Family, Peer, and Media Predictors of Becoming Eating Disordered

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
JAMA Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 5.73). 06/2008; 162(6):574-9. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.162.6.574
Source: PubMed


To identify predictors of becoming eating disordered among adolescents.
Prospective cohort study.
Self-report questionnaires.
Girls (n = 6916) and boys (n = 5618), aged 9 to 15 years at baseline, in the ongoing Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Main Exposures Parent, peer, and media influences.
Onset of starting to binge eat or purge (ie, vomiting or using laxatives) at least weekly.
During 7 years of follow-up, 4.3% of female subjects and 2.3% of male subjects (hereafter referred to as "females" and "males") started to binge eat and 5.3% of females and 0.8% of males started to purge to control their weight. Few participants started to both binge eat and purge. Rates and risk factors varied by sex and age group (<14 vs > or =14 years). Females younger than 14 years whose mothers had a history of an eating disorder were nearly 3 times more likely than their peers to start purging at least weekly (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.9); however, maternal history of an eating disorder was unrelated to risk of starting to binge eat or purge in older adolescent females. Frequent dieting and trying to look like persons in the media were independent predictors of binge eating in females of all ages. In males, negative comments about weight by fathers was predictive of starting to binge at least weekly.
Risk factors for the development of binge eating and purging differ by sex and by age group in females. Maternal history of an eating disorder is a risk factor only in younger adolescent females.

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    • "Gli aspetti socio-culturali sono fattori di primaria importanza nello sviluppo dei disturbi del comportamento alimentare, che non a caso sono stati definiti una " sindrome culturale " (Gordon, 1991). Nella società globalizzata di oggi l'ideale estetico dominante, trasversale ai diversi contesti sociali, economici e culturali, impone il valore del "corpo magro" (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2007; Field et al., 2008). A questo si affianca la stigmatizzazione dell'obesità, che da problema di salute finisce per diventare una condizione riprovevole di cui vergognarsi, emblema di fallimento personale (Paxton et al., 2006). "

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    • "Given the importance of understanding the role of family weight talk, both direct and indirect, in adolescent girls’ cognitions and behaviors, this study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between mother-reported parental weight talk and a wide range of daughters’ outcomes including depression, self-esteem, use of weight control behaviors, and prevalence of binge eating. This study draws upon a socio-demographically diverse sample of high school-aged girls, an important addition to the literature as many previous studies of weight control and disordered eating outcomes have utilized primarily higher socio-economic status, Caucasian study populations [8,21,22], despite the comparable prevalence of unhealthy weight control behaviors and low body satisfaction among adolescents from many racial and ethnic groups [23,24]. "
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    • "Observou-se que sintomas de TA ativos no período de gravidez estão associados a dificuldades alimentares do bebê, que ocasionam baixo peso, além de outros prejuízos desenvolvimentais Field et al. (2008) Estados Unidos 12.534 adolescentes de ambos os sexos Quase-experimental (longitudinal – 7 anos) Cerca de 10% das meninas e 3% dos meninos iniciaram comportamentos compatíveis com o diagnóstico de TA. Histórico materno de TA atua como fator de risco para adolescentes do sexo feminino. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To analyze scientific evidence about the influence of the family group on anorexia nervosa (AN) symptoms. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature published between 2000 and 2012, using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Lilacs and the descriptors: "eating disorders", "family relations", "intergenerational relations" and "mother-child relations". RESULTS: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 20 publications were selected and their full version was analyzed. Most of the papers focus on women diagnosed with eating disorders (ED) or risky eating behavior, have a quantitative design and use standardized scales for data collection. Evidence Level 4 was predominant, which corresponds to studies with a non-experimental design, like correlational and qualitative descriptive studies, or case studies. The evidences found indicate that family relations significantly affect both the development and maintenance of ED symptoms. Eating and food patterns are transmitted between generations, as well as non-elaborated aspects of maternal psychic functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Studies suggest the need for a broader care focus, so as to include family members in treatment, as well as to incorporate the findings related to intergenerational psychic transmission to guide the planning and qualification of the care offered in case of ED.
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