Article

Inflammation and Alzheimer's disease: Possible role of periodontal disease

Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, College of Dentistry, New York University, New York, NY, USA.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association (Impact Factor: 12.41). 07/2008; 4(4):242-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.jalz.2007.08.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been defined; however, inflammation within the brain is thought to play a pivotal role. Studies suggest that peripheral infection/inflammation might affect the inflammatory state of the central nervous system. Chronic periodontitis is a prevalent peripheral infection that is associated with gram-negative anaerobic bacteria and the elevation of serum inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein. Recently, chronic periodontitis has been associated with several systemic diseases including AD. In this article we review the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis and the role of inflammation in AD. In addition, we propose several potential mechanisms through which chronic periodontitis can possibly contribute to the clinical onset and progression of AD. Because chronic periodontitis is a treatable infection, it might be a readily modifiable risk factor for AD.

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    • "In recent years, many studies were conducted to evaluate the correlation between systemic disease and oral health status (referred to as the oral-systemic connection). The role of oral bacteria in other types of systemic inflammation has been established[4,5], and the American Heart Association (AHA) has reported that atherosclerotic vascular disease may be associated with periodontal problems[6]. Invasive dental procedures may sometimes be performed on patients with systemic diseases, so dentists should be aware of potential complications in the management of these diseases. "

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    • "Selected biological markers for analysis were reported as relevant to LOBD and AD in published studies on inflammation based pathology (Akiyama et al., 2000;Kamer et al., 2008;Goldstein et al., 2009;Sardi et al., 2011;Lee et al., 2013;García-Bueno et al., 2014). After extracting plasma from blood samples, inflammatory cytokines interleukins 1 and 6 (IL-1 and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). "
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    • "The development of treatments that delay the onset of AD by five years is estimated to potentially reduce the number of AD patients by half. Recently, considerable attention has been focused on lifestyle related diseases, including diabetes [117] and periodontitis [118] [119] [120] [121], as exacerbating factors for AD. Nakanishi and Wu focused on the strategies to prevent AD progression in their review article [122]. "
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