Sexual dimorphism of humoral immunity with human vaccines

ArticleinVaccine 26(29-30):3551-5 · July 2008with24 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.054 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
It has been contended that limited data exist on sex-difference in immune response with vaccines in humans. However, a comprehensive search of the literature retrieved 97 studies with 14 vaccines influenza (7 studies), hepatitis A (15 studies), hepatitis B (50 studies), pnuemococcal polysaccaride (4 studies), diphtheria (4 studies), rubella (3 studies), measles (2 studies), yellow fever (3 studies), meningococcal A (1 study), meningococcal C (1 study), tetanus (1 study), brucella (1 study), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (1 study) and rabies (4 studies), with sex-difference in humoral (antibody) response. These differences are associated with sex-difference in the clinical efficacy of influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, pneumococcal polysaccharide and diphtheria vaccines and significant adverse reactions with rubella, measles and yellow fever vaccines. The genesis of these differences is uncertain but not entirely related to gonadal hormones (differences are seen in pre-pubertal and post-menopausal subjects not on hormone replacement therapy) or female sex (males had greater serological response for pneumococcal, diphtheria, yellow fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and in some studies with rabies vaccine. As sex-difference in humoral immune response was seen with most vaccines which cover the spectrum of mechanisms by which infectious agents cause disease (mucosal replication, viral viraemia, bacterial bacteraemia, toxin production and neuronal invasion), it is mandatory that vaccine trialists recruit a representative sample of females and males to be able to assess sex-differences which may have clinical implications.
    • "For example, in several studies, women appeared to exhibit better responses to vaccination than men. This was the case for influenza, hepatitis A and B, and herpes simplex (HSV)-2 vaccines [18,19] [20]. In addition, when using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), vaccine efficacy was higher in females versus males [21]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Francisella tularensis (Ft) is a Category A biothreat agent for which there currently is no FDA-approved vaccine. Thus, there is a substantial effort underway to develop an effective tularemia vaccine. While it is well established that gender can significantly impact susceptibility to primary infection, the impact of gender on vaccine efficacy is not well established. Thus, development of a successful vaccine against tularemia will require an understanding of the impact gender has on vaccine-induced protection against this organism. In this study, a role for gender in vaccine-induced protection following Ft challenge is identified for the first time. In the present study, mucosal vaccination with inactivated Ft (iFt) LVS elicited gender-based protection in C57BL/6Tac mice against respiratory challenge with Ft LVS. Specifically, vaccinated male mice were more susceptible to subsequent Ft LVS challenge. This increased susceptibility in male mice correlated with increased bacterial burden, increased tissue inflammation, and increased proinflammatory cytokine production late in post-challenge infection. In contrast, improved survival of iFt-vaccinated female mice correlated with reduced bacterial burden and enhanced levels of Ft-specific Abs in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid post-challenge. Furthermore, vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine consisting of an Ft LVS superoxide dismutase (SodB) mutant, which has proven efficacious against the highly virulent Ft SchuS4 strain, demonstrated similar gender bias in protection post-Ft SchuS4 challenge. Of particular significance is the fact that these are the first studies to demonstrate that gender differences impact disease outcome in the case of lethal respiratory tularemia following mucosal vaccination. In addition, these studies further emphasize the fact that gender differences must be a serious consideration in any future tularemia vaccine development studies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
    • "This result may be explained by differences in the immunogenicity of polysaccharide vaccines. Many viruses and bacteria have been shown to induce different antibody responses in men and women [26,27] and anthrax vaccines cause more localized inflammation in women than in men [26]. Recently, Wiemken et al. [28] found that PPV23 protected women older than 65 from hospitalization due to pneumococcal pneumonia but did not protect men. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have indirect effects due to decreased Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in vaccine recipients. We sought to determine whether the introduction of PCV13 in children led to changes in the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in adults. Methods: We described demographics, comorbidities, clinical manifestations, and serotypes of IPD in Utah adults before (November 2009-February 2010) and after (March 2010-March 2012) the introduction of PCV13 in children. We also compare serotypes causing IPD in Utah adults and children. Results: After the introduction of PCV13 in the childhood vaccine program, the proportion of IPD due to PCV13 exclusive serotypes decreased significantly in Utah adults (64-40%, p=0.009), primarily due to a decline in serotype 7F (36-15%, p=0.008). There were non-significant increases in IPD due to Pneumococcal polysaccharide 23 (PPV23) unique serotypes and non-vaccine serotypes, most notably serotype 22F. Changes in the proportions of vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes were similar in adults and children. Meningitis was more commonly due to non-vaccine serotypes relative to non-meningitis cases (47% vs. 18%, p=0.007). When stratified by sex, decreases in PCV13 serotype IPD were only noted in men (76-33%, p=0.001). Conclusions: Serotype epidemiology of IPD in adults closely follows that of children in the PCV13 era. Continued surveillance is needed to confirm whether replacement serotypes will lead to increases in pneumococcal meningitis and whether there are sex differences in the indirect effects of PCV vaccination in children.
    Article · Dec 2015
    • "An unresolved question is why most autoimmune diseases occur more frequently in women than men. It is well known that women respond to infection, vaccination , and trauma with increased antibody production [33, 34]. Although increased antibody levels protect women from infections, they also appear to increase the risk of developing ADs. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are estimated to affect between 5 and 8 % of the US population, and approximately 80 % of these patients are women. Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an AD that occurs predominately in women over men (16:1). The hallmark characteristic of SS is diminished secretory production from the primary exocrine gland and the lacrimal or salivary glands resulting in symptoms of dry eye and mouth. The disease is believed to be mediated by an inflammatory and autoantibody response directed against salivary and lacrimal gland tissues. This review will examine the literature on sex differences in the immune response of patients and animal models of Sjögren's syndrome in order to gain a better understanding of disease pathogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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