Fotuhi, M. et al. Better cognitive performance in elderly taking antioxidant vitamins E and C supplements in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: the Cache County Study. Alzheimers Dement. 4, 223-227

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Center for Memory and Brain Health, LifeBridge Health Brain & Spine Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association (Impact Factor: 12.41). 05/2008; 4(3):223-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jalz.2008.01.004
Source: PubMed


Studies have shown less cognitive decline and lower risk of Alzheimer's disease in elderly individuals consuming either antioxidant vitamins or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The potential of added benefit from their combined use has not been studied. We therefore analyzed data from 3,376 elderly participants of the Cache County Study who were given the Modified Mini-Mental State examination up to three times during a period of 8 years. Those who used a combination of vitamins E and C supplements and NSAIDs at baseline declined by an average 0.96 fewer points every 3 years than nonusers (P < .05). This apparent effect was attributable entirely to participants with the APOE epsilon4 allele, whose users declined by 2.25 fewer points than nonusers every 3 years (P < .05). These results suggest that among elderly individuals with an APOE epsilon4 allele, there is an association between using antioxidant supplements in combination with NSAIDs and less cognitive decline over time.

Download full-text


Available from: Constantine G Lyketsos
  • Source
    • "Baicalein is the major ingredient of a commonly used Chinese medicine-Radix Scutellariae (roots of Scutellaria baicalensis). On one hand, Radix Scutellariae is being used as an anti-inflammation agent clinically, and anti-inflammation agents have been proposed to treat neurodegenerative diseases [42]. On the other hand, baicalein has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects against glutamate/NMDA stimulation, glucose deprivation, oxidative stress, Aβ-induced toxicity, and inflammation-mediated degeneration [43, 44]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the classical hormonal effect, estrogen has been reported to mediate neuroprotection in the brain, which leads to the searching of estrogen-like substances for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Flavonoids, a group of natural compounds, are well known to possess estrogenic effects and used to substitute estrogen, that is, phytoestrogen. Flavonoid serves as one of the potential targets for the development of natural supplements and therapeutic drugs against different diseases. The neuroprotection activity of flavonoids was chosen for a possible development of anti-Alzheimer's drugs or food supplements. The estrogenic activity of two flavonoids, baicalein and daidzein, were demonstrated by their strong abilities in stimulating estrogen receptor phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of estrogen responsive element in MCF-7 breast cells. The neuroprotection effects of flavonoids against β -amyloid (A β ) were revealed by their inhibition effects on in vitro A β aggregation and A β -induced cytotoxicity in PC12 neuronal cells. More importantly, the estrogenic and neuroprotective activities of individual flavonoid could be further enhanced by the cotreatment in the cultures. Taken together, this synergistic effect of baicalein and daidzein might serve as a method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of different flavonoids against A β , which might be crucial in developing those flavonoidsin treating Alzheimer's disease in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Source
    • "2009). Similar positive effects in ApoE4 carriers have also been seen when the NSAIDs have been taken in conjunction with Vit E (Fotuhia et al., 2008). In addition, the infl uence of NSAID use in microglia activation has been noted in all ApoE genotypes however the trend of lower counts of glial cells with regular NSAID use was more marked in patients carrying the ApoEε4/4 alleles (Alafuzoff et al., 2000). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is significant epidemiological evidence to suggest that there are beneficial effects of treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Alzheimer's disease, although these effects have not been reproduced in clinical trials. The failure of the clinical trials may be attributed to several possible facts: (1) NSAIDS may have been delivered too late to patients, as they may only be effective in early stages of the disease and possibly counterproductive in the late stages; (2) the beneficial effect may depend on the drug, because different NSAIDs may have different molecular targets; (3) the NSAID concentration reaching the brain and the duration of the treatment could also be critical, so increasing drug penetration is important in order to improve the efficacy and avoid secondary gastro-intestinal effects of the NSAIDs. In this report we analyze these different factors, with special emphasis on the role of NSAIDs in microglia activation over time.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
  • Source
    • "A considerable amount of research has been conducted in humans with dietary vitamins E and C [2]. In patients with moderately severe Alzheimer’s Disease the administration of vitamin E led to a slight delay of disease progression, thus providing evidence for the beneficial effects of this vitamin as part of a potential treatment in AD [2,3]. In keeping with these results, other studies with vitamin C, carotenoids and other antioxidants in AD patients have argued that these antioxidants might also have a protective effect against this disease [5,6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevention of aging is one of the most fascinating areas in biomedicine. The first step in the development of effective drugs for aging prevention is a knowledge of the biochemical pathways responsible for the cellular aging process. In this context it seems clear that free radicals play a key role in the aging process. However, in recent years it has been demonstrated that the families of enzymes called sirtuins, specifically situin 1 (SIRT1), have an anti-aging action. Thus, the natural compound resveratrol is a natural compound that shows a very strong activation of SIRT1 and also shows antioxidant effects. By activating sirtuin 1, resveratrol modulates the activity of numerous proteins, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC-1 alpha), the FOXO family, Akt (protein kinase B) and NFκβ. In the present review, we suggest that resveratrol may constitute a potential drug for prevention of ageing and for the treatment of several diseases due to its antioxidant properties and sirtuin activation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Pharmaceuticals
Show more