Incidence, Complications, and Risk Factors for Prolonged Stay in Children Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Influenza

Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 04/2007; 119(4):740-8. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2679
Source: PubMed


Few studies have examined the characteristics and clinical course of children hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza. We sought to (1) estimate the age-specific incidence of influenza-related hospitalizations, (2) describe the characteristics and clinical course of children hospitalized with influenza, and (3) identify risk factors for prolonged hospitalization.
Children < or = 21 years of age hospitalized with community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza at a large urban children's hospital were identified through review of laboratory records and administrative data sources. A neighborhood cohort embedded within our study population was used to estimate the incidence of community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among children < 18 years old. Risk factors for prolonged hospitalization (> 6 days) were determined by using logistic regression.
We identified 745 children hospitalized with community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 4-year study period. In this urban cohort, the incidence of community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization was 7 per 10,000 child-years of observation. The median age was 1.8 years; 25% were infants < 6 months old, and 77% were children < 5 years old. Many children (49%) had a medical condition associated with an increased risk of influenza-related complications. The incidence of influenza-related complications was higher among children with a preexisting high-risk condition than for previously healthy children (29% vs 21%). However, only cardiac and neurologic/neuromuscular diseases were found to be independent risk factors for prolonged hospitalization.
Influenza is a common cause of hospitalization among both healthy and chronically ill children. Children with cardiac or neurologic/neuromuscular disease are at increased risk of prolonged hospitalization; therefore, children with these conditions and their contacts should be a high priority to receive vaccine. The impact on pediatric hospitalization of the new recommendation to vaccinate all children 6 months to < 5 years old should be assessed.

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    • "In a retrospective cohort study, patients aged 21 years or younger who were hospitalized with community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza and had NMDs were more likely to have severe disease that required mechanical ventilation, and their risk of respiratory failure was 12% [10]. In a similar study of children hospitalized for influenza, NMDs and cardiac diseases were the only underlying conditions that were independent risk factors for prolonged hospitalization [11]. Children with NMDs have also been shown to be at an increased risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) encompass a broad spectrum of conditions. Because infections may be relevant to the final prognosis of most NMDs, vaccination appears to be the simplest and most effective solution for protecting NMD patients from vaccine-preventable infections. However, very few studies have evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, tolerability, and efficacy of different vaccines in NMD patients; therefore, detailed vaccination recommendations for NMD patients are not available. Here, we present vaccination recommendations from a group of Italian Scientific Societies for optimal disease prevention in NMD patients that maintain high safety levels. We found that NMD patients can be classified into two groups according to immune function: patients with normal immunity and patients who are immunocompromised, including those who intermittently or continuously take immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with normal immunity and do not take immunosuppressive therapy can be vaccinated as healthy subjects. In contrast, immunocompromised patients, including those who take immunosuppressive therapy, should receive all inactivated vaccines as well as influenza and pneumococcal vaccines; these patients should not be administered live attenuated vaccines. In all cases, the efficacy and long-term persistence of immunity from vaccination in NMD patients can be lower than in normal subjects. Household contacts of immunocompromised NMD patients should also be vaccinated appropriately.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Vaccine
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    • "In our study, we adjusted for clinical characteristics in our multivariable analysis that were previously linked to higher influenza viral load, prolonged hospitalization, secondary pneumonia, as well as other viral or bacterial complications (33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38). We found no consistent treatment-related patterns with respect to disease severity of illness when compared clinical presentation by treatment type. "
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data evaluating the relationship between influenza treatment and hospitalization duration. Our purpose assessed the association between different treatments and hospital stay among Korean pediatric influenza patients. Total 770 children ≤ 15 yr-of-age hospitalized with community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza at three large urban tertiary care hospitals were identified through a retrospective medical chart review. Demographic, clinical, and cost data were extracted and a multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the associations between influenza treatment types and hospital stay. Overall, there were 81% of the patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza who received antibiotic monotherapy whereas only 4% of the patients received oseltamivir monotherapy. The mean treatment-related charges for hospitalizations treated with antibiotics, alone or with oseltamivir, were significantly higher than those treated with oseltamivir-only (P < 0.001). Influenza patients treated with antibiotics-only and antibiotics/oseltamivir combination therapy showed 44.9% and 28.2%, respectively, longer duration of hospitalization compared to those treated with oseltamivir-only. Patients treated with antibiotics, alone or combined with oseltamivir, were associated with longer hospitalization and significantly higher medical charges, compared to patients treated with oseltamivir alone. In Korea, there is a need for more judicious use of antibiotics, appropriate use of influenza rapid testing. Graphical Abstract
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Korean medical science
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    • "Compared with older children and adults, young children, especially those <2 years of age, are at increased risk for influenza-associated complications, including hospitalization.1–6 Characteristics previously identified to increase the risk of severe outcomes from seasonal influenza illness include male gender,4 age <12 months,4 gestational age <37 weeks7 and underlying medical conditions including pulmonary,7,8 neurologic/neuromuscular disease8,9 or cardiac conditions.7–9 "
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    ABSTRACT: Young children are at increased risk of severe outcomes from influenza illness, including hospitalization. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for influenza-associated hospitalizations among children in U.S. Emerging Infections Program sites. Cases were children 6-59 months of age hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed influenza infections during 2005-08. Age- and zip-code-matched controls were enrolled. Data on child, caregiver, and household characteristics were collected from parents and medical records. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for hospitalization. We enrolled 290 (64%) of 454 eligible cases and 1,089 (49%) of 2,204 eligible controls. Risk for influenza hospitalization increased with maternal age <26 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.9); household income below the poverty threshold (OR 2.2, CI 1.4-3.6); smoking by >50% of household members (OR 2.9, CI 1.4-6.6); lack of household influenza vaccination (OR 1.8, CI 1.2-2.5); and presence of chronic illnesses, including hematologic/oncologic (OR 11.8, CI 4.5-31.0), pulmonary (OR 2.9, CI 1.9-4.4), and neurologic (OR 3.8, CI 1.6-9.2) conditions. Full influenza immunization decreased the risk among children aged 6-23 months (OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9) but not among those 24-59 months of age (OR 1.5, CI 0.8-3.0; p-value for difference = 0.01). Chronic illnesses, young maternal age, poverty, household smoking, and lack of household influenza vaccination increased the risk of influenza hospitalization. These characteristics may help providers to identify young children who are at greatest risk for severe outcomes from influenza illness.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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