Function and localization within rostral prefrontal cortex

UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology Department, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 7.06). 05/2007; 362(1481):887-99. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2095
Source: PubMed


We propose that rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC; approximating area 10) supports a cognitive system that facilitates either stimulus-oriented (SO) or stimulus-independent (SI) attending. SO attending is the behaviour required to concentrate on current sensory input, whereas SI attending is the mental processing that accompanies self-generated or self-maintained thought. Regions of medial area 10 support processes related to the former, whilst areas of lateral area 10 support processes that enable the latter. Three lines of evidence for this 'gateway hypothesis' are presented. First, we demonstrate the predicted patterns of activation in area 10 during the performance of new tests designed to stress the hypothetical function. Second, we demonstrate area 10 activations during the performance of established functions (prospective memory, context memory), which should hypothetically involve the proposed attentional system. Third, we examine predictions about behaviour-activation patterns within rostral PFC that follow from the hypothesis. We show with meta-analysis of neuroimaging investigations that these predictions are supported across a wide variety of tasks, thus establishing a general principle for functional imaging studies of this large brain region. We then show that while the gateway hypothesis accommodates a large range of findings relating to the functional organization of area 10 along a medial-lateral dimension, there are further principles relating to other dimensions and functions. In particular, there is a functional dissociation between the anterior medial area 10, which supports processes required for SO attending, and the caudal medial area 10, which supports processes relating to mentalizing.

Download full-text


Available from: Iroise Dumontheil, Mar 11, 2014
    • "We thereby aimed to address the limitation of previous studies that did not include NBO as a comparison group. Choice of regions in reward circuitry was determined from previous neuroimaging findings (Schultz et al. 2000; Knutson et al. 2001; Baxter & Murray, 2002; Pagnoni et al. 2002; O'Doherty, 2004; Tanaka et al. 2004; Yoshida & Ishii, 2006; Walton et al. 2006, 2011; Burgess et al. 2007; Koechlin & Hyafil, 2007; Boorman et al. 2009; Croxson et al. 2009; Haber & Knutson, 2010; Kurniawan et al. 2010; Rushworth et al. 2011; FitzGerald et al. 2012; Tachibana & Hikosaka, 2012; Russo & Nestler, 2013). BO and NBO included youth with and without current non-BD psychopathology, some of whom were treated with psychotropic medications. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) (BO) are at higher risk of BD than offspring of parents with non-BD psychopathology (NBO), although both groups are at higher risk than offspring of psychiatrically healthy parents (HC) for other affective and psychiatric disorders. Abnormal functioning in reward circuitry has been demonstrated previously in individuals with BD. We aimed to determine whether activation and functional connectivity in this circuitry during risky decision-making differentiated BO, NBO and HC. Method: BO (n = 29; mean age = 13.8 years; 14 female), NBO (n = 28; mean age = 13.9 years; 12 female) and HC (n = 23; mean age = 13.7 years; 11 female) were scanned while performing a number-guessing reward task. Of the participants, 11 BO and 12 NBO had current non-BD psychopathology; five BO and four NBO were taking psychotropic medications. Results: A 3 (group) × 2 (conditions: win-control/loss-control) analysis of variance revealed a main effect of group on right frontal pole activation: BO showed significantly greater activation than HC. There was a significant main effect of group on functional connectivity between the bilateral ventral striatum and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Z > 3.09, cluster-p < 0.05): BO showed significantly greater negative functional connectivity than other participants. These between-group differences remained after removing youth with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medications from analyses. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that reward circuitry activation and functional connectivity distinguish BO from NBO and HC. The fact that the pattern of findings remained when comparing healthy BO v. healthy NBO v. HC suggests that these neuroimaging measures may represent trait-level neurobiological markers conferring either risk for, or protection against, BD in youth.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Psychological Medicine
  • Source
    • "Besides the DLPFC, the activity of the rostral PFC (BA 10) also showed a significant reputation effect in our study. The role of this brain region in complex decision-making and task switching has been extensively described [38], along with its specific function in protecting the execution of long-term mental plans from immediate environmental demands and in generating new, possibly more rewarding behavioral or cognitive sequences [39]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "We identified the specific GMV correlation pattern for each OFC subregion in this article. The OFCa showed GMV correlations primarily with the SFG and TP which are involved in the integration of complex cognitive processing [Burgess et al., 2007]. The OFCm exhibit a stronger GMV correlation with the ACC, which is consistent with previous studies that showed anatomical [Ongur and Price, 2000] and functional connectivity [Yu, 2011] between these areas. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is an enigmatic brain region that cannot be parcellated reliably using diffusional and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) because there is signal dropout that results from an inherent defect in imaging techniques. We hypothesise that the OFC can be reliably parcellated into subregions based on gray matter volume (GMV) covariance patterns that are derived from artefact-free structural images. A total of 321 healthy young subjects were examined by high-resolution structural MRI. The OFC was parcellated into subregions-based GMV covariance patterns; and then sex and laterality differences in GMV covariance pattern of each OFC subregion were compared. The human OFC was parcellated into the anterior (OFCa), medial (OFCm), posterior (OFCp), intermediate (OFCi), and lateral (OFCl) subregions. This parcellation scheme was validated by the same analyses of the left OFC and the bilateral OFCs in male and female subjects. Both visual observation and quantitative comparisons indicated a unique GMV covariance pattern for each OFC subregion. These OFC subregions mainly covaried with the prefrontal and temporal cortices, cingulate cortex and amygdala. In addition, GMV correlations of most OFC subregions were similar across sex and laterality except for significant laterality difference in the OFCl. The right OFCl had stronger GMV correlation with the right inferior frontal cortex. Using high-resolution structural images, we established a reliable parcellation scheme for the human OFC, which may provide an in vivo guide for subregion-level studies of this region and improve our understanding of the human OFC at subregional levels. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Human Brain Mapping
Show more