Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder

Columbia University, New York, New York, United States
Journal of Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.12). 04/2006; 62(4):445-58. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.20240
Source: PubMed


This article presents the Schema Therapy (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003) approach to the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Schema therapy draws on the cognitive-behavioral, attachment, psychodynamic, and emotion-focused traditions and conceptualizes patients who have borderline personality disorder as being under the sway of five modes or aspects of the self. The goal of the therapy is to reorganize this inner structure. To this end, there are four core mechanisms of change that are used in this therapy: (1) limited reparenting, (2) experiential imagery and dialogue work, (3) cognitive restructuring and education, and (4) behavioral pattern breaking. These interventions are used during the three phases of treatment: (1) bonding and emotional regulation, (2) schema mode change, and (3) development of autonomy.

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    • "Attachment theory informs the schema therapy concept of reparenting (Edwards and Arntz 2012). Because many patients with BPD cannot form healthy adult relationships and do not have the schema of the healthy adult, Young believes that both a collaborative adult relationship as well as a parenting relationship for the child modes within the adult are required (Kellogg and Young 2006). With limited reparenting, the therapist intentionally assumes an attitude that will provoke the kind of emotional experience the patient would have with the actual parental figure and, in so doing, assists with a corrective emotional experience (Edwards and Arntz 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper adds to the existing body of literature by examining two different therapeutic approaches to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD), namely: (1) dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and (2) schema therapy. DBT is an evidence-based treatment for BPD while schema therapy is gaining ground as an effective therapy for BPD. Treatment approaches and etiological conceptualizations of each therapeutic modality are compared and contrasted. Theoretical underpinnings of each therapy are cognitive and behavioural but each therapy has developed its own techniques and rationale. Mentalization is discussed as an important mechanism of change in the successful treatment of BPD that is seen to underlie both DBT and schema therapy. To conclude DBT efficacy studies and schema therapy effectiveness studies are briefly reviewed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy
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    • "Central to the schema model are early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), defined as broad, pervasive character traits that is developed during childhood in reaction to early toxic experiences (Young et al.,., 2003). Young et al.,., have identified 18 different EMSs to date, each with its own proposed origin and long-term impact. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) or fundamental beliefs that underpin stable and trait-like psychological disorders are chronic and relapsing. In, active schemas in dysthymic patients with major depression have been compared with healthy individuals.The purpose of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas (Young, 2003, 1990) in dysthymic patients with major depression and healthy subjects. Method: For this study, 46 patients with major depression and 20 non-hospitalized patients with dysthymic during the year who referred to medical centers and clinics in Kermanshah (a city in West of Iran) were selected through structured interviews and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and 66 patients with mild problems who referred to the clinic were considered as control group. 15 early maladaptive schemas through Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF) were measured. Results: Analysis of variance showed that maladaptive schemas was different in the three groups. Maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness/ shame, and failure in patients with dysthymic, and maladaptive schemas of Self-sacrifice, and unrelenting standards/ hypercriticalness, entitlement/grandiosity, were active in patients with major depression. Healthy people were not active in any schema incompatibility. Maladaptive schemas in patients with dysthymic were more than the other two groups. Conclusion: In depression group, all early maladaptive schemas except abandonment and dependence / incompetence schemas, indicated higher scores. The evidence shows that schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, failure, and defectiveness/shame are specific keys for dysthymic disorder and emotional inhibition, and unrelenting standards are the keys for major depressive disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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    • "Depending on what is being worked with, chairwork may focus on rational evaluation, articulation and clarification, reviewing the role and value of coping strategies, or on engagement with the level of affective schemas and the problematic childhood memories they carry (Arntz, Bernstein & Jacob, 2013; Kellogg & Young, 2006). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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