Long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation in recipients 60 years of age and older at the University of Florida
Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Clinical transplants
As the population ages, the transplant community will continue to see "elderly" patients with end-stage kidney disease who are seeking transplantation. In this report we describe long-term outcomes of 315 primary kidney transplants performed at the University of Florida in recipients aged > or = 60 years and compare them to results from 3 younger recipient cohorts. Among recipients > or = 60 years, patient survival was significantly worse than for younger recipients but no differences in graft or death-censored graft survival were seen. We suspect that although patient survival was worst in the oldest group, there were likely other causes of graft loss within the younger groups that balanced the effects of death on graft survival in the oldest group. Among recipients aged > or = 60 years, patient survival at 10 years was 55% for living-donor kidney recipients and 46% for deceased-donor kidney recipients. African-American recipients had a higher risk of mortality and graft loss in all age groups after deceased donor kidney transplantation but not after living donor transplantation. Delayed graft function negatively impacted outcomes among all recipients and the adverse effects were greater after deceased donor than living donor transplantation. These effects were also seen within the oldest recipient age group. Increased donor age was a significant risk factor for death and graft loss among all age groups after deceased donor kidney transplantation but not among living-donor kidney recipients. More specifically, recipients aged > or = 60 years who received kidneys from donors > or = 60 years demonstrated significantly worse outcomes when compared to those receiving donor kidneys < 60 years. The presence of diabetes mellitus in recipients > or = 60 years was not a significant risk factor for mortality or graft loss after transplantation. Acceptable results can be obtained after kidney transplantation in recipients aged > or = 60 years. Future investigations should focus on improving recipient selection in the elderly population, identifying strategies to minimize DGF in deceased donor kidneys, understanding all variables involved in the risk associated with recipient race, and increasing living donor transplantation across all age groups.
Available from: Heinrich Wolfgang Thaler
- "In pancreas transplantation, age is known to be the major risk factor for adverse patient outcome following transplantation. Older transplant recipients had worse outcomes compared with those who received organs at a younger age (Foley et al., 2005). Ablorsu et al. (2008) showed similar 1-year patient and pancreas graft survival rates in carefully selected older recipients (>50 years and older) in comparison to younger recipients. "
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ABSTRACT: Many transplant studies in elderly patients focus on survival and mortality rates. It was the aim of this review to evaluate publications dealing with individual patient performance and independence.
The literature search included all articles retrievable for the hit "transplantation in elderly recipients" between 1960 and 2010. For quality search the inclusion criteria were as follows: older than 60 years and transplanted kidney, liver, heart, lung or pancreas from a deceased or living donor. We focussed on parameters concerning quality of life, frailty, nutritional status/weight loss, drugs/interactions/polypharmacy, gait/osteoporosis/fracture, delirium/dementia and geriatric assessment to address physical and psychosocial functionality of elderly recipients.
The initial hit list contained 1427 citations from electronic databases. 249 abstracts thereof were selected for full review. A total of 60 articles met final inclusion criteria. Finally, only five studies met the qualitative inclusion criteria as listed above.
The number of elderly patients placed on waiting lists has increased dramatically and will further grow. Interdisciplinary collaboration and distinct patient selection is recommended in most of the studies. However, data concerning quality of life and related parameters in elderly transplant recipients are rare.
Available from: Marian Klinger
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ABSTRACT: There is a growing body of evidence showing that the intensity of rejection is weaker in older kidney allograft recipients while chronic complications, but not rejection, are the main causes of graft loss. To investigate whether the age of the recipient is a factor affecting the expressions of the CD28, CTLA-4, and CD40L costimulatory molecules on CD4+ T cells. Their expression levels were determined in 78 kidney transplant recipients aged 17-68 years. The expression was assessed on unstimulated and anti-CD3 antibody + IL-2-stimulated CD4+ T cells. Median time after transplantation was 20 months and median serum creatinine was 1.5 mg/dl. Significant correlations between age and CD28 expression (r = -0.4, P = 0.0004) on CD4+ T cells and between age and CTLA-4 expression after stimulation (r = 0.34, P = 0.008) were found. CD40L expression on CD4+ T cells was not affected by recipient age. The decreased expression of CD28 and enhanced expression of CTLA-4 (after stimulation) associated with age may be helpful in transplant acceptance.
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ABSTRACT: More than half the newly wait-listed patients for kidney transplantation in 2005 were older than 50 years, and 13% were older than 65 years. As waiting times for a deceased donor kidney increase, these older candidates are disadvantaged by rapidly deteriorating health, often resulting in death or removal from the wait list before transplantation.
An observational cohort study was conducted using data from the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing.
All adult kidney-only transplantations performed in recipients 60 years and older from 1996 to 2005 were included.
The recipient cohort was stratified into 4 groups based on donor source: older living donor (OLD: living donor age > 55 years), younger living donor (YLD: living donor age </= 55 years), standard criteria deceased donor (SCD), and expanded criteria deceased donor (ECD).
Early posttransplantation outcomes, graft survival, patient survival, renal function 1 year posttransplantation, and relative risk of graft loss and patient death were compared.
Of 23,754 kidney transplantations performed in recipients 60 years and older, 7,006 were living donor transplantations (1,133 were > 55 years [OLD] and 5,873 were <or= 55 years [YLD]), 12,197 from SCDs, and 4,551 from ECDs. Early posttransplantation outcomes were best in YLD transplantations, followed by SCD and OLD transplantations. OLD transplantations were associated with inferior 3-year graft survival rates (85.7%), but similar 3-year patient survival rates (88.4%) compared with YLD (3-year graft survival, 83.4%; patient survival, 87.4%) and had superior graft survival compared with all deceased donor options. Compared with OLD transplantations, ECD transplantations were associated with a greater risk of graft loss (hazard ratio, 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 4.74).
Observational retrospective studies using registry data are subject to inherent limitations, including the possibility of selection bias.
With superior graft and patient survival in recipients of transplants from OLDs compared with SCDs and ECDs, OLDs may be an important option for elderly transplantation candidates and should be considered for older patients with a willing and suitable older donor.
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