ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Complementary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine Chamomile

Authors:

Abstract

As part of any medication history, pediatricians always should ask a child's caregiver about the child's use of over-the-counter remedies and herbal products. Chamomile is used widely to treat children who have GI disorders such as colic, dyspepsia, and diarrhea and to treat skin conditions such as dermatitis. Clinical studies have demonstrated that chamomile may have a positive effect in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, colic, and diarrhea. There are few adverse effects in children. However, children who are allergic to ragweed, asters, and chrysanthemums should use chamomile with caution.
Complementary, Holistic, and
Integrative Medicine: Chamomile
Paula Gardiner, MD*
Author Disclosure
Dr Gardiner disclosed
that she is supported
by an NIH
Institutional National
Research Service
Award, Grant No.
T32-AT0051-03 from
the National Center
for Complementary
and Alternative
Medicine (NCCAM).
NOTE: The agents
discussed in this series
are designated as dietary
supplements rather than
drugs. Although dietary
supplements are
regulated by the United
States Food and Drug
Administration (FDA),
their manufacturers may
make claims with little
evidence and need not
prove safety prior to
marketing. The burden is
on the FDA to monitor
safety after the product
is on the market. Readers
are referred to the 1994
Dietary Supplement
Health and Education
Act (www.cfsan.fda.gov/
dms/dietsupp.html).
Definition and Description
Chamomile is a common flowering plant and a member of the daisy family. There are two
primary types: German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Roman chamomile (Anthe-
mis nobilis). Most research has focused on German chamomile. Chamomile is one of the
most widely used herbs in the world, especially in children. (1)(2) It is used topically for
rashes, eczema, and hemorrhoids or orally as a mild sedative or for indigestion, diarrhea,
and colic. (3)(4)(5)(6)
Evidence of Efficacy in Pediatrics
Colic
Only two clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of chamomile for the treatment of colic
in children, and both combined chamomile with other herbs. In a prospective, random-
ized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 68 healthy term infants who had colic (2 to
8 weeks old) received either herbal tea (German chamomile, vervain, licorice, fennel, balm
mint) or placebo tea (glucose, flavoring). (7) Each infant was offered treatment with every
bout of colic, up to 150 mL/dose, no more than three times a day. After 7 days of
treatment, parents reported that the tea eliminated the colic in 57% of the infants,
whereas placebo was helpful in only 26% (P0.01). No adverse effects were noted in
either group.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 93 breastfed colicky infants
compared a standardized extract of chamomile (M recutita), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare),
and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) with placebo twice a day for 1 week. (8) Crying time
was reduced in 85.4% of the chamomile/fennel/lemon balm group and in 48.9% of the
placebo group (P0.005). No adverse effects were reported.
Dyspepsia
Chamomile often is combined with peppermint, anise, fennel, and other carminative herbs
to treat stomachaches, gas, indigestion, and bloating. German chamomile has anti-
inflammatory and spasmolytic effects on the stomach and duodenum. (9) No single
product studies of chamomile as a treatment for upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in
children have been published.
Diarrhea
Although oral rehydration therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for diarrhea in
children, a few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of chamomile. In a prospective,
double-blind, randomized, controlled multicenter study, 79 children from the ages of 6
months to 5.5 years who had acute, noncomplicated diarrhea were given either a liquid
preparation containing apple pectin and chamomile fluid extract standardized to 2.5 g/
100 g of chamazulene or placebo for 3 days. (10) Both groups received standard medical
treatment of hydration and electrolyte repletion. The chamomile and apple pectin com-
bination decreased the diarrhea more frequently than did the placebo (P0.05). There was
a nonsignificant trend in satisfaction of parents in the apple pectin/chamomile group.
A follow-up multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study
of 255 children who had acute diarrhea demonstrated that the chamomile and apple
pectin combination was superior to placebo in significantly reducing stool frequency.
(3) Treatment was well tolerated, with the incidence of adverse effects similar to that
of placebo.
*Division for Research and Education in Complementary and Integrative Medical Therapies, Harvard Medical School, Boston,
Mass.
Article complementary medicine
e16 Pediatrics in Review Vol.28 No.4 April 2007 . Provided by Amer Acad of Pediatrics on December 17, 2009 http://pedsinreview.aappublications.orgDownloaded from
Dermatologic Conditions
Chamomile has been used to treat conditions other than
diaper rash. Clinical studies have consistently shown
positive results in the treatment of atopic dermatitis,
acute weeping skin disorders, decubitus ulcers, and
radiation- and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.
(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16) Most of the studies are small
and of poor quality. Therefore, more research is needed
to assess the efficacy of chamomile for the treatment of
skin conditions. Clinical trials and systematic reviews did
not find that chamomile was effective in preventing acute
radiation dermatitis. (17)(18)
Safety
Adverse Events
A few case reports have documented atopic and contact
dermatitis with the use of chamomile. (19)(20)(21)(22)
Some individuals allergic to other members of the aster
family (ragweed, asters, chrysanthemums) are allergic to
chamomile. (19) There are case reports of chamomile
eyewashes causing allergic conjunctivitis. There have
been rare cases of anaphylaxis to chamomile.
(4)(23)(24)(25)(26) No long-term problems have been
identified from taking chamomile.
Drug Interactions
Three cases of chamomile interacting with cyclosporine
in patients who have had renal transplants have been
reported. (27) The mechanism is inhibition of the activ-
ity of P450 CYP1A2 and 3A4. (28)(29) Potential inter-
actions with warfarin have been reported, theoretically
through the same mechanism of inhibition of P450.
(30)(31) There is a theoretical additive effect with other
sedative and anxiolytic medications.
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation
No studies have reported the safety of using chamomile
for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, although
chamomile is widely consumed during pregnancy as a
beverage to treat morning sickness. (32)(33)
Pharmacologic Action
A total of 120 chemical constituents have been identified
in chamomile, including terpenoids (chamazulene),
flavonoids (apigenin and luteolin), and coumarins (um-
belliferone, alpha-bisabolol). (34)(35) The flavonoids
apigenin and luteolin possess anti-inflammatory, carmi-
native, and antispasmodic properties. (34) The anti-
inflammatory, wound-healing, and antimicrobial effects
of German chamomile are attributed to a blue essential
oil that contains sesquiterpene alcohol, alpha-bisabolol,
chamazulene, and flavonoids. (36)(37)(38)
Administration/Dosage Forms
Adult doses of chamomile usually are one cup of tea or
1 to 4 mL of tincture (1:1 in 45% alcohol), three times
daily by mouth. The pediatric dose of flower head is 2 g
three times daily and for a single dose of fluid extract
(ethanol 45% to 60%) is 0.6 mL to 2 mL. (39)
Summary
As part of any medication history, pediatricians always
should ask a child’s caregiver about the child’s use of
over-the-counter remedies and herbal products. Cham-
omile is used widely to treat children who have GI
disorders such as colic, dyspepsia, and diarrhea and to
treat skin conditions such as dermatitis. Clinical studies
have demonstrated that chamomile may have a positive
effect in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, colic, and
diarrhea. There are few adverse effects in children. How-
ever, children who are allergic to ragweed, asters, and
chrysanthemums should use chamomile with caution.
References
1. Lohse B, Stotts JL, Priebe JR. Survey of herbal use by Kansas and
Wisconsin WIC participants reveals moderate, appropriate use and
identifies herbal education needs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:
227–237
2. Noonan K, Arensman RM, Hoover JD. Herbal medication use
in the pediatric surgical patient. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:500–503
3. Becker B, Kuhn U, Hardewig-Budny B. Double-blind, random-
ized evaluation of clinical efficacy and tolerability of an apple
pectin-chamomile extract in children with unspecific diarrhea.
Arzneimittelforschung. 2006;56:387–393
4. Blumental M. The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs. Austin, Tex:
The American Botanical Council; 2003
5. Gardiner P. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita, Anthemis nobilis):
Clinician Information Summary. Boston, Mass: The Longwood
Herbal Task Force, The Center for Holistic Pediatric Education
and Research; 2000. Available at: http://www.longwoodherbal.
org/chamomile/chamomile.cis.pdf
6. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Mono-
graphs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, Tex: Amer-
ican Botanical Council; 1998
7. Weizman Z, Alkrinawi S, Goldfarb D, Bitran C. Efficacy of
herbal tea preparation in infantile colic. J Pediatr. 1993;122:
650652
8. Savino F, Cresi F, Castagno E, Silvestro L, Oggero R. A ran-
domized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a standardized
extract of Matricariae recutita,Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa
officinalis (ColiMil) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants.
Phytother Res. 2005;19:335–340
9. Mann C, Staba E. The chemistry, pharmacology, and commer-
cial formuations of chamomile. Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants.
1986;1:235–280
complementary medicine
Pediatrics in Review Vol.28 No.4 April 2007 e17
. Provided by Amer Acad of Pediatrics on December 17, 2009 http://pedsinreview.aappublications.orgDownloaded from
10. De La Motte S, Bose-O’Reilly S, Heinisch M, Harrison F.
Double-blind comparison of a preparation of pectin/chamomile
extract and placebo in children with diarrhea. [German]. Arznei-
mittelforschung. 1997;47:1247–1249
11. Aertgeerts P, Albring M, Klaschka F, et al. Comparison of
Kamillosan™ cream (2 g ethanolic extract from chamomile flowers
in 100 g cream) versus steroidal (0.25% hydrocortisone, 0.75%
fluocortin butyl ester) and non-steroidal (5% bufexamac) dermatics
in the maintenance therapy of eczema. Zeitschrift fur Haut-
krankheiten. 1985;60:270–277
12. Fidler P, Loprinzi CL, O’Fallon JR, et al. Prospective evalua-
tion of a chamomile mouthwash for prevention of 5-FU-induced
oral mucositis. Cancer. 1996;77:522–525
13. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Phy-
sicians’ Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Spring-
er; 1997
14. Patzelt-Wenczler R, Ponce-Poschl E. Proof of efficacy of Ka-
millosan
®
cream in atopic eczema. Eur J Med Res. 2000;5:171–175
15. Glowania HJ, Raulin C, Swoboda M. The effect of chamomile
on wound healing: a controlled clinical-experimental double-blind
trial. Zeitschrift fur Hautkrankheiten. 1987;62:1262–1271
16. Carl W, Emrich LS. Management of oral mucositis during local
radiation and systemic chemotherapy: a study of 98 patients. J
Prosthet Dent. 1991;66:361–369
17. Wickline MM. Prevention and treatment of acute radiation
dermatitis: a literature review. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2004;31:
237–247
18. Maiche AG, Grohn P, Maki-Hokkonen H. Effect of chamo-
mile cream and almond ointment on acute radiation skin reaction.
Acta Oncol. 1991;30:395–396
19. Paulsen E. Contact sensitization from Compositae-containing
herbal remedies and cosmetics. Contact Derm. 2002;47:189–198
20. Rycroft RJ. Recurrent facial dermatitis from chamomile tea.
Contact Derm. 2003;48:229
21. Pereira F, Santos R, Pereira A. Contact dermatitis from cham-
omile tea. Contact Derm. 1997;36:307
22. Rodriguez-Serna M, Sanchez-Motilla JM, Ramon R, Aliaga A.
Allergic and systemic contact dermatitis from Matricaria chamo-
milla tea. Contact Derm. 1998;39:192–193
23. Subiza J, Subiza JL, Hinojosa M, et al. Anaphylactic reaction
after the ingestion of chamomile tea: a study of cross-reactivity with
other composite pollens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989;84:
353–358
24. Thien FC. Chamomile tea enema anaphylaxis. Med J Aust.
2001;175:54
25. Reider N, Sepp N, Fritsch P, Weinlich G, Jensen-Jarolim E.
Anaphylaxis to camomile: clinical features and allergen cross-
reactivity. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000;30:1436–1443
26. Hausen BM. A 6-year experience with compositae mix. Am J
Contact Dermat. 1996;7:94–99
27. Nowack R, Nowak B. Herbal teas interfere with cyclosporin
levels in renal transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;
20:2554–2556
28. Maliakal PP, Wanwimolruk S. Effect of herbal teas on hepatic
drug metabolizing enzymes in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001;53:
1323–1329
29. Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in
vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by
selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine.
2000;7:273–282
30. Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions be-
tween alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm.
2000;57:1221–1227
31. Segal R, Pilote L. Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamo-
milla. CMAJ. 2006;174:1281–1282
32. Forster DA, Denning A, Wills G, Bolger M, McCarthy E.
Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian
women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2006;6:21
33. Nordeng H, Havnen GC. Use of herbal drugs in pregnancy: a
survey among 400 Norwegian women. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug
Saf. 2004;13:371–380
34. Salamon I. Chamomile, a medicinal plant. The Herb, Spice, and
Medicinal Plant Digest. 1992;10:1–4
35. McKenna D. Botanical Medicines. The Desk Reference of Major
Herbal Supplements. New York, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press;
2002
36. Soliman KM, Badeaa RI. Effect of oil extracted from some
medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food Chem
Toxicol. 2002;40:1669–1675
37. Liu ZH, Nakano H. Antibacterial activity of spice extracts
against food-related bacteria. Journal of the Faculty of Applied
Biological Science, Hiroshima University. 1996;35:181–190
38. Aggag ME, Yousef RT. Study of antimicrobial activity of
chamomile oil. Planta Med. 1972;22:140–144
39. Mahady GB, Fong HH, Farnsworth N. Flos chamomillae.
WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Geneva, Switzer-
land: World Health Organization Publications; 1999
complementary medicine
e18 Pediatrics in Review Vol.28 No.4 April 2007 . Provided by Amer Acad of Pediatrics on December 17, 2009 http://pedsinreview.aappublications.orgDownloaded from
DOI: 10.1542/pir.28-4-e16
2007;28;e16-e18 Pediatr. Rev.
Paula Gardiner
Complementary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine: Chamomile
& Services
Updated Information
http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/28/4/e16
including high-resolution figures, can be found at:
Subspecialty Collections
ders
http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/cgi/collection/skin_disor
Skin Disordersstinal_disorders
http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/cgi/collection/gastrointe
Gastrointestinal Disordersntary_holistic_integrative
http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/cgi/collection/compleme
Complementary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine
following collection(s):
This article, along with others on similar topics, appears in the
Permissions & Licensing
http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/misc/Permissions.shtml
tables) or in its entirety can be found online at:
Information about reproducing this article in parts (figures,
Reprints
http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/misc/reprints.shtml
Information about ordering reprints can be found online:
. Provided by Amer Acad of Pediatrics on December 17, 2009 http://pedsinreview.aappublications.orgDownloaded from
... In many situations, the attention was directed towards the study of plant extracts as it is very well known that in some cases the activity of the phytocomplex is superior to the one of pure phytochemicals due to the synergism of the molecular structures. Traditionally Matricaria chamomilla L has been used for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, astringent, mild sedative properties for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, different bacterial infections of the skin, oral cavity, respiratory tract, wounds, skin irritations, bruises, eczema, burns, haemorrhoids, rheumatic pain, disorders of the eyes, nasal inflammation, anxiety, insomnia [5][6][7]. Scientific studies have assigned for the different types of extracts or volatile oil: antiinflammatory, anticancer, anti-viral, cardioprotective, gastro-protective properties. Also, the beneficial effects in case of haemorrhoids, eczema, osteoporosis, sleep disorders, anxiety, diabetes, vaginitis, have been reported [5][6][7]. ...
... Scientific studies have assigned for the different types of extracts or volatile oil: antiinflammatory, anticancer, anti-viral, cardioprotective, gastro-protective properties. Also, the beneficial effects in case of haemorrhoids, eczema, osteoporosis, sleep disorders, anxiety, diabetes, vaginitis, have been reported [5][6][7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study was designed as a continuation of a complex investigation about the phytochemical composition and biological activity of chamomile, parsley and celery extracts against A375 human melanoma and dendritic cells. Objective The main aim was the evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of selected extracts as well as the in vitro anticancer activity against MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Methods In order to complete the picture regarding the phytochemical composition molecular fingerprint was sketched out by the help of FTIR spectroscopy The activity of two enzymes (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) after incubation with the three extracts was spectrophotometrically assessed. The antimicrobial potential was evaluated by disk diffusion method. The in vitro anti-cancer potential against MCF7 human breast cancer cells was appraised by MTT, LDH, wound healing, cell cycle, DAPI, Annexin-V-PI assays. Results Results showed variations between the investigated extracts in terms of inhibitory activity against enzymes such as acetyl- and butyrilcholinesterase. Chamomile and parsley extracts were active only against tested Gram-positive cocci, while all tested extracts displayed antifungal effects. Among the screened samples at the highest tested concentration, namely 60 µg/mL parsley was the most active extract in terms of reducing the viability of MCF7 - human breast adenocarcinoma cell line and inducing the release of lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand chamomile and celery extracts manifested potent anti-migratory effects. Furthermore, celery extract was the most active in terms of total apoptotic events, while chamomile extract induced the highest necrosis rate. Conclusion The screened samples containing phytochemicals belonging in majority to the class of flavonoids and polyphenols can represent candidates for antimicrobial and anticancer agents.
... They include, among others: sesquiterpenes (e.g., bisabolol and farnesene), sesquiterpenelactones (e.g., chamazulene and matricin), flavonoids (e.g., apigenin and luteolin), and volatile oils [56][57][58]. Studies have shown that chamomile may be used as a mild digestive relaxant to treat, among others, indigestion, motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting [59]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the teratogenicity of Thalidomide has been proven, herbal products are more commonly used in pregnancy to not only relieve morning sickness but also to fight infections. These products are frequently considered as natural and therefore harmless. However, herbs contain a number of active substances that, when used during pregnancy, can affect the development of the fetus. Often, pregnant women do not consult the usage of herbal medicines with a physician. The access to these products is easy and treatment of certain ailments with the use of herbs is common in many countries. The aim of the present literature review was to discuss available data regarding the efficacy and safety of cranberry, chamomile, Echinacea purpurea, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo biloba, and peppermint, which are used to counteract the most common ailments during pregnancy, i.e., infections and pregnancy-related ailments (e.g., nausea and vomiting, dizziness, and headache). Analysis of available data showed that ginger is one of the most extensively analyzed herbal remedies. The dose of ginger below 1000 mg per day may help to relief hypereremesis gravidarum, and such an amount of ginger did not increase frequency of adverse effects for either woman or developing fetus. Data regarding other herbs are most often heterogeneous and give conflicting results with no clear conclusions. However, all herbal products should be used with a special caution in pregnancy. Further high-quality human studies should be determined to confirm the safe doses of herbal products which could be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women.
... In the framework of chamomile, the existence of several components like herniarin, esculetin, a-bisabolol, quercetin, luteolin, and a-farnesene have been reported [30,96,97]. These components possess the capacity of intervening in the CFe-MS interaction process. ...
Article
This investigation parallels the others hoping to address the environmental predicaments. Dealing with the corrosion progression of steel, being in battle with a harsh condition (HCl), using the novel Chamomile flower extract (CFe) could embody the advantageous lies in the green molecules of plants. The morphological influences of this plant extract were studied by exploiting the power of FE-SEM, EDAX, AFM, and contact angle examinations. Results were demonstrative of the surface smoothness increment after CFe inclusion into the medium; smoothing the surface as well as lowering the iron dissolution. Besides, the surface was characterized via GIXRD as well as Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the adsorption of the inhibitor was examined through UV-Vis analysis. The existence of functional groups like C=O and C=C, the reduction of iron dissolution, and the graphene-like compounds' existence confirmation on the metal surface, all subsequent to CFe loading, were the outcome of these assessments. The EIS and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) tests were performed. The outcome showed that the CFe could inhibit the corrosion proliferation substantially especially when the steel was exposed to 600 ppm solution for 8 h; a 98% inhibition efficiency was obtained. The calculations exhibited the CFe mixed inhibitive characteristic and Langmuir was the adsorption isotherm strategy of the studied inhibitor. Finally, the study was further expanded into the theoretical point of view in which the adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the surface was confirmed; in agreement with the experimental outcome.
... Массаж с маслом лаванды эффективно уменьшал симптомы колик у доношенных младенцев в возрасте от 2 до 6 нед. [48][49][50]. ...
Article
V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Moscow, Russian Federation The skin of a newborn is a delicate structure that is the first barrier protecting from exposures. Skin conditions in newborns are common due to adaptation to novel environment. The choice of an adequate moisturizing and skincare product is still an important issue. This paper discusses the structural and functional specificity of the skin of newborns and the role of lipids in the healthy functioning of skin barrier. Inadequate acid mantle and skin microbiome, gradual maturation of immune defense account for the frequent occurrence of infective inflammatory skin disorders, in particular, in skincare defects. Fatty oils are commonly used as emollients or the basis of care products, while essential oils and aromatic compounds are widely applied in perfume and cosmetic industries (including the production of skincare products for babies and toddlers). The effects of natural oils (e.g., olive, sunflower-seed, mustard-seed oil etc.) on skin hydration and permeability and their abil ity to induce inflammation. A single standard for certifying natural cosmetics including skincare products for babies is highlighted. Keywords: skin, newborn, care product, natural oil, essential oil. For citation: Ryumina I.I. Natural oils for skincare of newborns and infants. Russian Journal of Woman and Child Health. 2021;4(2):178–183. DOI: 10.32364/2618-8430-2021-4-2-178-183.
... In pregnant women, the possibility of herb-drug interactions could be translated in moderate to severe effects for the mother and fetus [22]. Various plants reported in our study, might interact with drugs, including green tea (inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein [23], chamomile (inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4) [24], and licorice (induction of CYP3A and inhibition of P-glycoprotein) [25]. Moreover, there are significant evidences of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes inhibition by Foeniculum vulgare extracts [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to assess women habits during pregnancy, the prevalence of use of herbal products and the awareness about the related risk of adverse reactions. A total of 279 interviewees, at Polyclinic Umberto I (Rome, Italy), completed the questionnaire that examined descriptive and analytical aspects about herbal products. The majority quit smoking and drinking alcohol, but consumed regularly herbal products, often associated with drug therapies. Pregnant women considered herbal products less dangerous than other medications, even if some dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse reactions were reported. Gynecologist and herbalist represent the primary source of information about herbal products, while the most common place of purchase is the pharmacy. Pregnant women appear mindful about the risks of smoking, alcohol and medications. On the contrary, their knowledge about the risk/ benefit profile of herbal products is limited. Therefore, information strategies and surveillance programs about the safety of herbal products should be implemented in the context of public health.
... In pregnant women, the possibility of herb-drug interactions could be translated in moderate to severe effects for the mother and fetus [22]. Various plants reported in our study, might interact with drugs, including green tea (inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein [23], chamomile (inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4) [24], and licorice (induction of CYP3A and inhibition of P-glycoprotein) [25]. Moreover, there are significant evidences of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes inhibition by Foeniculum vulgare extracts [26]. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to assess women habits during pregnancy, the prevalence of use of herbal products and the awareness about the related risk of adverse reactions. A total of 279 interviewees, at Polyclinic Umberto I (Rome, Italy), completed the questionnaire that examined descriptive and analytical aspects about herbal products. The majority quit smoking and drinking alcohol, but consumed regularly herbal products, often associated with drug therapies. Pregnant women considered herbal products less dangerous than other medications, even if some dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse reactions were reported. Gynecologist and herbalist represent the primary source of information about herbal products, while the most common place of purchase is the pharmacy. Pregnant women appear mindful about the risks of smoking, alcohol and medications. On the contrary, their knowledge about the risk/ benefit profile of herbal products is limited. Therefore, information strategies and surveillance programs about the safety of herbal products should be implemented in the context of public health.
... Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, sedative [92] Epicoccum, Didymella, Phoma Against lymphoblastic leukemia L-asparaginase [56] Mikania glomerata (leaf) ...
Article
Full-text available
Endophytes are isolated from every plant species investigated to date, so the metabolome coevolution has been affecting the plants’ (microbiota) ethnobotanic, especially therapeutic, usage. Asteraceae fulfill the rationale for plant selection to isolate endophytes since most of the species of this family have a long tradition of healing usage, confirmed by modern pharmacognosy. The present review compiles recent references on the endophyte−Asteraceae spp. interactions, targeting the secondary metabolites profile as created by both members of this biological system. Endophyte fungi associated with Asteraceae have been collected globally, however, dominant taxa that produce bioactive compounds were specific for the plant populations of different geographic origins. Endophytic fungi richness within the host plant and the biological activity were positively associated. Moreover, the pharmacological action was linked to the plant part, so differential forms of biological interactions in roots, stem, leaves, inflorescences were developed between endophytic fungi and host plants. The comparative analysis of the Asteraceae host and/or fungal endophyte therapeutic activity showed similarities that need a future explanation on the metabolome level.
Article
Full-text available
Throughout history, Matricaria chamomilla L. (M. chamomilla) has had countless applications in traditional medicine. Its extracts, oils and teas have been used for treating diverse ailments, including wounds, rheumatic pain, menstrual cramps, eye and ear infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and respiratory illnesses. These traditional applications guided modern research into its medicinal effects through increasingly detailed in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials. A plethora of preclinical studies have assessed the antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, anti-diarrheal, antispasmodic, wound healing, and anticancer properties of M. chamomilla. These pharmacological properties of M. chamomilla are attributed to its rich reservoir of phytochemical constituents, primarily its flavonoids, such as luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin, as well as its sesquiterpenes, mainly chamazulene and (−)-α-bisabolol. Remarkably, preclinical studies have paved the way for progress towards controlled human clinical trials. M. chamomilla has been clinically evaluated for its effects against anxiety, sleep-deficiency, depression, as well as oral, women-related, inflammatory, metabolic, dermatological, gastrointestinal disorders, and children-related conditions. In this sense, this review elucidates and discusses the recent findings for M. chamomilla development as a therapeutic agent that possesses health-promoting, disease-preventing and even treatment properties. The traditional medicinal uses and evidence-based research studies, which were performed in cell culture, animal models and human subjects to assess the pharmacological activities of M. chamomilla, are extensively highlighted. Particular emphasis is given to some phytochemical constituents of M. chamomilla, which demonstrate great potential in treating various conditions.
Article
Full-text available
German chamomile (M. chamomilla) is recognized as a star herb due to its medicinal and aromatic properties. This plant is found across a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Both the flower heads and blue essential oils of German chamomile possess several pharmacological properties of an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic and sedative, etc., nature, which makes it a highly sought after herb for use in many pharma and aroma industries. Chamomile tea, prepared from its flower heads, is also a well-known herbal tea for mind and body relaxation. Though it is a high-demand herb, farmers have not adopted this plant for large scale cultivation as a crop, which could improve their livelihood, due to the high cost in flower heads harvesting, loss in over mature and immature flower heads picking during harvesting, unavailability of varieties and agrotechnologies for machine harvesting, a lack of efficient process development of oil extraction and in the lack of improved stable varieties. There are many studies that have reported on the phytochemistry and pharmacological uses of chamomile, which further explore its importance in the medicine industry. Several studies are also present in the literature on its cultivation practices and plant ecology. However, studies on breeding behavior, genetic improvement, varietal development and mechanical harvesting are scarce in German chamomile. Hence, keeping in mind various aspects of farmers’ and researchers’ interest, earlier reports on taxonomy, floral biology, processing of oil extraction, active constituents, uses, agronomy, breeding challenges and opportunities in German chamomile are summarized in this review.
Article
Nowadays, herbal extracts are considered to be a potential source for developing new drugs that will overcome resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. This study was aimed to explore the efficacy of several Egyptian plant extracts against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro for future development of a new, safe, and effective compound for T. gondii. Methanol extracts from Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile), Laurus nobilis, Citrullus colocynthis, Cinnamum camphora, Boswellia scara, and Melissa officionalis plants and oil extracts (either essential or fixed oils) of some plants such as: lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), marjoram (Origanum majorana), watercress (Nasturtium officionale), wheat germ (Triticum aestivum), sesame (Sesamum indicum), rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), clove (Syzygum aromaticum), jojoba (Simmondsia chinesis), and basil (Ocimum basilicum) were investigated for their anti-Toxoplasma activities. The methanol extracts from C. colocynthis and L. nobilis and the oil extracts from lemon grass and marjoram were active against T. gondii with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 22.86 µg/ml, 31.35 µg/ml, 4.6 µg/ml, and 26.24 µg/ml, respectively. Their selectivity index (SI) values were <10. Interestingly, the methanol extract from M. chamomilla and oil from citronella had the lowest IC50 values for T. gondii (3.56 µg/ml and 2.54 µg/ml, respectively) and the highest SI values (130.33 and 15.02, respectively). In conclusion, methanol extract from M. chamomilla and oil from citronella might be potential sources of novel therapies for treating toxoplasmosis.
Article
Full-text available
We report a case of an 8-year-old atopic boy in whom ingestion of a chamomile-tea infusion precipitated a severe anaphylactic reaction. The patient suffers from hay fever and bronchial asthma caused by a variety of pollens (grass, olive, and mugwort). This severe reaction was developed after his first ingestion of chamomile tea. Studies revealed the presence of immediate skin test reactivity and a positive passive transfer test to chamomile-tea extract. Moreover, both specific antichamomile-tea extract and anti-Matricaria chamomilla-pollen extract IgE antibodies were detected by an ELISA technique. Cross-reactivity among chamomile-tea extract and the pollens of Matricaria chamomilla, Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed), and Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort), was demonstrated by an ELISA-inhibition study. These findings suggest a type I IgE-mediated immunologic mechanism as being responsible for the patient's anaphylactic symptoms and also suggest that the patient cross-reacted the pollens of Matricaria chamomilla contained in the chamomile tea because he was previously sensitized to Artemisia pollen.
Article
BACKGROUND Stomatitis has been found to be a major dose-limiting toxicity from bolus 5-fluorouracil-based (5-FU) chemotherapy regimens, despite the use of oral cryotherapy. Pursuant to preliminary data which suggested that a chamomile mouthwash might ameliorate this toxicity, a prospective trial was developed to test chamomile in this situation.METHODSA Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed. Patients were entered into the study at the time of their first cycle of 5-FU-based chemotherapy. All patients received oral cryotherapy for 30 minutes with each dose of 5-FU. In addition, each patient was randomized to receive a chamomile or placebo mouthwash thrice daily for 14 days. Stomatitis scores were determined by health care providers and by patients themselves.RESULTSThere were 164 evaluable and well-stratified patients equally randomized to both treatment groups. There was no suggestion of any stomatitis difference between patients randomized to either protocol arm. There was also no suggestion of toxicity. Subset analysis did reveal unsuspected differential effects between males and females that could not be explained by reasons other than chance.CONCLUSION The resultant data from this clinical trial did not support the prestudy hypothesis that chamomile could decrease 5-FU-induced stomatitis. Cancer 1996;77:522-5.
Article
We have investigated the effect of herbal teas (peppermint, chamomile and dandelion) on the activity of hepatic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes using rat liver microsomes. Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 5 each). Three groups had free access to a tea solution (2 %) while the control group had water. Two groups received either green tea extract (0.1 %) or aqueous caffeine solution (0.0625 %). After four weeks of pretreatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of liver microsomes or cytosol with appropriate substrates. Activity of CYP1A2 in the liver microsomes of rats receiving dandelion, peppermint or chamomile tea was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) to 15 %, 24 % and 39 % of the control value, respectively. CYP1A2 activity was significantly increased by pretreatment with caffeine solution. No alterations were observed in the activities of CYP2D and CYP3A in any group of the pretreated rats. Activity of CYP2E in rats receiving dandelion or peppermint tea was significantly lower than in the control group, 48 % and 60 % of the control, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (244 % of control) in the activity of phase II detoxifying enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the dandelion tea-pretreated group. There was no change in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase. The results suggested that, like green and black teas, certain herbal teas can cause modulation of phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes.
Article
PurposeTo investigate the use of herbal drugs by pregnant women.Methods We interviewed 400 postpartum women at Ullevål University Hospital in Oslo, Norway about the use of herbal drugs, within 3 days after giving birth by using a structured questionnaire in the period from February to June 2001.ResultsWe found that 36% of the pregnant women had used herbal drugs during pregnancy with an average of 1.7 products per woman. The proportion of women using herbal drugs increased throughout the first, second and third pregnancy trimester. The most commonly used herbs were echinacea, iron-rich herbs, ginger, chamomile and cranberry. Among the women having used herbal drugs in pregnancy, 39% had used herbal drugs that were considered possibly harmful or herbs where information about safety in pregnancy was missing. Herbal galactagogues had been used by 43% of the women who had breastfed a prior child during their breast-feeding period. Use of herbal drugs in pregnancy had most commonly been recommended by family or friends.Conclusion The widespread use of herbal drugs during pregnancy indicates an increased need for documentation about the safety of herbal drugs in pregnancy. To meet the needs of pregnant women, it is necessary for health care personnel to have knowledge about herbal drugs during pregnancy. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Oral mucositis is among the complications of head and neck irradiation and systemic chemotherapy. To determine whether or not mucositis could be prevented or reduced in intensity by using Kamillosan Liquidum as an oral rinse, 98 patients were placed on study protocols. Twenty patients who were treated with radiation therapy and 46 patients who received systemic chemotherapy participated in prophylactic oral care with Kamillosan oral rinse. Thirty-two patients were treated therapeutically after mucositis had developed. Sixteen patients receiving chemotherapy were treated therapeutically and prophylactically with Kamillosan oral rinse during repeated cycles of chemotherapy. Only one of the 20 patients who had had radiation therapy developed grade 3 mucositis in the final week of treatment. Thirty-six of the 46 patients undergoing chemotherapy did not develop clinically noticeable mucositis. It appears that resolution of mucositis is accelerated by Kamillosan rinse. Prophylactic oral care appeared to modify the oral environment favorably and maintain tissue integrity.
Article
In a double-blind trial, the therapeutic efficacy of chamomile extract was tested on 14 patients. As objective parameters served the epithelial and drying effect on weeping wound area after dermabrasion of tattoos. The period of the healing and drying process was judged by the doctor. The decrease of the weeping wound area as well as the drying tendency was statistically significant.
Article
Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive to the action of chamomile oil than Gram negative bacteria. In certain concentrations chamomile oil exerted selective inhibitory effect on the tested Gram positive microorganisms. The incorporation of the volatile oil in topical preparations for staphylococcal infections is suggested. The oil also showed marked fungicidal activity against Candida albicans.
Article
We evaluated the effect of an herbal tea preparation on infantile colic in a prospective double-blind study. The use of tea eliminated the colic in 19 (57%) of 33 infants, whereas placebo was helpful in only 9 (26%) of 35 (p < 0.01). The mean colic score was significantly improved in tea-treated infants. No significant differences were noted between groups regarding number of night wakings.