Smoke-free laws and adult smoking prevalence

University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, 760 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0232, USA.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.09). 08/2008; 47(2):206-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.04.009
Source: PubMed


To evaluate whether the adult smoking rate changed in Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, following the enactment of a smoke-free public places ordinance.
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2001-2005 were used to test whether smoking rates changed in Fayette County from the pre- to post-law period, relative to the change in 30 Kentucky counties with similar demographics. The sample consisted of 10,413 BRFSS respondents: 7139 pre-law (40 months) and 3274 post-law (20 months).
There was a 31.9% decline in adult smoking in Fayette County (25.7% pre-law to 17.5% post-law). In the group of 30 Control counties, the rate was 28.4% pre-law and 27.6% post-law. Controlling for seasonality, time trend, age, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, and income, there was a significant Time (pre- vs. post-law) by Group (Fayette vs. Controls) interaction. There were an estimated 16,500 fewer smokers in Fayette County during post-law compared to pre-law.
There was a significant effect of smoke-free legislation on adult smoking rates.

Download full-text


Available from: Mary Kay Rayens, Feb 12, 2015
  • Source
    • "As predicted, the strongest association was between extent of agreement with smoking regulations and perceived normative pressure. This suggests that the success of smoke-free air policies in reducing smoking behavior, as reported in many studies (Bauer et al., 2005; Fichtenberg & Glantz, 2002; Hahn et al., 2008; Heloma & Jaakkola, 2003; Moskowitz, Lin, & Hudes, 2000; Siegel et al., 2008), may be attributable to positive perceptions of the policies and subsequent increases in perceived normative pressure to engage in quitting behaviors. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Smoke-free air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and four without a comprehensive law. Agreement with regulating smoking in public places was significantly associated with attitudes and perceived normative pressure about quitting. Nicotine dependence was significantly associated with attitudes and perceived behavioral control. There was also a direct effect of nicotine dependence on intention to take measures to quit smoking. Smoke-free air laws appear to influence quitting intentions through the formation of positive attitudes about regulating smoking in public places and the perception of normative pressure to take measures to quit. Implications for smoke-free air policy campaigns and challenges in evaluating their effectiveness are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Health Education & Behavior
  • Source
    • "These smoke-free air laws are primarily intended to protect the public from exposure to secondhand smoke and not to directly motivate smokers to engage in cessation. However, they change the environment in which smoking occurs, and there is growing evidence that they are effective in reducing individuals' smoking (Bauer, Hyland, Li, Steger, & Cummings, 2005; Fichtenberg & Glantz, 2002; Hahn et al., 2008; Heloma & Jaakkola, 2003; Moskowitz, Lin, & Hudes, 2000). Most of the existing evidence, however, is from cross-sectional studies. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because of the large burden of disease attributable to cigarette smoking, a variety of tobacco control interventions, some focused on changing individual behavior and others focused on influencing societal norms, have been introduced. The current study tested the combined effect of behavioral intention and exposure to a comprehensive smoke-free air law as a prospective predictor of taking measures to quit smoking. Participants were 187 adults living in 7 Texas cities, 3 with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and 4 without such a law, who reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and completed a 1-month follow-up interview. Data were collected by telephone administration of a questionnaire. Results showed that, compared with smokers with low behavioral intention to take measures to quit smoking and no exposure to a comprehensive smoke-free air law, the smokers with high behavioral intention and exposure to a comprehensive law had the greatest odds of taking measures to quit smoking. This longitudinal study provides further evidence that the most successful smoking cessation campaigns will be multifaceted addressing individual factors with educational strategies designed to change beliefs and intentions and environmental factors with policy-based interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Health Promotion Practice
  • Source
    • "Influences on smoking are likely to extend beyond the proximal influences of family and peers. For example, at the community level, community norms, anti-smoking legislation/policies and socioeconomic well-being are linked to smoking prevalence [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24]. At the school level, anti-smoking policies reduce the risks of smoking onset among adolescents [25] [26]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite considerable success in tobacco control, many teenagers in Australia and other industrialised countries still smoke tobacco. There is mixed evidence on the relative influence of proximal social networks (parents/siblings/peers) on pre- and early-teen smoking, and no research has examined how these influences compare after accounting for school- and community-level effects.The aim of this study was to compare the relative influences of parents, siblings and peers, after accounting for school- and community-level variation in smoking. A cross-sectional fixed and random effects model of smoking prevalence was used, with individuals (n = 7314) nested within schools (n = 231) nested within communities (n = 30). Grade 6 and 8 students (modal ages 11 and 13 years) completed an on-line survey. Key variables included parent/sibling/peer use. Controls included alcohol involvement, sensation seeking, pro-social beliefs, laws/norms about substance use and school commitment. There was significant variation in smoking at both the school and community levels, supporting the need for a multilevel model. Individual-level predictors accounted for much of the variance at higher levels. The strongest effects were for number of friends who smoke, sibling smoking and alcohol involvement. Smaller significant effects were found for parent smoking. At the community level, socioeconomic disadvantage was significant, but community-level variance in pro-social and drug-related laws/norms was not related to smoking. Cross-level interactions were generally non-significant. Early teenage smoking was best explained by sibling and peer smoking, and individual risks largely accounted for the substantial variation observed across schools and communities. In terms of future tobacco control, findings point to the utility of targeting families in disadvantaged communities.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Drug and Alcohol Review
Show more