infect monocots, are currently placed in nine species. Against the background of the generally observed high host specificity in smut fungi, the broad host range reported for some of the species suggests much higher diversity. Antherospora vaillantii s. lato includes anther smuts on different Muscari species. In this study, specimens of anther smuts on Muscari armeniacum, M. botryoides, M. comosum, and M. tenuiflorum were analysed by rDNA sequences and morphology to determine whether they represented one polyphagous or several host specific species. The molecular phylogeny revealed three distinct lineages that were correlated with host plants, yet had only slight morphological differences. These lineages are assigned to three cryptic species: Antherospora hortensis sp. nov. on Muscari armeniacum, A. muscari-botryoidis comb. nov. (syn. Ustilago muscari-botryoidis) on M. botryoides, and A. vaillantii s. str. on M. comosum and M. tenuiflorum. All species on Muscari form a monophyletic group within Antherospora, and the phylogenetic relations within this group coincide well with the subgeneric classification of the respective host species. This indicates a common ancestry of Muscari anther smuts and co-evolution as a driver of their diversification.
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