Beneficial effect of bilevel positive airway pressure on left ventricular function in ambulatory patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and central sleep apnea-hypopnea - A preliminary study
Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, 1-1-20 Daiko, Minami, Nagoya, Aichi 461-8673, Japan. Chest
(Impact Factor: 7.48).
06/2007; 131(6):1694-701. DOI: 10.1378/chest.06-2271
Sleep-disordered breathing is common in individuals with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and has been treated with nocturnal positive airway pressure. We investigated whether treatment of central sleep apnea-hypopnea with bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) in ambulatory patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) might improve LV function.
Fifty-two consecutive patients with IDCM who underwent both cardiac catheterization and standard polysomnography were enrolled in the study; individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were excluded. Subjects with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >or= 20 episodes per hour were randomized to receive medical therapy either alone (n = 11) or together with BPAP (n = 10).
LV end-diastolic pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide were significantly greater, and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower in patients with an AHI >or= 20/h (n = 21, 40.4%) than in those with an AHI < 20/h (n = 31, 59.6%). LVEF (30.5 +/- 1.6% vs 50.8 +/- 3.5%, p < 0.001) [mean +/- SE] and plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide (162.8 +/- 44.5 pg/mL vs 32.7 +/- 17.6 pg/mL, p = 0.02) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, after treatment with BPAP (daily use, 4.8 +/- 0.3 h) for 3 months, whereas these parameters remained unchanged in the control subjects.
Our findings suggest that treatment of coexisting central sleep apnea-hypopnea with BPAP improves LV function in ambulatory patients with IDCM. BPAP should thus be considered as a nonpharmacologic adjunct to conventional drug therapy in such patients.
Available from: europepmc.org
- "Moreover, four patients in this group died from worsening HF . BIPAP treatment could be effective in patients with cardiac dysfunction/HF complicated with SDB    and should be considered a nonpharmacologic adjunct to conventional drug therapy. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) is a new approach to treating CSA/CSR and involves providing patients a small but varying amount of ventilatory support. "
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ABSTRACT: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes hypoxemia, negative intrathoracic pressure, and frequent arousal, contributing to increased cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is linked to hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. Successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment has a beneficial effect on hypertension and improves the survival rate of patients with cardiovascular disease. Thus, long-term compliance with CPAP treatment may result in substantial blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension suffering from OSAS.
Central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration occur in 30–50% of patients with heart failure (HF). Intermittent hypoxemia, nocturnal surges in sympathetic activity, and increased left ventricular preload and afterload due to negative intrathoracic pressure all lead to impaired cardiac function and poor life prognosis. SDB-related HF has been considered the potential therapeutic target. CPAP, nocturnal O2 therapy, and adaptive servoventilation minimize the effects of sleep apnea, thereby improving cardiac function, prognosis, and quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment of SDB will yield better therapeutic outcomes for hypertension and HF.
Available from: Thomas Penzel
- "Bi-level PPV is an alternative ventilation mode for patients with impaired LVEF and CSR . Similar to data with CPAP, a few studies using bi-level PPV indicated that this ventilation mode can effectively reduce CSR, improve sleep quality, and increase LVEF in CHF patients    . With the new ventilation technique, adaptive servo ventilation (ASV), similar positive effects on CSR and sleep quality were reported   . "
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ABSTRACT: Nocturnal positive pressure ventilation (PPV) has been shown to be effective in patients with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). We investigated the effect of a bi-level PPV and adaptive servo ventilation on LVEF, CSR, and quantitative sleep quality.
Thirty-seven patients (New York heart association [NYHA] II-III) with LVEF<45% and CSR were investigated by electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography and polysomnography. The CSR index (CSRI) was 32.3+/-16.2/h. Patients were randomly treated with bi-level PPV using the standard spontaneous/timed (S/T) mode or with adaptive servo ventilation mode (AutoSetCS). After 6 weeks, 30 patients underwent control investigations with ECG, echocardiography, and polysomnography.
The CSRI decreased significantly to 13.6+/-13.4/h. LVEF increased significantly after 6 weeks of ventilation (from 25.1+/-8.5 to 28.8+/-9.8%, p<0.01). The number of respiratory-related arousals decreased significantly. Other quantitative sleep parameters did not change. The Epworth sleepiness score improved slightly. Daytime blood pressure and heart rate did not change. There were some differences between bi-level PPV and adaptive servo ventilation: the CSRI decreased more in the AutoSetCS group while the LVEF increased more in the bi-level PPV group.
Administration of PPV can successfully attenuate CSA. Reduced CSA may be associated with improved LVEF; however, this may depend on the mode of PPV. Changed LVEF is evident even in the absence of significant changes in blood pressure.
Available from: Dimitris Georgopoulos
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