Stability studies of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronides in urine
The stability of testosterone glucuronide (TG), epitestosterone glucuronide (EG) and the T/E ratio in urine has been studied. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Urine samples were submitted to a solid-liquid cleanup followed by extraction of unconjugated testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) with tert-butyl methyl ether (free fraction). The remaining aqueous phase was hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase and extracted at alkaline pH with n-pentane. Analytes were analyzed by GC/MS as their enol-trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. The urine for stability testing was obtained from an excretion study after the administration of T to healthy volunteers. The homogeneity of the sample was verified before starting the stability study. The stability of TG and EG was evaluated at different storage conditions. For long-term stability testing, analyte concentration in urine stored at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C was determined at different time intervals for 22 months. For short-term stability testing, analyte concentration was evaluated in urine stored at 37 degrees C for 3 and 7 days. The effect of repeated freezing (at -20 degrees C) and thawing (at room temperature) was studied for up to three cycles. Data obtained in this work demonstrated the stability of TG, EG and the T/E ratio in sterilized urine samples stored at 4 and -20 degrees C for 22 months and after going through repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Decreases in concentration were observed after 7 days of storage at 37 degrees C due to the partial cleavage of the glucuronide conjugates; however, the T/E ratio was not affected. These results show the feasibility of preparing reference materials containing TG and EG to be used for quality control purposes.
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Available from: Norbert Baume
- "Samples were grouped per athlete when the information was available from the sport federations or sport organizations (samples remain nevertheless anonymous). A limit of quantification of 1 ng/ml is used for the concentrations of T and E, in the same range as the limit reported recently by Jimenez et al. . IRMS analysis of androsterone and etiocholanolone (two metabolites of testosterone) was performed on suspicious samples on a routine basis since 2002. "
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ABSTRACT: In elite sports, indirect testing of testosterone abuse is mainly based on the testosterone over epitestosterone (T/E) ratio. Since this marker is characterized by a small ratio of intra- to inter-individual variation, it is surprising that current anti-doping strategy uses a screening test based on a population-based limit. From a database of more than 15,000 steroid profiles obtained from routine controls, the collection of steroids profiles of 11 elite athletes followed during 2 years, and a longitudinal study involving 17 amateur athletes, 8 of which were orally administrated testosterone undecanoate pills, we selected 12 case studies to represent the possible scenarios to which the anti-doping laboratories are confronted. Various detection strategies at the disposal of the laboratories are employed and discussed, including isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis and a Bayesian interpretation of the T/E-time profile. The weak sensitivity versus specificity relation of a population-based limit for the T/E ratio is outlined. As a result, we propose a Bayesian screening test whose T/E threshold progressively evolves from a population basis to a subject basis as the number of individual test results increases. We found that this screening test heightens drastically the capacity to detect testosterone abuse, at no additional financial and administrative expenses for anti-doping authorities.
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ABSTRACT: A simple method using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of testosterone glucuronide (TG), testosterone sulfate (TS), epitestosterone glucuronide (EG) and epitestosterone sulfate (ES) in urine samples was developed. For validation purposes, a urine containing no detectable amount of TG, TS and EG was selected and fortified with steroid conjugate standards. Quantification was performed using deuterated testosterone conjugates to correct for ion suppression/enhancement during ESI. Assay validation was performed in terms of lower limit of detection (1-3ng/mL), recovery (89-101%), intraday precision (2.0-6.8%), interday precision (3.4-9.6%) and accuracy (101-103%). Application of the method to short-term stability testing of urine samples at temperature ranging from 4 to 37 degrees C during a time-storage of a week lead to the conclusion that addition of sodium azide (10mg/mL) is required for preservation of the analytes.
Available from: Camilla Hoppe
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ABSTRACT: Metabonomic analysis of urine utilizing high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques has proven valuable in characterizing the biochemical response to an intervention. To assess the effect of magnetic field strength on information contained in NMR-based metabonomic data sets, 1H NMR spectra were acquired on 250-, 400-, 500-, and 800-MHz instruments, respectively, on the same set of human urine samples collected before and after dietary interventions with milk and with meat proteins. Partial least-squares regression discriminant analyses (PLS-DA) were performed in order to elucidate the ability of the 1H spectra acquired at various field strengths to identify possible spectral differences and discriminate between pre- and postintervention samples. The loadings from PLS-DA contained the same spectral regions, implying that the same metabolites were involved in the discrimination independent of magnetic field strength. The investigation revealed a strong increase in prediction performance and thereby spectral information content when increasing the magnetic field strength from 250 to 500 MHz, while from 500 to 800 MHz the increase was less pronounced.
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