Influence of supplemental cracked high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds on site and extent of digestion in beef cattle
Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie 82071-3684, USA. Journal of Animal Science
(Impact Factor: 2.11).
Our objectives were to evaluate ruminal fermentation patterns, apparent ruminal biohydrogenation, and site and extent of nutrient disappearance in cattle fed supplemental cracked safflower seeds differing in 18 C fatty acid profile. Nine Angus x Gelbvieh heifers (641 +/- 9.6 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Cattle were fed (OM basis) 9.1 kg of bromegrass hay and either 1) 1.8 kg of corn and 0.20 kg of soybean meal (Control); 2) 0.13 kg of soybean meal and 1.5 kg of cracked high-linoleate (67.2% 18:2) safflower seeds (Linoleate); or 3) 1.5 kg of cracked high-oleate (72.7% 18:1) safflower seeds (Oleate). Safflower seed supplements were formulated to provide similar quantities of N and TDN and 5% dietary fat. Single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts (Control vs. Linoleate and Oleate; Linoleate vs. Oleate) were used to evaluate treatment effects. True ruminal OM and ruminal NDF disappearances (percentage of intake) were greater (P < or =0.02) for Control than Linoleate and Oleate. True ruminal N degradability (% of intake) was not different (P = 0.38) among treatments. Apparent ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary 18:2 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P < 0.001) for Linoleate, whereas biohydrogenation of dietary 18:1 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P = 0.02) for Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:0 was least (P < 0.001) for Control but did not differ (P = 0.92) between Oleate and Linoleate. Total flow of unsaturated fatty acid to the duodenum was greatest (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds, and was greater with Linoleate (P < 0.001) than with Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:1 and 18:2 increased (P < 0.001) in Oleate and Linoleate, respectively. Duodenal flow of 18:1trans-11 was greater (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds and in Linoleate than in Oleate. Postruminal disappearance of saturated fatty acids was greatest (P < 0.001) for Control; however, postruminal disappearance of total unsaturated fatty acids was greater (P = 0.002) for Linoleate vs. Oleate. Supplemental high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds to cattle fed forage-based diets may negatively affect ruminal OM and fiber disappearance but not N disappearance. Provision of supplemental fat in the form of safflower seeds that are high in linoleic acid increased intestinal supply and postruminal disappearance of unsaturated fatty acids, indicating that the fatty acids apparently available for metabolism are affected by dietary fat source.
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- "been initiated by the high levels of fat in the fiber diets used in this experiment . Fat in the bran product may have acted similar to fat supplementa- tion.Whitney et al. (2000)found that when adding 2.9% soybean oil as a fat supplement to the diet of beef calves the acetate:propionate ratio declined and molar proportions of propionate increased.Scholljegerdes et al. (2004)added safflower seeds to beef calf diets as a fat supplement, and they also reported a decrease in the acetate:propionate ratio. A shift in the production of VFA could also occur because of the biohydrogenation of fat. When unsaturated fats are bio-hydrogenated and form saturated fats, VFA patterns shift toward an increase in propionic a"
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ABSTRACT: Angus and Angus × Simmental calves (steers, n = 131; heifers, n = 69) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments at 2 locations: early-wean starch; early-wean fiber; creep-fed starch; creep-fed fiber; or normal-wean, no-creep control. Early-weaned calves (133 ± 21 d of age) were placed in the feedlot, whereas normal-weaned calves remained with their dams on pasture (2 or 3 replications/location). Creep feed was offered for ad libitum DMI to calves fed creep-fed starch and creep-fed fiber. In the growing phase, early-wean-starch calves had 15% lower DMI and were 13% more efficient than early-wean-fiber calves (P < 0.01). In the finishing phase, creep-fed calves gained 9% more, had 7% lower DMI, and were 16% more efficient (P < 0.01) than early-weaned calves. Control calves were 5% more efficient but spent 19 more days on feed (P < 0.01) than did calves on the other treatments. Marbling score was greater for early-weaned calves when compared with creep-fed calves (586 vs. 500, P < 0.01). Retained-ownership profit was $38.28 greater for the early-wean-fiber treatment than for the early-wean-starch treatment (P = 0.04), $61.47 greater for creep-fed calves than for early-weaned calves (P < 0.01), and $37.89 greater for control (P < 0.01) compared with other treatments. Early weaning and creep feeding increased carcass quality and growing-phase BW gains but reduced profits. Calves fed coproduct feeds during the growing phase achieved similar BW gains and carcass traits as calves fed corn-based diets and were more profitable.
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- "the human diet and an optimal ratio of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids              . Many byproduct from the vegetable oil industry, such as safflower byproducts, are rich in unsaturated fatty acids        . The lack of the development of the crop for safflower oil production in the Mediterranean environments is mainly due to the length of cropping cycle along with low seed yield potential and some protectionist agricultural policy in favor of different oil crops. "
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ABSTRACT: Two group of kids (“Safflower cake” and “Control”) were fed ad libitum with pelleted total mixed rations. After a 7-days adaptation period, the diet of the “Safflower cake” group were supplemented with 20% of safflower cake. The kids were slaughtered at 96 days of age. Dietary safflower cake did not affect the growth traits of kids. In addition, kids fed experimental diet showed a lower feed intake and consequently a better feed conversion ratio in comparison to the “Control” group. The use of safflower decreased the level of SFA and increased the level of MUFA in kid meat. The level of PUFA was higher in lipid extracted from animals feeding “Control“ diet even if the UFA level was lower. Furthermore, lipid extracted from animals feeding control diet contained more ω6 fatty acids in comparison to kids feeding experimental diet while the opposite trend was observed for the level of ω3 fatty acids. The ω6 to ω3 ratio was significantly affected by diet and in particular this ratio decreased in meat of kids fed experimental diet. Our results indicate that intramuscular fatty acid composition of kid meat can be improved from a human health perspective by inclusion of safflower cake in the die
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- "Lake et al. (2007) observed plasma and adipose tissue of suckling calves were reflective of alternations in long-chain fatty acids of milk from beef cows fed safflower seeds. Scholljegerdes et al. (2004) observed greater duodenal flow of PUFA, more specifically LA, in cattle fed cracked high-linoleate safflower seeds (> 70% LA); however individual ALA fatty concentrations were not changed. Kucuk et al. (2004) also reported a linear increase in duodenal flow of LA and ALA fatty acids concentrations with increasing soybean inclusion in lamb finishing diets. "
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ABSTRACT: Lambs (n = 48) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate effects of inclusion of oil containing PUFA in high-concentrate diets (with or without) and duration of oil supplementation (pre- vs. postweaning) on CLA concentration of muscle and adipose tissue. Lambs were fed preweaning creep diets (with or without oil) corresponding to the dietary lactation treatment diet (with or without oil) of the dam. Dams blocked by lambing date and rearing type were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 lactation dietary treatments with or without oil supplementation. Creep diets contained approximately 70% concentrate and 30% roughage and were provided to lambs for ad libitum intake. At weaning (58.7 +/- 2.5 d of age), lambs (n = 48) were randomly assigned within preweaning treatment groups to 1 of 2 postweaning dietary treatments (with or without oil) and 16 pens in a randomized block design, blocked by sex and BW. Postweaning diets were formulated to contain approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage and were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. Soybean and linseed oil (2:1, respectively) replaced ground corn and provided 3% additional fat in pre- and postweaning diets. Lambs were slaughtered at 60.3 +/- 4.2 kg of BW. A subcutaneous fat (SQ) sample was obtained within 1 h postmortem and a LM sample at the 12th rib was obtained 24 h postmortem, and both were analyzed for fatty acid profile. Feedlot performance and carcass measurements were not affected (P >or= 0.26) by oil supplementation. Total CLA content of LM and SQ was not affected (P >or= 0.08) by oil supplementation pre- or postweaning, but trans-10, cis-12 CLA was greater (P = 0.02) in SQ from lambs supplemented with oil postweaning. Total PUFA content in LM was greater (P = 0.02) in lambs supplemented with oil pre- or postweaning as a result of increased concentrations of 18:2cis-9, cis-12 and longer chain PUFA. Conversely, pre- and postweaning oil supplementation resulted in less (P = 0.04) MUFA content in LM. Only postweaning oil supplementation increased (P = 0.001) SQ PUFA content. Feeding oils containing PUFA to lambs pre- and postweaning did not increase CLA content of muscle, whereas postweaning oil supplementation minimally increased CLA concentration of SQ fat. Inclusion of soybean and linseed oil in pre- and postweaning diets increased total PUFA content of SQ fat and muscle tissue without adversely affecting growth performance or carcass characteristics.
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