Systemic chemokine levels in breast cancer patients and their relationship with circulating menstrual hormones

Department of Surgery, Clinical Science Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, Ireland.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 3.94). 05/2009; 115(2):279-87. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-008-0078-2
Source: PubMed


The chemokines Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha/CXCL12) and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) have been implicated in breast cancer progression. We recently reported elevated systemic MCP-1 in breast cancer patients. This study investigated circulating levels of SDF-1alpha in breast cancer patients, and addressed potential hormonal regulation of these two potent chemokines.
SDF-1alpha levels were determined by ELISA in 114 breast cancer patients and 85 controls, and correlated with clinical data. Blood samples were collected from 36 healthy premenopausal volunteers weekly for four weeks to measure Luteinising Hormone (LH), Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Oestradiol and Progesterone using a Bayer ADVIA Centaur Immunoassay system, in parallel with SDF-1alpha and MCP-1. CXCL12 expression was determined using RQ-PCR in primary tumour stromal cells (n = 16) harvested at surgery.
Plasma SDF-1alpha was significantly higher in breast cancer patients than age-matched controls and had a significant correlation with tumour grade and epithelial subtype. Investigation of menstrual variations of these chemokines revealed lower SDF-1alpha levels in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and a significant positive correlation with circulating Oestradiol. MCP-1 levels showed no correlation with menstrual hormones. There was a trend towards increased CXCL12 expression in tumour compared to normal stromal cells.
The elevated level of SDF-1alpha detected in breast cancer patients, and it's correlation with prognostic indicators, highlights the importance of this chemokine in disease progression. Elucidation of factors influencing chemokine secretion supports clarification of their role in tumourigenesis.

Download full-text


Available from: Shirley Potter
  • Source
    • "Of these transcripts, SDF-1 transcript variant 1 encodes circulating chemokine SDF-1α, which is the main SDF isoform in the blood. Plasma levels of this cytokine were found to be elevated in breast cancer (37), pelvic inflammatory disease (38) and in various systemic diseases (39–41). In ovarian cancer patients, using human cytokine microarray technology, plasma SDF-1 levels were found to be elevated 6.6-fold compared with the control group (42). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, have been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer progression and metastasis. However, limited data are available on the expression levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 variants and CXCR7 in human epithelial ovarian cancer. The present study aimed to characterize the expression pattern and levels of SDF-1, CXCR4 and CXCR7 in normal human ovaries and epithelial ovarian cancer. The expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 transcript variants and CXCR7 was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Plasma SDF-1α levels were determined by commercially available EIA kits and cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) levels were quantified by automated microparticle enzyme immunosorbent assay. High expression levels of SDF-1 transcript variant 1 were identified in ovarian cancer and control ovaries. By contrast, in both groups the expression levels of SDF-1 transcript variants 3 and 4 were extremely low. Furthermore, SDF-1 variant 1 levels were notably higher in epithelial ovarian cancer than in control ovaries, while data for the remaining transcripts were similar in both groups. CXCR4 transcript variant 2 and CXCR7 expression levels in normal and neoplastic ovaries were similar. In both groups, CXCR4 transcript variant 2 was not detected. Plasma SDF-1α levels were notably higher in females with epithelial ovarian cancer than in the control ovaries. Elevated levels of blood SDF-1α were found prior to surgery, 6 days after surgery and following completion of the first chemotherapy course. These increases were independent of the type of epithelial ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that the expression of SDF-1 and the genes controlling alternative splicing are elevated in epithelial ovarian cancer, leading to an increased formation of SDF-1 variant 1. Elevated plasma SDF-1α levels in epithelial ovarian cancer patients are not associated with the presence of tumors and/or metastases, however reflect a general response to the disease.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Oncology letters
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Grid sequencing, a technique used to reduce run times of solutions in computational fluid dynamics, was studied. A technique was developed to determine the time at which the solution should be transferred from one grid to another. The technique produced sequences that were either the fastest sequence or very close to the fastest sequence on multiple flow solvers using inviscid calculations. The method by which data is transferred from one grid to another was also tested. It was found that for the inviscid calculations, use of the fourth order interpolator and the linear interpolator produced results with insignificant differences in the same number of iterations
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 1994
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammation encompasses diverse molecular pathways, and it is intertwined with a wide array of biological processes. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in the interactions between mediators of inflammation and other cells such as stem cells and cancer cells. Since tissue injuries are associated with the release of inflammatory mediators, it would be difficult to address this subject without considering the implications of their systemic effects. In this review, we discuss the effects of inflammatory reactions on stem cells and extrapolate on information pertaining to cancer biology. The discussion focuses on integrins and cytokines, and identifies the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) as central to the inflammatory response. Since stem cell therapy has been proposed for type II diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, pulmonary edema, these disorders are used as examples to discuss the roles of inflammatory mediators. We propose prospects for future research on targeting the NFkappaB signaling pathway. Finally, we explore the bridge between inflammation and stem cells, including neural stem cells and adult stem cells from the bone marrow. The implications of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine as pertaining to inflammation are vast based on their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Such features of stem cells offer great potential for therapy in graft-versus-host disease, conditions with a significant inflammatory component, and tissue regeneration.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Inflammation Research
Show more