Television viewing and smoking volume in adolescent smokers: A cross-sectional study
University of Leuven, Louvain, Flemish, Belgium Preventive Medicine
(Impact Factor: 3.09).
12/2004; 39(6):1093-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.04.019
Previous research has shown a relationship between television viewing and smoking initiation. The relationship between television viewing and the amount of cigarettes consumed by adolescent smokers per time unit (day, week, month...) has not yet been studied.
A cross-sectional sample of children by means of self-reports administered by research assistants in schools was obtained. Participants were 421 smokers in a random sample of 4th year students in 15 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium. Main outcome measures were quantifiable, closed survey questions about smoking volume, whether or not parents and friends smoked, frequency of going out and average weekly TV viewing volume.
Television viewing was a significant predictor of smoking volume. Smokers who watch more TV smoke more. The relationship was curvilinear (quadratic). The relationship becomes stronger (curves upward) for higher levels of viewing. Those who watch 5 or more hours a day smoke between 60 and 147 cigarettes more per week than those who watch 1 h or less.
Television viewing is significantly related to smoking volume. The content of television may glamorize smoking. Children may learn to associate smoking with viewing regardless of content. It is also possible that heavier smoking leads to more viewing or that a third variable influences both smoking volume and viewing. Regardless of the causal direction of the relationship television viewing appears to be an indicator or predictor of smoking volume. The curvilinear nature of the relationship deserves further attention.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- "The implications of television viewing have been the focus of much research (Anderson et al. 2001). Early work focused on television violence and established its links to aggressive behavior (Anderson et al. 2001) and recent studies document links between adolescents' television viewing and their involvement in risky behaviors (Gutschoven and Van den Bulck 2004). Many studies find that youth spend more time watching television than engaging in other activities (e.g., McHale et al. 2001) and a concern raised by a number of researchers is that television time keeps youth from engaging in the organized and constructive activities that build skills and enhance social ties (Anderson et al. 2001). "
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ABSTRACT: The links between youth's daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for education achievement) were collected, along with data on youth risky behavior and depressive symptoms. In 7 nightly phone calls, youth reported on their day's free time activities (i.e., sports, academics, religious activities, television viewing, and hanging out). Analyses revealed that youth who spent more time in unsupervised hanging out reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, and those who spent more time in academic activities reported less risky behavior. Results also indicated that more Anglo-oriented youth spent more time in sports, that more Mexican-oriented youth spent more time watching television, that fathers' familism values were related to youth's time in religious activities, and that parents' educational values were linked to youth's time in academic activities. Some evidence indicated that parents' cultural practices and values, particularly fathers', moderated the links between daily activities and youth adjustment.
Available from: edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de
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