Article

Role of Depression, Stress, and Trauma in HIV Disease Progression

Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7160, USA.
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.47). 06/2008; 70(5):539-45. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181777a5f
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Despite advances in HIV treatment, there continues to be great variability in the progression of this disease. This paper reviews the evidence that depression, stressful life events, and trauma account for some of the variation in HIV disease course. Longitudinal studies both before and after the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) are reviewed. To ensure a complete review, PubMed was searched for all English language articles from January 1990 to July 2007. We found substantial and consistent evidence that chronic depression, stressful events, and trauma may negatively affect HIV disease progression in terms of decreases in CD4 T lymphocytes, increases in viral load, and greater risk for clinical decline and mortality. More research is warranted to investigate biological and behavioral mediators of these psychoimmune relationships, and the types of interventions that might mitigate the negative health impact of chronic depression and trauma. Given the high rates of depression and past trauma in persons living with HIV/AIDS, it is important for healthcare providers to address these problems as part of standard HIV care.

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Available from: Jane Leserman, Aug 31, 2015
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    • "During all this time the sympathy and care is transformed into silence, avoidance, denial, fear, anger up to the violence (Malcolm, Aggleton et al., 1998). Learning about the HIV status through the lab analyses is always a traumatic experience which changes a person's life (Leserman, 2008). The difficulties relate to the discrimination and stigmatization which complicate the compliance and relate to the need to apply the holistic models of caring, which treat the psychological, spiritual and physical dimensions for HIV infected patients (Barroso & Powell-Cope, 2000). "
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    DESCRIPTION: Stigma often is associated with misconception and insufficient knowledge for the disease itself and the transmission ways, the moral judgment and the way people may get infected.
    Full-text · Research · Aug 2015
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    • "During all this time the sympathy and care is transformed into silence, avoidance, denial, fear, anger up to the violence (Malcolm, Aggleton et al., 1998). Learning about the HIV status through the lab analyses is always a traumatic experience which changes a person's life (Leserman, 2008). The difficulties relate to the discrimination and stigmatization which complicate the compliance and relate to the need to apply the holistic models of caring, which treat the psychological, spiritual and physical dimensions for HIV infected patients (Barroso & Powell-Cope, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Stigma often is associated with misconception and insufficient knowledge for the disease itself and the transmission ways, the moral judgment and the way people may get infected. Purpose: The main aim of this study is to establish the attitudes of Vlora University students towards persons living with HIV/AIDS. Methodology: This is a descriptive study where quantitative method was used for the data and information resulting from a survey structured in the form of a questionnaire. The study participants were 721 randomly selected students from the Vlora University. For statistical analysis of the data was used statistical program SAS (Statistical Analysis System) version 9.1. A p values ≤ 0,05 were accepted as statistically significant. Results: The average age of the students was 20.75 ± 2.2 years, 56.45% were female and 43.55% male. Regarding attitudes towards persons living with HIV 83% of students did not agree to use the same utensils with a person infected with HIV, 75% affirm that they can not kiss a person infected with HIV, 74% can not swim or bath with a person living with HIV. Even though 65.54% of the students have a good knowledge about HIV / AIDS, 47% result that keep stigmatizing attitude towards people with HIV (P<0.0001<0.05). There was no significant association between gender (P=0.1516>0.05), subject of the study (P=0.1101>0.05) and HIV related attitudes items. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the benefit of furnishing Vlora University students with accurate information about HIV/AIDS as a strategy to eliminate the stigma of AIDS.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Aug 2015
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    • "particularly susceptible to opportunistic infections (Jayarajan & Prabha, 2010). According to Leserman (2008), one of the most stressful factors in the course of HIV/AIDS that may cause depression and/or PTSD symptoms is the unpredictable course of this disease. The state of constant unpredictability is rising because HIV infections last longer and because of the awareness that there is still no effective cure for HIV—these factors may be a substantial source of post-traumatic symptoms in the HIV+ population (Theuninck et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · AIDS Care
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