Implications and potential applications of bactericidal fullerene water suspensions: effect of nC(60) concentration, exposure conditions and shelf life

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA.
Water Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 1.11). 05/2008; 57(10):1533-8. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2008.282
Source: PubMed


Stable fullerene water suspensions (nC(60)) exhibited potent antibacterial activity to physiologically different bacteria in low-salts media over a wide range of exposure conditions. Antibacterial activity was observed in the presence or absence of light or oxygen, and increased with both exposure time and dose. The activity was also influenced by the nC(60) storage conditions and by the age of the buckminsterfullerene (C(60)) used to make nC(60). These results reflect the potential impact of nC(60) on the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggest novel alternatives for disinfection and microbial control.

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    • "Of the Fullerenes in particular, Buckminster fullerene C 60 e a nearly spherical molecule made of sixty carbon atoms and a diameter of 0.7 nm [2], has attracted considerable attention owing to its fascinating electronic properties [3]. C 60 and its derivatives are found to be useful in a wide array of applications that include single molecule transistors [4] [5], drug delivery [6] and water disinfectation [7]. The highest reported superconducting transition temperature (z33 K), in an organic compound is that of C 60 e Cs 3 C 60 [8]. "
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    • "Results of the studies indicate that the level of antimicrobial effects depends on a specific derivative of C 60 fullerene, on a selected testing organism and on environmental conditions (pH, electric charge and salinity). Negative effects of C 60 fullerene and its derivatives on specific groups of living organisms could be used for biocide purposes in water treatment [10] or decontamination. Therefore, we have conducted experiments in which we wanted to evaluate potential biocide effects of C 60 fullerene and its derivatives on selected microorganisms. "
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution deals with preparation of C 60 fullerene derivatives (oxo derivative, bromo derivative, hydrolyzed bromoderivative, bromo-chloro derivative), their identification and pilot testing of their biological effects on unicellular organisms. The contribution describes effects of C 60 fullerene derivatives, both on prokaryotic organisms (bacteria, cyanobacteria) and eukaryotic organisms (algae) and assesses their potential use as biocides.
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    • "Studies on the antibacterial activity by aqueous suspensions of fullerenes (Sayes et al., 2005) suggested that the degree of toxicity to E. coli was linked to production of ROS. Contrarily, it has also been suggested that the FWS of fullerenes, nC 60 exerts ROS-independent oxidative stress in bacteria, with evidence of protein oxidation, changes in cell membrane potential, and interruption of cellular respiration (Lyon et al., 2008). Though pristine C 60 is non-toxic to the cells (Levi et al., 2006), FWS (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/C 60 , gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD)/C 60 , and nano-C 60 ) and fullerenols (C 60 (OH) 12, C 60 (OH) 36.8H 2 O, and C 60 (OH) 44.8H 2 O) have been found to be toxic to six kinds of bacteria and two kinds of fungi (Aoshima et al., 2009). "
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