Development of a slow non-viral DNA release system from P(DL)LA scaffolds fabricated using a supercritical CO2 technique
University of Nottingham, Nottigham, England, United Kingdom Biotechnology and Bioengineering
(Impact Factor: 4.13).
10/2007; 98(3):679-93. DOI: 10.1002/bit.21446
Polyamidoamine polymers (PAA) comprising methylene-bisacrylamide/dimethylethylene-diamine monomers were synthesized, complexed with DNA and incorporated into porous P(DL)LA scaffolds by using a supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) technique. Scaffolds were made in a dry state consequently there was a need to lyophilize the complexes. A statistically significant reduction of the transfection efficiency was observed in the absence of trehalose when compared to the original complex after freeze-drying. Increasing concentrations (0-10% w/v) of trehalose were added to the complex prior to freeze-drying. Structure dependent differences in DNA binding were evaluated by gel electrophoresis and thermal transition analysis. TEM and PCS showed aggregate formation after freeze-drying without trehalose. Scaffolds were characterized by pore sizes of 173 +/- 73 microm and a porosity of 71%. The transfection potential of the released DNA was investigated by seeding scaffolds with A549 cells and following firefly luciferase as a marker gene after 48 h exposure. Low but continuous levels of transfection were observed for PAA complexes during a 60-day study. Complexes made with Lipofectaminetrade mark gave initially higher levels of DNA release but no further expression was seen after 40 days. Uncomplexed DNA showed background levels of transfection. Culturing cells on 3D scaffolds showed a benefit in retention of transfection activity with time compared to 2D controls. Transfection levels could be increased when cells were grown in OptiMEM. This study demonstrated that PAA/DNA complexes incorporated into a P(DL)LA scaffold made by using scCO(2) processing exhibited a slow release and extended gene expression profile.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- "Recently, impregnation of three-dimensional porous scaffolds using carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) has been used to develop alternative clean processes for the preparation of drug-loaded polymeric matrices when the drug is soluble in scCO 2 and the polymer chosen can be swollen by the supercritical fluid (Mooney et al. 1996; Harris et al. 1998; Kikic & Sist 2000; Duarte et al. 2007; Heyde et al. 2007). Impregnation using supercritical fluid technologies has the advantage of using a supercritical fluid with high diffusivity in the polymer chosen in addition to its high solubility and plasticizing capability (Berens et al. 1992; Kazarian 2000; Duarte et al. 2007). "
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ABSTRACT: This paper provides an extensive overview of published studies on the development and applications of three-dimensional bone tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds with potential capability for the controlled delivery of therapeutic drugs. Typical drugs considered include gentamicin and other antibiotics generally used to combat osteomyelitis, as well as anti-inflammatory drugs and bisphosphonates, but delivery of growth factors is not covered in this review. In each case reviewed, special attention has been given to the technology used for controlling the release of the loaded drugs. The possibility of designing multifunctional three-dimensional bone TE scaffolds for the emerging field of bone TE therapeutics is discussed. A detailed summary of drugs included in three-dimensional scaffolds and the several approaches developed to combine bioceramics with various polymeric biomaterials in composites for drug-delivery systems is included. The main results presented in the literature are discussed and the remaining challenges in the field are summarized with suggestions for future research directions.
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ABSTRACT: 4 W of laser power at 1040 nm has been achieved for the first time from an Yb-doped double clad PCF. The inner cladding of this fibre has the highest NA yet reported of 0.7-0.8.
Available from: Kathryn R Penzkover
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ABSTRACT: Nonviral delivery vectors are attractive for gene therapy approaches in tissue engineering, but suffer from low transfection efficiency and short-term gene expression. We hypothesized that the sustained delivery of poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-condensed DNA from three-dimensional biodegradable scaffolds that encourage cell infiltration could greatly enhance gene expression. To test this hypothesis, a PEI-condensed plasmid encoding beta-galactosidase was incorporated into porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds, using a gas foaming process. Four conditions were examined: condensed DNA and uncondensed DNA encapsulated into PLG scaffolds, blank scaffolds, and bolus delivery of condensed DNA in combination with implantation of PLG scaffolds. Implantation of scaffolds incorporating condensed beta-galactosidase plasmid into the subcutaneous tissue of rats resulted in a high level of gene expression for the entire 15-week duration of the experiment, as exemplified by extensive positive staining for beta-galactosidase gene expression observed on the exterior surface and throughout the cross-sections of the explanted scaffolds. No positive staining could be observed for the control conditions either on the exterior surface or in the cross-section at 8- and 15-week time points. In addition, a high percentage (55-60%) of cells within scaffolds incorporating condensed DNA at 15 weeks demonstrated expression of the DNA, confirming the sustained uptake and expression of the encapsulated plasmid DNA. Quantitative analysis of beta-galactosidase gene expression revealed that expression levels in scaffolds incorporating condensed DNA were one order of magnitude higher than those of other conditions at the 2- week time point and nearly two orders of magnitude higher than those of the control conditions at the 8- and 15-week time points. This study demonstrated that the sustained delivery of PEI-condensed plasmid DNA from PLG scaffolds led to an in vivo long-term and high level of gene expression, and this system may find application in areas such as bone tissue engineering.
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