Article

Effects of an indoor plant on creative task performance and mood

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Abstract

In this study, we investigated the effect of an indoor plant on task performance and on mood. Three room arrangements were used as independent variables: a room with (1) a plant, or (2) a magazine rack with magazines placed in front of the participants, or (3) a room with neither of these objects. Undergraduate students (M= 35, F= 55) performed a task of associating up to 30 words with each of 20 specified words in a room with one of the three room arrangements. Task performance scores showed that female participants performed better in view of the plant in comparison to the magazine rack (p < 0.05). Moreover, mood was better with the plant or the magazine rack in the room compared to the no object condition (p < 0.05). However, the difference in task performance was highly influenced by the evaluation about the plant or the magazine rack. It is suggested that the compatibility between task demand and the environment is an important factor in facilitating task performances.

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... Another body of research has examined how nature environments can enhance creativity (Atchley, Strayer & Atchley, 2012;Ceylan, Dul & Aytac, 2008;Ferraro III, 2015;McCoy & Evans, 2002;Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014;Palanica, Lyons, Cooper, Lee & Fossat, 2019;Pasanen, Neuvonen & Korpela, 2018;Plambech & van den Bosch, 2015;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004;Studente, Seppala & Sadowska, 2016;van Rompay & Jol, 2016;Williams et al., 2018). Creativity, or creative thinking, generally refers to the process of generating many new and useful ideas, thinking flexibly across a wide range of distinct topics, and producing unique and uncommon ideas reflecting the ability to think unconventionally from a new perspective (Williams et al., 2018). ...
... With all of these theories taken together, previous research has indeed shown that the restorative effects of nature can increase creativity during exposure to real-life outdoors (Atchley et al., 2012;Ferraro III, 2015;Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014;Pasanen et al., 2018), presence of nature elements in a room, such as potted plants (McCoy & Evans, 2002;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004;Studente et al., 2016), photographs of natural elements (Ceylan et al., 2008;McCoy & Evans, 2002;Plambech & van den Bosch, 2015;van Rompay & Jol, 2016), or virtual reality videos of nature (Palanica et al., 2019). These studies indicate that creativity can be enhanced when viewing nature across a variety of mediums. ...
... These studies indicate that creativity can be enhanced when viewing nature across a variety of mediums. Furthermore, nature stimuli can boost creativity when it is not even the explicit focus of overt attention, such as when plants are in a room without conscious awareness (McCoy & Evans, 2002;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004;Studente et al., 2016). In other words, nature can capture covert attention and increase creativity from individuals who were not explicitly debriefed on its presence or effects. ...
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to nature environments versus urban environments can help restore cognitive processing and improve overall well-being. The current study examined the restorative effects of nature on creativity using virtual backgrounds during videoconferencing on Zoom. Eighty participants completed the Alternative Uses Test (AUT) of creative divergent thinking when viewing one of three different virtual background images: nature setting, urban setting, plain grey background (control). Results showed that the nature background facilitated higher creativity performance compared to either the urban or control backgrounds (which did not significantly differ from each other). The results are discussed in terms of practical implications for workplace and educational environments that involve videoconferencing sessions between users.
... The managers reported that the presence of plants in a room was considered a creativity enhancing attribute. This experience of the managers as reported in the study of Ceylan et al. (2008) is confirmed by Shibata and Suzuki (2004) who studied the effect of the presence of one single plant in an office as opposed to a shelf with magazines, on the performance level in a task which required creativity. Furthermore, they also assessed the plant's effect on mood. ...
... Interestingly, the green campus effect was also gender specific and stronger for females. The results of Shibata and Suzuki (2004), Atchley et al. (2012), and Oppezzo and Schwartz (2014) indicate that it would be worthwhile to study the interaction between gender and the effects of a natural environment more systematically. ...
... We ran additional analyses to verify whether male and female participants experienced the location of the negotiation differently. Different studies on environmental effects noticed gender differences, although they studied the effect of green locations and not blue ones, like the beach in the present study (Shibata and Suzuki 2004;Oppezzo and Schwart 2014). ...
Chapter
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The aim of this chapter is to examine to what extent the characteristics of the location where the negotiation takes place influence the negotiation process and outcomes. The role of environmental factors in negotiations has received only scarce attention. The chapter starts by discussing relevant insights from different disciplines and covers literature on the “home-field” advantage, which has mostly been studied in the domain of sports. Studies from environmental psychology provide ample evidence of the positive impact nature, both green (forests) and blue (coast, lakes), has on well-being, mindset, and creativity. After this overview, an experimental study is discussed in which the possible impact of the environment on negotiations has been examined. In a virtual reality laboratory, a location of a beach and an office has been created, in which participants had to carry out a face-to-face negotiation with either distributive or integrative characteristics. The results show that the environment predominantly affected psychological variables: negotiating at the beach increased positive emotions and reduced the stress experienced in the negotiation. However, the different settings did not lead to different negotiation outcomes. The implications of the environment for negotiations are discussed as well as the possibilities the virtual reality technology offers in this respect.
... These were followed by those conducting field experiments (seven; 16.7%), field quasi-experiments (five; 11.9%), and surveys (four; 9.5%). Among the 42 records, 20 reported the specific number of indoor potted plants as the intervention; the highest number of potted plants was 34 [66], and the lowest number of potted plants was one [56,59,60,[68][69][70][71]. Three papers reported the green coverage ratio, with the highest at 10% and the lowest at 3% [57]. ...
... Regarding cognitive functions, when indoor plants were present, participants exhibited higher academic achievement [66,86] and better performance in various cognitive tasks [58,71,75,77,78,84,87,94]. In health-related functions, with exposure to indoor plants, participants less frequently took sick leave [54,55,65,67], consumed fewer pain killers [61,63,64], and had fewer hospitalization days [64] than participants in environments where indoor plants were absent. ...
... Because Larsen et al. [53] divided the partici pants into two experimental groups (with a high or moderate number of plants) and one control group (without plants), there were 76 participants and 101 participants in the control and experimental groups, respectively. Larsen et al. [53] recruited participants in the United States, Yin et al. [75] recruited adults in the United States, and Shibata and Suzuki [71] recruited college students in Japan. All three papers were appraised as hav ing moderate research quality. ...
Article
Full-text available
The influences of indoor plants on people have been examined by only three systematic reviews and no meta-analyses. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of indoor plants on individuals’ physiological, cognitive, health-related, and behavioral functions by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses to fill the research gap. The eligibility criteria of this study were (1) any type of participants, (2) any type of indoor plants, (3) comparators without any plants or with other elements, (4) any type of objective human function outcomes, (5) any type of study design, and (6) publications in either English or Chinese. Records were extracted from the Web of Science (1990–), Scopus (1970–), WANFANG DATA (1980–), and Taiwan Periodical Literature (1970–). Therefore, at least two databases were searched in English and in Chinese—two of the most common languages in the world. The last search date of all four databases was on 18 February 2021. We used a quality appraisal system to evaluate the included records. A total of 42 records was included for the systematic review, which concluded that indoor plants affect participants’ functions positively, particularly those of relaxed physiology and enhanced cognition. Separate meta-analyses were then conducted for the effects of the absence or presence of indoor plants on human functions. The meta-analyses comprised only 16 records. The evidence synthesis showed that indoor plants can significantly benefit participants’ diastolic blood pressure (−2.526, 95% CI −4.142, −0.909) and academic achievement (0.534, 95% CI 0.167, 0.901), whereas indoor plants also affected participants’ electroencephalography (EEG) α and β waves, attention, and response time, though not significantly. The major limitations of this study were that we did not include the grey literature and used only two or three records for the meta-analysis of each function. In brief, to achieve the healthy city for people’s health and effective functioning, not only are green spaces needed in cities, but also plants are needed in buildings.
... The introduction of indoor office plants is particularly appealing because not only are indoor plants a fairly common feature of offices, they are also a relatively low-cost solution compared to alternatives such as outdoor excursions or ensuring window access. However, the positive outcomes of exposure to nature in general are not always as consistent as claimed (Bowler, Buyung-Ali, Knight, & Pullin, 2010;Bringslimark et al., 2009;Hartig et al., 2014) with results varying according to a range of different factors including past experiences with nature (Hartig et al., 2014), exposure time (Bringslimark et al., 2009), culture and geographical location (Keniger et al., 2013;Ulrich, 1983), gender (Shibata & Suzuki, 2004), and personal identification with nature (Morton et al., 2017). This research looks specifically at indoor plants and the impact on performance and wellbeing in the workplace comparing a laboratory study to two field studies of call centre workers. ...
... A number of studies exploring the benefits of indoor plants have been laboratory studies with student samples. Some laboratory studies found conditions with indoor plants to be more attractive (Dijkstra et al., 2008;Evensen et al., 2015;Lohr & Pearson-Mims, 2000), with fewer stress symptoms (Dijkstra et al., 2008;Lohr et al., 1996;Lohr & Pearson-Mims, 2000), improved mood (Shibata & Suzuki, 2004), and increased performance (Knight & Haslam, 2010;Lohr et al., 1996;Raanaas et al., 2011;Shibata & Suzuki, 2002). However, other studies found no significant improvements in performance (Evensen et al., 2015;Rich, 2007;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004) and significantly decreased mood (Rich, 2007). ...
... Some laboratory studies found conditions with indoor plants to be more attractive (Dijkstra et al., 2008;Evensen et al., 2015;Lohr & Pearson-Mims, 2000), with fewer stress symptoms (Dijkstra et al., 2008;Lohr et al., 1996;Lohr & Pearson-Mims, 2000), improved mood (Shibata & Suzuki, 2004), and increased performance (Knight & Haslam, 2010;Lohr et al., 1996;Raanaas et al., 2011;Shibata & Suzuki, 2002). However, other studies found no significant improvements in performance (Evensen et al., 2015;Rich, 2007;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004) and significantly decreased mood (Rich, 2007). There are also studies that used an experimental, laboratory-style research design, but sampled office workers. ...
Article
Laboratory studies, mostly with students as samples, consistently demonstrate the psychological benefits of indoor plants. However, these findings do not always translate into benefits for employees in real work contexts. In three studies, this paper first looked to replicate the findings of previous laboratory studies for the South African context and then to assess whether these findings were robust in two call centre field studies. In the laboratory study, the condition with indoor plants performed statistically better on three measures of work performance. These positive outcomes could not be replicated in two field studies using various proxy measures of performance and wellbeing (perceived productivity, perceived physical and psychological health, work engagement, job satisfaction, and evaluations of the work environment) with varying lengths of exposure to indoor plants (6 weeks in Study 2 and 14 weeks in Study 3). The moderating role of connectedness to nature (Studies 1 and 2) was not supported while the moderating role of attractiveness of the plants (Study 3) was only partially supported in Study 3. These results are discussed in relation to the differences between laboratory and field studies, specifically in the context of call centre agents.
... Kaplan (1995) argued that nature, particularly outdoor nature, contains these properties and therefore exposure to nature during a break should be restorative. Studies on restoration through nature have regularly assessed both affective and cognitive restoration (Berman, Jonides, and Kaplan 2008;De Bloom et al. 2017;Larsen et al. 1998;Lee et al. 2018;Pasanen et al. 2018;Shibata and Suzuki 2004;Tennessen and Cimprich 1995). ...
... Evensen et al. (2015) found that neither selfreported restoration nor directed attention was significantly affected by the presence of indoor plants. With regards to mood Shibata and Suzuki (2004) found that self-reported mood significantly improved in the presence of plants whereas Larsen et al. (1998) found no significant effect on self-reported mood. ...
Article
This study investigated whether indoor plants were as effective as guided meditation for enabling psychological recovery after fatigue induced by the abbreviated vigilance task. Sixty students were randomly assigned to an indoor plant, guided meditation, or control rest-break condition. The psychological processes most in need of recovery were identified as cognitive and affective restoration. Measures of affect, stress, and working memory were taken before and after the vigilance task, and again after a rest intervention. The vigilance task induced fatigue as shown by a significant vigilance decrement and also significantly lowered positive affect and cognitive engagement, and significantly increased distress across all three conditions. After exposure to the break interventions, distress significantly decreased for participants in the indoor plant break condition while distress significantly decreased and engagement significantly increased in the guided meditation break condition. Indoor plants and guided meditation had a small, but significant positive impact on affective restoration and no significant impact on cognitive restoration. Practitioner summary: Indoor plants are a cost-effective green ergonomics intervention in offices. This study found that a rest break with indoor plants was as effective as a rest break with guided meditation for affective restoration after fatigue from a vigilance task.
... When students walk around a campus, they perform better on a task of divergent creativity (finding as many alternative uses for a given object as possible) than when they are inside a building (Oppezzo & Schwarz, 2014), but no significant difference appears for convergent creativity. In the study by Shibata and Suzuki (2004), female students were better on a creativity task when sitting in a room with an indoor plant than when sitting in the same room with magazines. Moreover, even managers in industry, if they have to judge from photos of offices, believe that those with plants and windows are more conducive to creativity (Ceylon, Dul & Aytac, 2008). ...
... Moreover, many studies have shown the attention restoration effect linked to the phenomenon of soft fascinating which tends to increase performance in intellectual tasks in the presence of natural landscapes or plants in the environment. Natural environments seem to increase the creativity of individuals (Shibata & Suzuki, 2004), and a virtual forest environment is capable of producing an attention-restoration effect comparable to a real forest (Mattila et al., 2020). Based on these elements, we hypothesise that a virtual forest environment can lead to better performance in a creative task involving sketching, compared to the same task in virtual reality in a neutral environment. ...
Article
Numerous studies have shown a beneficial effect of exposing people to natural landscapes and plants on their well-being and attentional functioning. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a natural virtual environment on creativity in a task consisting of sketching ideas of creative solutions to a problem. The participants in this experiment were asked to sketch ideas of innovative workstation for a person in a wheelchair. To do this, they used a virtual reality sketching tool. They performed this task once in a neutral environment (all in the dark), one in a natural virtual environment (forest) and once in a non-natural environment (office). The results revealed that people tend to be more creative in this task when they are immersed in a natural environment than when they are in a neutral environment without any vegetation.
... İç mekân bitkilerinin insanı dinç hissettirdiği, iş verimliliğini arttırdığı ve psikolojik olarak insan sağlığına iyi geldiği yapılan çalışmalarla kanıtlanmıştır. Özellikle ofislerde çalışanların iş verimini arttırdığı [23,26], okullarda öğrencilerin daha motive olmasına, çalışanların dikkat ve performansları üzerine katkıda bulunduğu ve mekândaki aidiyet ve mutluluk duygularına katkı sağladığı [13,[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34], hastanelerde hastalık semptomlarının azalmasına etki ettiği ve iyileşmeyi çabuklaştırdığı belirtilmiştir [35][36][37]. İç mekân bitkileri aynı zamanda estetik açıdan iç mekâna katkı sağlayarak, kimlik kazandırır. ...
... 4,3) işlevleri sağlaması için bitki kullanımına yer verildiği belirlenmiştir (Tablo 2). Bitkilerin birçok bilimsel çalışma ile de ortaya konulmuş hava kalitesini iyileştirme, insan psikolojisine olumlu katkı sağlama, iş verimini artırma, sınırlama, yönlendirme işlevlerinin [4,9,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] bitki tercihinde ikinci planda kaldığı anlaşılmıştır. . Bitkisel tasarım öğelerinin her biri kendi içinde değerlendirildiğinde tüm otellerde kullanılan iç mekân bitkilerinin sağladığı bitkisel tasarım öğeleri sırasıyla form (4,7), renk (4,2) ve ölçü (4,2), çizgi (4,1) ve doku (3,7) şeklindedir. ...
... Empirical studies proved nature brings positive impacts on occupants' well-being. There are a growing number of research groups using experimental or quasiexperimental research designs to test the effect of nature on occupants in many factors such as productivity, stress, and discomfort symptoms, mood, emotions, job satisfaction and attitude toward indoor workplace (Adachi, Rohde, & Kendle, 2000;Bringslimark, Hartig, & Patil, 2007;Chang & Chen, 2005;Lohr, Pearsons-Mims, & Goodwin, 1996;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004). Therefore, in order to enhance occupants' well-being in an adaptive reuse of heritage indoor co-working space, the relationship between occupants, nature is an essential aspect to be re-established. ...
... Nature is not only important for physical but also bring positive impacts on human well-being through passive interaction with nature. One of the most investigated aspects is human productivity and supports recovery from mental fatigue (Bringslimark et al., 2007;Larsen, Adams, Deal, Kweon, & Tyler, 1998;Lohr et al., 1996;Shibata & Suzuki, 2001, 2002, 2004). In addition, some studies have investigated that nature is able to reduce stress and discomfort symptoms and improve human mood and emotions (Bringslimark et al., 2007;Lohr et al., 1996;Adachi et al., 2000;Chang & Chen, 2005). ...
Research
Full-text available
Modern lifestyles do influence Malaysian occupants to work long hours in a day in order to cope with large workloads and to meet a deadline. Majority of the occupants are overstressed, faced with negative emotions that lead to an unhealthy lifestyle. Studies show that nature is able to enhance human well-being by reconnecting human with natural elements in a built environment, which is known as biophilic design. Therefore, this study aims to create a biophilic design guideline to enhance occupants' well-being in heritage adaptive reuse indoor co-working space. This study is conducted in the Heritage World Site (WHS) in George Town, Penang. Mixed method research design was used to collect data from the site. Both qualitative and quantitative data were analysed using the triangulation method to validate the overall data and research by cross verifying the information from multiple methods to gather the data. The results proved that the existing biophilic design patterns do enhance co-workers' emotional well-being significantly and it can be used as design guideline. In addition, this study also investigated different ways of biophilic design patterns application which can affect the quality of biophilic experiences.
... Overall, a huge number of studies have shown that being in a natural environment, or even just looking at natural elements, improves cognitive functioning, including attention and memory (Berto 2005;Berman et al. 2008;Berto et al. 2010;Raanaas et al. 2011), in addition to reducing perceived or physiological stress (Ulrich 1981;Hartig et al. 1991Hartig et al. , 1996Ulrich et al. 1991;Van den Berg et al. 2003;de Kort et al. 2006;Valtchanov et al. 2010;Tyrväinen et al. 2014). For example, offices with a view of natural features are known to improve job satisfaction and well-being, reduce stress and low mood, and also reduce sick leave compared to offices without natural features (Heerwagen and Orians 1986;Leather et al. 1998;Shibata and Suzuki 2004;Bringslimark et al. 2007;Kweon et al. 2008). Even hospitals with a view of natural landscapes induce in their patients better recovery, less stress and lower pain perception (Ulrich 1984;Lechtzin et al. 2010;Beukeboom et al. 2012). ...
... When students move around a campus, they perform better on a divergent creativity task (finding as many alternative uses for a given object as possible) than when they are inside a building (Oppezzo and Schwarz 2014), but no significant difference appears for convergent creativity. In Shibata and Suzuki's (2004) study, female students were better on a creativity task when sitting in a room with an indoor plant than when sitting in the same room with magazines. Moreover, even managers in industry, if they have to judge offices by photos, consider those with plants and windows to be more conducive to creativity (Ceylan et al. 2008). ...
... There is good evidence in the natural environment or just looking at nature, it promotes recovery from stress, improves memory and mood [60]. Shibata and Suzuki [53] investigated that task performance and mood was highly influenced by the presence of the indoor plants in a room. ...
... Plants have been important to changes in human emotions and promotes human senses and mind; for improving mental cognition and performance " [52,53]." There are several investigations showed that a floral display had positive effects on human emotions, such as composition and confidence [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of urbanization has spread all over the place in the world and created numerous physiological, and psychological in addition to environmental problems that are extending extensively day by day. There is a lot of infrastructure being developed due to the unexpected expansion of the urban sprawl, in consequence, green spaces are extensively damaged and reduced from the city gradually. Greening the great indoors with living plants is the innovative technology in architecture that can regain losses of a natural environment in dense urban areas which provides economic, environmental, lifestyle, health, and social benefits as well as is a sustainable solution to improve the environmental balance of cities to limit the major negative effects of urbanization. This study is being focused on a small document concerning the benefits of indoor plants based on the existing scientific evidence. Studies also indicate that people have learned and innate responses to plants. We hope that the present and future community can be greatly benefited along with realized through this discussion and review that indoor plants have multi-sensory benefits which can enhance our life span. This research will be successful when citizens can understand the truth on the subject of the benefits of indoor plant nurturing inside the building or home.
... Overall, a huge number of studies have shown that being in a natural environment, or even just looking at natural elements, improves cognitive functioning, including attention and memory (Berto 2005;Berman et al. 2008;Berto et al. 2010;Raanaas et al. 2011), in addition to reducing perceived or physiological stress (Ulrich 1981;Hartig et al. 1991Hartig et al. , 1996Ulrich et al. 1991;Van den Berg et al. 2003;de Kort et al. 2006;Valtchanov et al. 2010;Tyrväinen et al. 2014). For example, offices with a view of natural features are known to improve job satisfaction and well-being, reduce stress and low mood, and also reduce sick leave compared to offices without natural features (Heerwagen and Orians 1986;Leather et al. 1998;Shibata and Suzuki 2004;Bringslimark et al. 2007;Kweon et al. 2008). Even hospitals with a view of natural landscapes induce in their patients better recovery, less stress and lower pain perception (Ulrich 1984;Lechtzin et al. 2010;Beukeboom et al. 2012). ...
... When students move around a campus, they perform better on a divergent creativity task (finding as many alternative uses for a given object as possible) than when they are inside a building (Oppezzo and Schwarz 2014), but no significant difference appears for convergent creativity. In Shibata and Suzuki's (2004) study, female students were better on a creativity task when sitting in a room with an indoor plant than when sitting in the same room with magazines. Moreover, even managers in industry, if they have to judge offices by photos, consider those with plants and windows to be more conducive to creativity (Ceylan et al. 2008). ...
... Enfin, les effets bénéfiques de la nature ont également été démontrés sur la créativité. Ainsi, la présence d'éléments naturels au sein d'un espace de travail, qu'ils soient réels ou artificiels, améliore performance et créativité, comparativement à des espaces sans éléments naturels (Ayuzo-Sanchez, 2018 ;Chulvi & al., 2020 ;Ferraro, 2015 ;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004). Dans ce type d'espaces, on constate une curiosité plus élevée, plus de nouvelles idées et une meilleure flexibilité de pensée (Plambech & Konijnendijk, 2015 ;Williams & al., 2018). ...
Chapter
Ce chapitre présente l’approche des environnements reconstituants, ainsi que ses fondements théoriques. Ces environnements présentent un potentiel thérapeutique, au sens où ils ont un effet bénéfique sur la santé, le bien-être et les performances des individus. Les environnements reconstituants (restorative environments) permettent et favorisent la restauration de ressources ou capacités qui se sont vues diminuées suite à un effort adaptatif. La théorie de la restauration de l’attention, proposée par Kaplan, et la théorie de réduction du stress, proposée par Ulrich, sont les deux principales théories de psychologie de l’environnement qui sous-tendent cette approche. Pour Kaplan & Kaplan (1989), les effets reconstituants d’un environnement serait dus à quatre facteurs : l’évasion, l’étendue, la fascination et la compatibilité. Ainsi, ces environnements présenteraient un certain potentiel thérapeutique, en contribuant à l’amélioration de la santé, du bien-être et des performances des individus. Un environnement peut devenir reconstituant par certaines de ses caractéristiques ou certaines activités qu’il permet. Les principales caractéristiques documentées dans la littérature sont l’exposition à la nature et la présence de distractions positives. Ces éléments doivent être pris en compte dans la conception et l’aménagement des espaces.
... Regarding the neuropsychological indicator of emotion which includes the variables of lack of fear, happiness, and relaxation, our results showed that the participants in the hospital room with a Dish Garden perceived more lack of fear, happiness, and relaxation than the participants in the hospital room without a Dish Garden. In concordance with our research, the previous research works found that the presence and viewing of indoor plants in the interior environment increased positive feelings such as calmness (Shibata and Suzuki, 2004;Park and Mattson, 2009a,b), comfort (Park and Mattson, 2009a,b;Deng and Deng, 2018;Kim et al., 2018a,b,c), and satisfaction (Dravigne et al., 2008;Park and Mattson, 2009a,b;Deng and Deng, 2018), vitality (Korpela et al., 2017), relaxation and happiness (Park and Mattson, 2009a,b;Hassan et al., 2017;Van der Riet et al., 2017), and made the environment more suitable and pleasant (Kim et al., 2018a,b,c). Also, relevant to our results, Vujcic et al. (2017) identified nature-based therapy had a positive influence on the mental health and well-being of the patients. ...
Article
Hospital is one of the areas that affect the mental and psychological conditions of the children, and the poor design of these environments may affect physical and psychological health. This study investigated the effect of a typical Dish Garden as a surrogate for green spaces in improving the physical and neuropsychological characteristics of hospitalized children. For this purpose, 54 hospitalized children were randomly divided into intervention (experimental) and control groups. The children in the experimental group were placed in a pre-designed room with a Dish Garden for 72 hours, and the control group did not receive any intervention. In this research, a pre-test and post-test design were applied. The results showed that the group exposed to the Dish Garden was significantly healthier than the control group in terms of physical and neuropsychological factors. The recorded vital signs, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart, and respiration rates decreased to normal rates in the experimental group. The neuropsychological indices in the experimental group included the emotional index (lack of fear, happiness, and relaxation), the cognitive index (compatibility and attention), and the non-symptom index (no anxiety and lack of depression). The Dish Garden enhanced physical and neuropsychological health of the children through visual distraction. Therefore, using Dish Gardens can be suggested as low-budget and low-risk tools to create favourable environments in children's hospitals.
... Positive mood can be a state manifested in strength, friendliness and satisfaction [50]. The presence of plants in a room, or the arrangement of shelves and magazines, can improve the mood of the occupants of that room when compared to a room that has no greenery or magazine racks [51]. Listening to music also provides comfort and mood in a positive sense so that it can be used to eliminate boredom and maintain a positive mood [52], [53]. ...
... Research has previously demonstrated that experiencing nature provides a multitude of human health and well-being benefits such as stress reduction [4], [5], increased productivity [6], [7], and improved mood [8], [9]. These few constructs, in addition to several others [10]- [12], overwhelmingly point to the benefit of being in contact with nature for physical and psychological health. ...
Article
Experiencing nature provides a multitude of health benefits. Biophilic design has emerged as a design approach that aims to reconnect occupants with the natural environment. We evaluated the impact of a multisensory biophilic environment on occupants' cognitive performance, stress, productivity, mood, connectedness to nature, and attention. Thirty-seven participants in three cohorts were exposed to three biophilic design interventions (visual, auditory, and a combination (multisensory)) and a baseline condition, with weekly variations over eight weeks. A wrist-worn stress sensor, daily surveys, and scheduled executive function tasks were administered. Cognitive performance improved in all biophilic conditions compared to baseline. Most satisfaction with workplace appearance, and visual privacy was reported in visual and multisensory conditions, and stress ratings were lower in the multisensory condition compared to baseline. The results demonstrate that immersive biophilic environments can improve occupants’ satisfaction and cognitive performance, while reducing stress. The findings highlight the need to consider non-visual factors in biophilic design.
... Experiences in natural environments lead to feelings of healing [18,19]. Restorative environments help to improve cognitive function, improve the emotional state, and reduce stress [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. In addition, the recovery effect is also reflected in cognitive recovery [28]: it has been found that natural connections are associated with cognitive style [29], and the restorative environment experience can restore and stimulate cognitive and thinking creativity, allowing individuals to achieve a better mental state and work performance [30,31]. ...
Article
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In this study, restorative environment theory and virtual reality (VR) technology were combined to build different 3D dynamic VR interactive scenes. We discuss the effects of a VR restorative environment on the emotional and cognitive recovery of individuals with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression. First, we built a VR restorative garden scene, divided into four areas: forest, lawn, horticultural planting, and water features. The scene was verified to have a good recovery effect in 26 participants. Then, 195 participants with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression were selected as experimental subjects. Through psychological testing and EMG (Electromyography) and EEG (Electroencephalography) data feedback, we further explored the differences in the sense of presence in VR restorative scenes and their effect on individual emotional and cognitive recovery. The results showed that (1) both the restorative environment images and the VR scenes had a healing effect (the reduction in negative emotions and the recovery of positive emotions and cognition), with no difference in the subjective feeling of recovery among the different scenes, but the recovery score of the VR urban environment was higher than that of the natural environment (differing from the results in real environments); (2) a high sense of presence can be experienced in different VR scenes, and interactive activities in VR scenes can provide a great presence experience; (3) the recovery effects of VR restorative environment on emotion and self-efficacy are realized through the presence of VR scenes; (4) a VR restorative environment is helpful for the emotional improvement and cognitive recovery of individuals with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression. VR urban scenes also have good recovery effects. In terms of cognitive recovery, self-efficacy improved significantly. In addition, from the perspective of EEG indicators, the VR restorative scene experience activated the prefrontal lobe, which is conducive to cognitive recovery in individuals with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression. In terms of emotional improvement, negative emotions were significantly reduced in the different VR scene groups. In conclusion, we further explored ways to help individuals with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression, in order to promote the development and application of mental health.
... 臺灣建築學會「建築學報」第 114 期,2020 年 12 月,冬季號 JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURE, No. 114, Dec. 2020, Winter 一、 緣起 當靈光一閃的霎那間往往是處於休息的時刻,大 腦開始天馬行空的思考,讓二個距離遙遠的想法碰撞 在一起產生有創意的點子,而當「注意力」集中不斷 聚焦、琢磨、試驗後,則能實踐該創意的點子。在自 然景觀的研究中,水體是一項最柔軟且多變化的元素, 對於注意力恢復力的效果更甚於單一的植栽 (Ulrich, 1981) ; 又 自 然 荒 野 體 驗 具 有 提 升 創 造 力 的 潛 力 (Atchley, et al., 2012;van Rompay & Jol, 2016),因此本 研究試圖討論自然景觀是否能提升個體創造力的表 現。 在景觀效益的研究領域,大多數的研究主要討論 自然環境能有效幫助人們恢復疲勞的注意力 (Hartig, et al., 1991;Kaplan, 1995;Herzog, et al., 1997;Berto, 2005)。注意力恢復理論(Attention Restoration Theory, ART)認為透過觀看具柔性魅力的景觀環境,不僅能恢 復直接注意力外,從注意力恢復的過程中亦能產生創 造力 (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989;Kaplan, 1995)或進一步 提升個體解決問題的能力 (Gilhooly, 2016)。近年來有 少部分的研究從環境心理學的觀點,探討究竟植栽或 何種景觀能激發「創造力」 (Shibata & Suzuki, 2004;Plambech & Konijnendijk, 2015;van Rompay & Jol, 2016)。研究顯示自然景觀中的水體及以植栽為主的 環境對於生心理狀態的效益更勝於都市景觀 (Ulrich, 1981;Laumann, et al., 2001)。過去許多文獻已證實觀 看自然景觀能促進正向情緒或是能從負向情緒中恢 復 (Ulrich, et al., 1991;Hartig, et al., 2003);然而討論 情緒如何影響創造力的觀點大致可以分為二類:一類 主張正向情緒提高創造力 (Isen, et al., 1987;Davis, 2009) , 另 一 類 則 認 為 負 向 情 緒 提 高 創 造 力 (Verhaeghen, et al., 2005;Forgas, 2007;Akinola & Mendes, 2008 (Guilford, 1950) (Hartig, et al., 1991;Laumann, et al., 2001;Berto, 2005;Chang, et al., 2008), (Bringslimark, et al., 2007;Larsen, et al., 1998;Nieuwenhuis, et al., 2014 ...
Article
A large number of empirical studies have confirmed that natural landscapes recover our fatigue from work and enhance our positive emotions. The Attention Restoration Theory (ART) mentions that the soft fascination of the environment stimulates our creativity. The study focuses on forest landscape and urban streetscape to evaluate which environments support creativity. Besides, through experiencing the different landscapes, how do those environments reflect on the performance of creativity? In addition, creativity is sensitive to emotional responses, therefore, the study explores whether emotion affects creative performance. This study invited 100 students with design background randomly assigned to view a 3-min video with fascination forest landscapes or urban streetscape, and then fill out the PANAS mood scale and ATTA Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking, which led the study to evaluate the emotions and creativity performance generated by the experience of the landscape. The results found that the elaboration of the four dimensions of ATTA was significantly higher in the fascination forest landscape than in urban streetscape; through post hoc, the forest waterscape was better than urban streetscape. Compare to urban streetscape, forest waterscape predicts the elaboration. However, there was no significant effect on adding emotion in this model. The performance of different stages in creativity may be affected by landscape types. The findings suggest that fascination with forest landscape improves elaboration ability, which shows more details of the description, but when adding the emotion variable in the model, it would not be able to predict the elaboration.
... One possible explanation for these unexpected findings is the distraction of attention (Stone, 1998). Specifically, although an adjustable work area helps increase employees' positive moods at work (Shibata & Suzuki, 2004), the personalized decorations, plants, the view from the window may cause distraction when the tasks require much attention (Stone & Irvine, 1994). Although employees in positive activating moods are able to produce flexible and divergent thoughts, the adjustable work area may lead employees to devote their cognitive flexibility to adjusting their office environment and thus prevent the employees from paying attention to the details of these divergent thoughts. ...
Article
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Although recent studies have attempted to clarify the daily dynamics between moods and creativity, relatively limited studies have explored how daily positive and negative activating moods influence changes in daily creativity (i.e., controlling for the effects of prior daily creativity) in real organizations. Furthermore, although the importance of the physical working environment has been highlighted in the creativity literature, it remains unclear how the dimensions of the physical working environment (i.e., adjustability of work area and facilitation of informal communication) influence employees’ daily creativity directly or moderate the effects of daily activating moods on creativity. Using the daily diary research design, we collect lagged daily data from 70 creative workers across ten consecutive working days, yielding 662 valid matched daily responses. The results of multilevel path analysis show that both daily positive/negative activating moods had lagged and positive effects on changes in subsequent creativity, and the physical environment that facilitates informal interactions strengthened these positive lagged effects. Besides, a physical environment that facilitates informal interactions also directly predicted changes in daily creativity. Surprisingly, the work area’s adjustability attenuated the positive lagged effect of daily positive activating moods on daily creativity.
... Les plantes peuvent également engendrer des bénéfices attentionnels. Shibata et Suzuki (2001) montrent par exemple que la performance à une tâche attentionnelle suivant la prise d'une pause dans une salle équipée d'une plante est supérieure que pour une pause prise dans une salle sans plante (voir aussi Raanaas et al., 2011;Shibata et Suzuki, 2004;voir cependant Bringslimark et al., 2009). ...
Article
(Français) Plusieurs études montrent que le stress vécu par les travailleurs et étudiants est de plus en plus présent au point de devenir une préoccupation de santé publique. Cette problématique serait notamment causée par l’augmentation des demandes sur le système cognitif. L’exposition à la nature est reconnue pour diminuer les symptômes d’anxiété, mais également pour restaurer les ressources cognitives. Cet article a donc pour objectif de présenter la façon dont le système cognitif peut bénéficier d’une exposition à la nature et de soulever les principales études qui appuient son intégration dans les milieux de travail ou scolaires. (English) Several studies have shown that stress among workers and students is increasingly common, to the extent of becoming a public health preoccupation. This might be partially explained by increasing demands on the cognitive system. Exposure to natural settings has been shown to help decrease anxiety levels, but also to restore cognitive resources. Hence, this article aims at presenting how cognitive processes can benefit from nature exposure and at highlighting the main studies supporting nature integration among work and scholar environments.
... Ryan et al. (2014) established the 14 Biophilic Design Patterns and categorised it into three: Nature in the space, natural analog, and nature of the space (table 1). Source: (Ryan et al. 2014) There were a number of studies proving that the presence of nature in built environment can enrich human well-being such as in reducing stress (Bringslimark, Hartig, and Patil 2007;Ulrich et al. 1991); improving cognition (Lohr 2010); positive mood and task performance (Shibata and Suzuki 2004;Larsen et al. 1998) and reducing discomfort symptoms such as coughing, dry skin, and eye irritation (Fjeld and Bonnevie 2002). Ryan et al. (2014) stated that Biophilic Design Pattern 1 (P1) which is the 'visual connection with nature' refers to human sight connection with natural elements application such as foliage plants, flowers, water feature, and animals in man-made environment. ...
Article
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Biophilic design is a well-known design philosophy based on human-nature relationships. However, it has not been explored extensively in the Malaysian context and most of the previous studies were based on plants which were not suitable for tropical climate. This paper analyses the application of biophilic design and the usage of local edible and medicinal plants in Baba-Nyonya heritage shophouses' courtyards in George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site, Penang, Malaysia. The aim of this research is to enhance the human quality of life through biophilic design with local knowledge application in the urban setting. Qualitative method strategies were applied to collect the data: photographic survey, plant inventory and building observation. Three heritage shophouses that had been adaptively reused into contemporary cafes were selected for this study. Significant results showed that Biophilic Design Pattern under the 'visual connection with nature (P1)' has been achieved through the application of edible and medicinal plants. Unfortunately, the local knowledge for applying edible and medicinal plants for achieving biophilic design compliance is weak. In the future, a further study is needed to identify the species of local edible and medicinal plants which can be applied in the Baba-Nyonya heritage shophouses courtyards.
... Indeed, several studies have shown that exposure to nature increased creativity 37-41 . Participants can benefit from experiencing exposure to nature prior to subsequent creative tasks 37,38,42 and immersing in an environment with natural elements during tasks 39,43,44 . Meanwhile, wild (real nature) and indoor (pseudo-nature with natural elements) natural environments can induce the effect of exposure to nature, although the effect in an indoor environment was only evident among female participants 39 and is unlikely to induce as large an effect as that from wild natural environments. ...
Preprint
In today’s advanced information society, creativity in work is highly valued, and there is growing interest in the kinds of work environments that produce more creative outcomes. Recent researchers have demonstrated that when environmental factors change a worker’s attentional state to a diffused state, the worker has access to more information than usual, which can contribute to creativity. Here, we examined whether manipulating environmental factors (the presence of a cell phone and exposure to natural environment) that could affect such attention states would improve performance on the Remote Associates Task, a measure of creativity. Our results showed that the presence of a cell phone increased creative performance regardless of immersion in natural environment. In contrast, exposure to nature did not facilitate creative performance; instead, feelings of pleasure increased, and frustration decreased. These results suggest that the presence of a cell phone can enhance creativity by influencing workers’ attentional states. The current study provides a meaningful approach to enhancing creativity by modulating attentional states through environmental factors. It also highlights the essential features of environmental factors that can moderate creative abilities.
... Moreover, empirical research shows that workspace design can positively influence employee performance (e.g., Jahncke & Hallman, 2020;van Rompay & Jol, 2016;Wu et al., 2021). For example, Shibata and Suzuki (2004) found that physical work environments with plants are perceived as calm and tranquil and therefore less distracting, contributing to higher creative performance. However, researchers have also found that the physical work environment can impact negatively on work performance (e.g., productivity or creativity). ...
Article
Attracting talent is key for every organization. This research introduces a novel way to attract talent: creative workspace design. In two studies with complementary samples and methods, we examine whether, when, and how a firm's creative workspace design enhances organizational attractiveness. In Study 1, we use an experimental design to examine the attraction effect of creative (vs. conventional) workspace design from the applicant's perspective. First and foremost, we find that creative workspace design has a positive effect on organizational attractiveness. Second, our findings reveal two underlying mechanisms that help to explain this positive attraction effect: perceived climate for creativity and perceived innovation ability of the firm. Moreover, findings show that this attraction effect is stronger for highly creative (vs. less creative) individuals and attenuated for high-value (vs. low-value) workspaces. In Study 2, we validate the positive attraction effect of creative workspace design from the firm's perspective by using international survey data on a firm level. Taken together, this work sheds new light on how workspace design influences organizational attractiveness, elucidates why and when applicants are attracted by creative workspace design, and provides actionable implications for practice.
... Meanwhile, Bringslimark et al. (2007) suggest different views, their findings demonstrated that more plants in view in workplaces are associated with greater productivity and lesser sick leave, although the number of plants the researchers reported in their study are less than . Interestingly, Shibata and Suzuki (2004) postulate indoor plants may improve task performance of female occupants than male occupants. On the contrary, indoor plants may enhance the mood of male occupants than female occupants (ibid). ...
Article
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People tend to spend approximately 87% of their time in the indoor environment. There is a possibility that they are exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) and particle pollution, and to experience stress related disorder. This has potential threaten the well-being of indoor occupants if left untreated. Hence, plants were introduced to alleviate these negative impacts. This paper reviews past literature from 1990 to 2010s, to examine the relationship of plants with indoor environment and identifies how they influence people, psychologically and physiologically, and how they promote indoor environment quality. Most studies suggest that the presence of plants is associated with positive feelings and able to enhance productivity. In addition, they also may help to promote general health such as reducing blood pressure, perceived stress, sick building syndrome, and increase pain tolerance of the patient. Moreover, plants also help in improving the indoor environment quality (IEQ), for instance, they can reduce carbon dioxide (CO2), indoor ozone (O3) level, VOC, and particulate matter accumulation through bioremediation process. Despite all the benefits that the plants could offer, several studies pointed out that factors such as gender, perceived attractiveness of the space, physical characteristics of plants, and methods of interaction with plants may lead to non-identical results. Hence, the selection of the right species of plant in an indoor environment becomes mandatory in order to improve the indoor environment quality; to provide restorative effect; to invoke positive feelings and comfort of the people. In conclusion, this review may provide notable insights to landscape architects, gardeners and even interior designers to choose the right species of plant in an indoor environment, to maximize their psychological and physiological benefits, at the same time, improving indoor environment quality.
... The finding that greening positively influenced staff descriptions and evaluations of the ward is consistent with previous research on the benefits of plants in the workplace (Evensen et al., 2015;Kaplan, 1993;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004;Shin, 2007). Most of this research has, however, focused on offices instead of hospitals. ...
Article
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This research examined whether greening of a geriatric ward may reduce the hospital-induced decline in the independent functioning of elderly patients as measured by changes from admission to discharge in the KATZ-ADL6 and physician assessments at discharge. Using a quasi-experimental design with 4 months of pre- and post-tests, the functional decline in a sample of 54 hospitalized geriatric patients was found to be lower after greening than before greening for both measures. Moreover, an evaluative survey among 15 staff members showed that they appreciated the greening, and believed it to support patient well-being.
... Interior green space (Figure 1) can provide some of the environmental and psychological benefits provided by outdoor green space [11]. For example, interior green space is associated with greater parasympathetic activity (i.e., rest) [12], attention span [13,14], and improved air quality [15,16]. Thus, interior green space has potential to fulfil some of the functions of outdoor green space for those with limited opportunities to access the latter. ...
Article
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Many people spend the majority of their time indoors and there is emerging evidence that interior greenery contributes to human wellbeing. Accurately capturing the amount of interior greenery is an important first step in studying its contribution to human well-being. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of interior greenery captured using 360° panoramic images taken within a range of different interior spaces. We developed an Interior Green View Index (iGVI) based on a K-means clustering algorithm to estimate interior greenery from 360° panoramic images taken within 66 interior spaces and compared these estimates with interior greenery measured manually from the same panoramic images. Interior greenery estimated using the automated method ranged from 0% to 34.19% of image pixels within the sampled interior spaces. Interior greenery estimated using the automated method was highly correlated (r = 0.99) with interior greenery measured manually, although we found the accuracy of the automated method compared with the manual method declined with the volume and illuminance of interior spaces. The results suggested that our automated method for extracting interior greenery from 360° panoramic images is a useful tool for rapidly estimating interior greenery in all but very large and highly illuminated interior spaces.
... Direct contact with nature has also proved to have a positive influence on creativity, especially when carrying out physical activity (Ferraro 2015) or dispensing with technological devices (e.g., avoiding the use of smartphones) (Atchley et al. 2012), through more flexible thinking (Plambech and Konijnendijk van den Bosch 2015) and improved association of ideas (Williams et al. 2018). Creativity is also enhanced by the presence of these natural elements in closed spaces, as evidenced in different works (Shibata and Suzuki 2004;Ceylan et al. 2008;Studente et al. 2016;Van Rompay and Jol 2016). ...
Article
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The study of the mechanisms linked to creativity has become a topic of great interest in various scientific fields in recent decades. One area in which a particularly large amount of research has been conducted is on the positive effect of natural environments on creativity. Yet, none of these studies have focused on the interaction that may arise with the design method used. That is, they consider the empowering effect of nature on creativity to be something general, without taking into account other factors that may influence it, such as the type of methodology used. This paper therefore aims to go a step further and investigate how the type of design methodology used—intuitive or logical—in a simulated natural environment affects the designer’s creativity. The analysis of both the design process and its outcomes shows that the main differences in the way of working with design methodologies occur mainly in the case of intuitive methodologies, helping designers to improve the quality of their outcomes.
... Bakker and Voordt [51] further noted that little attention had been paid to the type of plant or its state of health. The majority of the studies have been conducted in laboratory or quasi-office design [59][60][61][62][63]. A more limited number of studies targeting office workers in real office settings have also been conducted [53,[64][65][66][67][68][69][70]. ...
Article
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In recent years, work-related stress has grown exponentially and the negative impact that this condition has on people’s health is considerable. The effects of work-related stress can be distinguished in those that affect workers (e.g., depression and anxiety) and those that affect the company (e.g., absenteeism and productivity). It is possible to distinguish two types of prevention interventions. Individual interventions aim at promoting coping and individual resilience strategies with the aim of modifying cognitive assessments of the potential stressor, thus reducing its negative impact on health. Mindfulness techniques have been found to be effective stress management tools that are also useful in dealing with stressful events in the workplace. Organizational interventions modify the risk factors connected to the context and content of the work. It was found that a restorative workplace (i.e., with natural elements) reduces stress and fatigue, improving work performance. Furthermore, practicing mindfulness in nature helps to improve the feeling of wellbeing and to relieve stress. In this paper, we review the role of mindfulness-based practices and of contact with nature in coping with stressful situations at work, and we propose a model of coping with work-related stress by using mindfulness in nature-based practices.
... Scholars have divided the relationship between human and nature into three levels: 1) Looking at natural landscapes or their pictures, 2) Being in nature, and 3) Interacting and getting involved with nature Hartig et al., 2014;Hinds & Sparks, 2008). They believe that, not only being in nature, but also looking at nature or even its images and movies, could reduce stress and eye fatigue (Shibata & Suzuki, 2004). Merely viewing greenery from a window of a classroom, or even photos of a natural environment can have quantifiable positive outcomes (Grinde & Patil, 2009;Honold, Lakes, Beyer, & van der Meer, 2016;Meidenbauer, Stenfors, Bratman, Gross, & Berman, 2019;Stevenson, K. T., Moore, Cosco, Floyd, Sullivan, Brink, Gerstein, Jordan, & Zapalatosch, 2020). ...
Article
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The human innate tendency to interact with the natural environment has been proven by psychologists. This interaction should be placed in educational environments (schools). Unfortunately, interaction with nature is not considered in schools today, and the schoolyard, a place where students can interact with open space and nature, is designed to be completely separated from the classrooms. That means the schoolyard and the classrooms should be designed in harmony with each other. Students spend a majority of their educational period in classrooms, so to create diversity and increase student's productivity, it is necessary to combine outdoor natural spaces with indoor educational areas. So, the schoolyard plays a complementary role to the classroom. Additionally, the natural environment can be considered as another educational setting option. The major goal of this review paper is analyzing the impact of the school's outdoor and natural spaces on enhancing students' learning abilities. Accordingly, first, the landscape architecture theories related to individuals and the natural environment, the importance of nature in learning spaces, and its impacts on students are presented. Then, the outcome of designing learning spaces in combination with outdoor spaces is displayed. Finally, the results can provide guidelines to education stakeholders, designers, and policymakers focused on creating more encouraging environments for students' learning.
... Prior studies have demonstrated naturalistic sensory stimuli are effective at promoting recovery after stress (Yin et al., 2020). Experiencing visual and auditory elements from nature has been shown to reduce stress and improve mood (Shibata and Suzuki, 2004;Fuller et al., 2007;Park et al., 2009;Brown et al., 2013;Hedblom et al., 2019). Physiological benefits in relation to heart rate and neural activity also occur after experiencing naturalistic visual and auditory stimuli (Jo et al., 2019;Yin et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Background Work-related stress is one of the top sources of stress amongst working adults. Relaxation rooms are one organizational strategy being used to reduce workplace stress. Amongst healthcare workers, relaxation rooms have been shown to improve perceived stress levels after 15 min of use. However, few studies have examined physiological and cognitive changes after stress, which may inform why relaxation rooms reduce perceived stress. Understanding the biological mechanisms governing why perceived stress improves when using a relaxation room could lead to more effective strategies to address workplace stress. Objective The purpose of this research study is to understand how physiological measures, cognitive performance, and perceived stress change after acute stress and whether certain sensory features of a relaxation room are more effective at promoting recovery from stress. Methods 80 healthy adults will perform a stress induction task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) to evaluate how physiological and cognitive responses after stress are affected by sensory features of a relaxation room. After the stress induction task, participants will recover for 40 min in a MindBreaks™ relaxation room containing auditory and visual stimuli designed to promote relaxation. Participants will be randomized into four cohorts to experience auditory and visual stimuli; auditory stimuli; visual stimuli; or no stimuli in the room. Measures of heart rate and neural activity will be continuously monitored using wearable devices. Participants will perform working memory assessments and rate their perceived stress levels throughout the experiment. These measures will be compared before and after the stress induction task to determine how different sensory stimuli affect the rate at which individuals recover. Results Recruitment started in December 2021 and will continue until December 2022 or until enrollment is completed. Final data collection and subsequent analysis are anticipated by December 2022. We expect all trial results will be available by early 2023. Discussion Findings will provide data and information about which sensory features of a relaxation room are most effective at promoting recovery after acute stress. This information will be useful in determining how these features might be effective at creating individualized and organizational strategies for mitigating the effects of workplace stress.
... 37 In a Japanese study, college students reported a more peaceful mood when a plant was placed 2.9 m away than when a bookshelf or nothing at all was placed at the same distance. 38 A series of studies conducted in classrooms of junior high schools in central Taiwan showed that students sitting close to indoor plants reported significantly higher attraction to the setting than students sitting farther from the indoor plants. 39 Further, students sitting close to indoor plants reported significantly higher well-being and attraction and lower state anxiety than students sitting farther from indoor plants, 40 while students sitting close to actual indoor plants and plant photos reported significantly lower state anxiety than students sitting farther from plants and plant photos. ...
Article
The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of visible greenness rate, green coverage ratio and distance from plants on human perceptions and parameters of the physical environment. A secondary purpose was to explore the correlation between parameters of physical environment and human perceptions when indoor plants were present. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Experimental treatments were administered by placing either three or eight pots of Radermachera hainanensis Merr. in a room. Sixty students of a technology university in central Taiwan were recruited as participants, and their perceptions were collected using a questionnaire. Physical parameter data were collected using two air quality detectors. The results indicated the following: when the visible greenness rate was identical, different green coverage ratios and plant–participant distances did not exert different effects on participants' perceptions. Different green coverage ratios and distances from plants exerted differing effects on physical parameters. However, the distance from indoor plants had stronger and more consistent effects on physical parameters than the green coverage ratio. The environmental comfort of the participants increased with the CO 2 level, and the lower the level of total volatile organic compound, the higher is the level of surprise.
... Indeed, several studies have shown that exposure to nature increased creativity 37-41 . Participants can benefit from experiencing exposure to nature prior to subsequent creative tasks 37,38,42 and immersing in an environment with natural elements during tasks 39,43,44 . Meanwhile, wild (real nature) and indoor (pseudo-nature with natural elements) natural environments can induce the effect of exposure to nature, although the effect in an indoor environment was only evident among female participants 39 and is unlikely to induce as large an effect as that from wild natural environments. ...
Article
Full-text available
In today’s advanced information society, creativity in work is highly valued, and there is growing interest in the kinds of work environments that produce more creative outcomes. Recent researchers have demonstrated that when environmental factors change a worker’s attentional state to a diffused state, the worker has access to more information than usual, which can contribute to creativity. Here, we examined whether manipulating environmental factors (the presence of a cell phone and exposure to natural environment) that could affect such attention states would improve performance on the Remote Associates Task, a measure of creativity. Our results showed that the presence of a cell phone increased creative performance regardless of immersion in natural environment. In contrast, exposure to nature did not facilitate creative performance; instead, feelings of pleasure increased, and frustration decreased. These results suggest that the presence of a cell phone can enhance creativity by influencing workers’ attentional states. The current study provides a meaningful approach to enhancing creativity by modulating attentional states through environmental factors. It also highlights the essential features of environmental factors that can moderate creative abilities.
... In this experiment, each crewmember spent more than 4 h each day to work in the plant chamber full of crops. The visual aesthetics of plants are known to elicit feelings of inner peace, which generates positive emotions toward a meaningful appreciation of life [29,30]. Direct contact with plants guides the individual's focus away from stress enhancing their overall quality of life [31]. ...
Article
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Mental health of the crewmembers is crucial to the success of the task during long-duration space exploration missions, especially in isolated and confined environments. The ability to recognize mental states is essential to effectively help safeguard mental health. However, the current recognition of the mental status is still based on relatively subjective assessment of symptoms as well as psychometric evaluations, lacking objective recognition methods. Fortunately, the “Lunar Palace 365” experiment offers us a precious opportunity to study the objective recognition indicators such as physiological phenotypes and urinary metabolites associated with the psychological changes of crewmembers in isolated and confined environments. In this study, 28 phenotypic measurements were recorded daily. Psychological measurements were completed 1–2 times per week with the symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) and profile of mood states (POMS) questionnaires, while 24-h urine samples were collected for metabolomics analysis on the day of psychological measurement. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to identify potential physiological phenotypes and urine metabolic markers associated with mental changes. In this study, all crewmembers showed neither behavioral disturbances nor reports of psychological distress during the 370-day period of mission confinement. Psychological changes showed significant individual differences, but there were consistent and large fluctuations during the mission transitions and when encountering critical events such as power failures and “covering windows”. Crewmembers had lower negative mood scores and higher positive mood scores when they performed their missions the second time than the first. Significant gender differences were found in psychological scores, physiological phenotypes, and urinary metabolites. Spearman correlation analysis showed 11 physiological phenotypes (|R|≥ 0.4, P < 0.001) and 43 urinary metabolites (|R|>0.5, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with psychological changes. Our results provide some potential objective indicators for the diagnosis and evaluation of mental status, and offer more precise guidance for studying the psychological issues of crewmembers during long-term isolation missions in the future.
... Built environmental design needs to be incorporated with nature and its components to improve this integrity [50]. In the housing context, it has also been proposed that sunlight and a view of nature, indoor potted plants and photos of plants or small landscapes enhance residents' sense of satisfaction and positive emotions [24,51,52]. The literature also identifies that highrise buildings with large windows may create discomfort, anxiety, stress and unhappiness among inhabitants [27]. ...
Article
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Today's architectural design approaches do not adequately address the relationship between users' spatial, environmental and psychological experiences. Domestic environmental experience generally indicates users' cognitive perceptions and physical responses within dwelling spaces. Therefore, without a clear perception of occupants' experiences, it is difficult to identify proper architectural solutions for a domestic environment. To understand notions of these domestic experiences, the current study explores the theoretical relationship between spatial and environmental design factors within domestic settings which led to the concept of "Environmental Experience Design (EXD)". Extensive data exploration was conducted using a combination of thirty keywords through different databases (e.g., Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar, Mendeley and Research Gate) to categorise the relevant literature regarding thematic study areas such as human perception and phenomenology, environmental design and psychology, residential environment and design, health-wellbeing and user experiences. This study has identified theoretical associations between spatial and environmental design factors of different domestic spaces that can stimulate occupants' satisfaction and comfort by reviewing eighty-seven studies from the literature. However, occupants' contextual situations significantly impact domestic spaces, where spatial and environmental design attributes may be connected to diverse sociocultural factors. The scope of explanation about user context is limited, to some extent, in environmental design theories. Thus, combining occupants' contexts with spatial and environmental design factors will be a future research direction used to explore the notion of "Domestic Environmental Experience Design".
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Numerous studies have shown that the environment affects creativity. This means that the creativity of an individual can be enhanced by placing him or her in an environment with the appropriate stimuli. However, these studies focus on the creativity of results in situ. The present study differs from the previous ones in that the aim is to analyse the effect of this environment on the acquisition of creative skills, since nowadays most university classes are taught in conventional classrooms, without any of the so-called creative stimuli of the environment. For this purpose, the present work shows the results of a practical experience, in which a number of creativity classes in the field of design engineering have been given to two homogeneous groups of students. For the first group the classes were given in a conventional classroom, while for the second group the same classes were given in a classroom with creative stimuli. In order to compare the level of acquisition of creative skills, two groups solved the same creative problem in the same classroom without stimuli, so that it was not the classroom stimuli that influenced the creativity, but that it was only due to the competence acquired by them.
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Makerspaces have become some of the most important environments for nurturing creativity in the 21st century. This study proposed that a rounded versus an angular physical work environment (RA-PWE) in makerspaces has different effects on makers’ divergent and convergent creativity. The results of a survey with makers in 15 makerspaces and two experiments indicated that a rounded physical work environment (Rounded-PWE) was more likely to enhance divergent creativity than an angular physical work environment (Angular-PWE), while an Angular-PWE was more likely to enhance convergent creativity than a Rounded-PWE. The underlying process identified showed that a Rounded-PWE was more likely to activate approach motivation, while an Angular-PWE was more likely to activate avoidance motivation, in turn enhancing divergent or convergent creativity. This study makes theoretical contributions to research on PWE, creativity, and motivation and provides practical implications for managers and designers of makerspaces and other spaces.
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Background Patient-centred ward design has recently attracted attention, and the impact of architectural environment on inpatients' psychological well-being is an important aspect thereof. However, little is known about inpatients’ perceptions of ward environments. Method Fifty-four inpatients at a Chinese general hospital participated in the study. The subjects experienced simulated patient ward environments through the use of virtual reality to test six design characteristics in various combinations. Subjects’ skin conductance (physiological measurement) and perceived restorative outcomes (psychological measurement) were tracked during and after the experiences. Results A window view of an urban landscape with natural elements led to better restorative effects than indoor plants or a digital representation of nature. Inpatients experience better restoration when surrounded by warm-coloured rather than cold-coloured or white walls. Relatively spacious patient rooms are more restorative, especially with a large width-length ratio. However, no restorative benefits were found for additional furniture, and abstract artwork does not necessarily improve mental well-being. The results of doorway position were varied, depending on measurements used. Conclusions The impacts of six built environments on inpatients' restorative outcomes were identified, and some impacts were mediated by demographics and human factors. The difference between physiological and psychological measurement results is argued to relate to the influence of people's additional information processing.
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Due to mounting concerns about the psychological well-being of university students, it is useful to consider whether and how the quality of the physical study environment can improve students’ functioning. The present study examined the presence of potted plants within a university library study room on students’ self-reported mood (i.e., fatigue and vigor), self-reported cognitive performance (i.e., attention and productivity), perceived environmental quality (i.e., room satisfaction, attractiveness, and comfort), and recorded duration of stay in the study room. We conducted a real-life quasi-experimental study in which potted plants were introduced in one study room (intervention group) whereas nothing changed in another study room (control group). Cross-sectional data of the dependent and co-variables were collected among separate groups of students pre- and post-intervention using questionnaires (N = 445) and recordings of students’ duration of stay in the study room (N = 1029). The pretest-posttest change in attractiveness (B = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.33; 0.72) and comfort (B = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.08; 0.51) was greater in the study room with potted plants than the pretest-posttest change in attractiveness and comfort in the study room without plants. Students’ reasons to study in the room with potted plants next time they study included the perceived environmental quality, atmosphere, it being more relaxing, the homey feel, and indoor climate. Nevertheless, the pretest-posttest change in vigor (B = 0.29, 95% CI= -0.57; -0.01) was lower in the room with potted plants than the pretest-posttest change in vigor in the study room without plants, and no meaningful associations between the presence of potted plants and fatigue, cognitive performance, and duration of stay in the study room were found. Overall, findings suggest that students preferred the study room with potted plants to the one without. However, the findings do not support the hypothesis that adding potted plants to a study room improves mood or cognitive performance among students.
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Past research exploring employee health, wellbeing and productivity in green office buildings has yielded mixed results and lacks a theoretical framework to explain these different findings. There is a need to better understand the specific aspects of green buildings that relate to various health, wellbeing, and productivity outcomes. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how the Psycho-Environmental Potential model can be used as a theoretical framework to help explain the mixed impacts of green buildings on individuals. This model assumes that to promote wellbeing, settings should sustain six functions, which fulfill needs for their users: 1) security and shelter, 2) social contact regulation, 3) symbolic identification, 4) task instrumentality, 5) pleasure, and 6) growth. The authors introduce a seventh function, sustainability. Through the examination of past research, green building rating systems, and general building features, the potential for green office buildings to fulfill these seven functions is analyzed. While our review found that green office buildings have - in theory - the potential to fulfill each function, the fulfillment of these functions can vary significantly between individual buildings due to differences in features. The current framework is presented as a tool to examine existing buildings, and aid in the design of new green office buildings. Additionally, this framework can be utilized in future research to systematically examine the relationship between green building features and its occupants, thus, aiding in addressing the mixed findings in regard to the positive impacts of green buildings on health, wellbeing, and productivity.
Thesis
This dissertation aims to improve work conditions in office buildings by implementing vertical greenery systems such as green façades and living walls in semi-arid climates. Since building energy performance is characterized by their electrical systems and thermal exchanges through the building envelope, which is primarily defined by glazing systems in the façades, covering glazed façades with a vegetation layer can play a key role in the energy-saving and thermal comfort of buildings. This research evaluates, through the building simulation method, the influence of green façades in thermal comfort, energy consumption, and the heating and cooling loads of an office building in Denver city with a semi-arid climate condition. Furthermore, the psychological and physical performance of vertical gardens as a nature-based solution and, from the perspective of biophilic cities and philosophy has been assessed through a review of previous studies related to the effect of greenery systems in office buildings. A green façade can also be used as a retrofit option for office building refurbishment. A case study was created as a building model to investigate the influence of green façades and green façade configuration on their performance prediction in semi-arid climates. Additionally, for a better understanding of vertical garden performance in semi-arid regions, simulation case studies in Barcelona with a Mediterranean climate (as articles) and Denver with a semi-arid climate as the context of this dissertation were conducted and their results were compared together. The information generated from the simulation of bare and green façade configurations as a double-skin façade was in- corporated into qualitative theories trying to predict human comfort aspects in the work environment. For balancing energy-saving measures through green façade refurbishment, four qualitative criteria serve as the foundation for occupant psychological and physical comfort, and their impact on productivity has been established. These criteria are: the requirement for appropriate indoor air temperature, indoor air quality, daylight availability for the psychological performance of users, and perceived control over the façade by a vegetation layer in workplaces. Finally, a new concept of vertical gardens was introduced by integrating biology and technology in architecture, which may solve the issue of weather conditions and water scarcity in some climates, such as semi-arid climates, for implementing vertical gardens.
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Specific environmental features, such as natural settings or spatial design, can foster creativity. The effect of object-context congruency on creativity has not yet been investigated. While congruence between an object and its visual context provides meaning to the object, it may hamper creativity due to mental fixation effects. In the current study, virtual reality technology (VR) was employed to examine the hypothesis that people display more cognitive flexibility - a key element of creativity, representing the ability to overcome mental fixation - when thinking about an object while being in an incongruent than in a congruent environment. Participants (N = 184) performed an Alternative Uses Task, in which they had to name as many uses for a book as possible, while being immersed in a virtual environment that was either object-context congruent (i.e., places where you would expect a book; e.g., a library or a living room; n = 91) or object-context incongruent (i.e., places where a book is not expected; e.g., a clothing store or a car workshop; n = 93). The effect of object (in)congruency was also assessed for three other indices of creativity: fluency (i.e., the number of ideas generated), originality and usefulness. In line with our hypothesis, participants scored higher on pure cognitive flexibility in the object-context incongruent than in the object-context congruent environment. Moreover, participants in the object-context incongruent environment condition generated more original ideas. The theoretical and practical implications of the current findings are discussed.
Chapter
Contextual influences in the workplace have been increasingly acknowledged as being crucial for enhancing creativity. Among various factors in the context surrounding employees, organizational culture and organizational climate have gained much attention in creativity research over the last decades. However, still many challenges exist about the role of culture and climate on creativity. For example, the literature stresses the importance of the physical work environment but research addressing physical aspects of the organizational context has received little attention. This chapter attempts to provide an overview of existing knowledge by synthesizing previous literature on organizational culture and climate influencing creativity. We focus on key issues and major trends. We further discuss perspectives for future research and important questions that remain to be answered. Finally, the chapter suggests some practical recommendations for organizational promotion of creativity.
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This study investigated the effects of different natural environments on attention restoration and creativity. To compare the restorative benefits based on the degrees of perceived naturalness in urban areas, this study categorized environments into three types of perceived naturalness and tested the effect on one's creativity. The urban campus was selected as the study site, representing high-, medium-, and low-perceived naturalness photosets downloaded from Google Street Map images as experimental stimuli. The study invited 100 subjects to take the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA), which measures creative thinking by viewing the onscreen photosets of the experimental stimuli. In addition, this study asked participants to complete the Perceived Restoration Scale (PRS) questionnaires. The results showed that high- and medium-perceived naturalness in the urban-campus site was superior to low-perceived naturalness in creative performance. In addition, there were significant differences in elaboration and flexibility for different degrees of perceived naturalness. Various degrees of perceived naturalness showed a substantial correlation between PRS scores and ATTA scores. The attention restoration benefits of high- and medium-naturalness environments improve creativity. Our study indicates that viewing natural environments stimulates curiosity and fosters flexibility and imagination, highly natural environments distract our minds from work, and the benefits of attention restoration can improve the uniqueness and diversity of creative ideas. This study provides a reference for creative environmental design and supports further understanding of nature's health and creativity benefits in urban areas.
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Experience of nature is widely linked to wellbeing, including psychological restoration. Benefits to creativity have been explored in a limited number of studies which refer to theories of restorative environments as frameworks, but it is unclear which aspects of the environment and person-nature transactions are implicated in these processes. In this study, N = 20 members of the British public were interviewed regarding the relevance of natural environments for their personal and professional creative activities. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts revealed that cognitive, affective, and aesthetic appraisals were reported as directly relevant to creativity in nature, while environmental properties, sensory experiences, and the self were reported as informing these appraisals. Similarities to theories of restorative environments were observed in terms of the relevance of affect, cognition, and aesthetics. However, divergences also occurred, especially with regard to perceptions of arousal as beneficial for creativity, the importance of change in the environment, and the relevance of the self. Studies and theoretical modelling of relationships between nature and creativity should include these concepts, as well as those from theories of restorative environments.
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Sex differences favoring women have been found in a number of studies of episodic memory. This study examined sex differences in verbal, nonverbal, and visuospatial episodic memory tasks. Results showed that although women performed at a higher level on a composite verbal and nonverbal episodic memory score, men performed at a higher level on a composite score of episodic memory tasks requiring visuospatial processing. Thus, men can use their superior visuospatial abilities to excel in highly visuospatial episodic memory tasks, whereas women seem to excel in episodic memory tasks in which a verbalization of the material is possible.
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The authors employed an affective priming paradigm to provide direct evidence for the rapid evaluation of natural and urban environments suggested in evolutionary models of environmental perception and restoration. Pictures classified as urban and nature environments differing in restorative and affective quality were presented as prime stimuli. They were followed by presentations of human vocal expressions of joy, anger, and emotional neutrality as target stimuli. The participants were required to judge the vocal one-word expressions and produce a forced-choice reaction between joy and anger. The reaction times to vocal expressions of anger were shorter after the presentation of urban scenes associated with low restorative potential and negative affect than after nature scenes associated with high restorative potential and positive affect. The reaction times to vocal expressions of joy were shorter after the presentation of a nature scene than of an urban environment. The results provide support for the rapid and automatic affective evaluations of environmental scenes.
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This experiment measures the effects of indoor plants on participants' productivity, attitude toward the workplace, and overall mood in the office environment. In an office randomly altered to include no plants, a moderate number of plants, and a high number of plants, paid participants (N = 81) performed timed productivity tasks and completed a survey questionnaire. Surprisingly, the results of the productivity task showed an inverse linear relationship to the number of plants in the office, but self-reported perceptions of performance increased relative to the number of plants in the office. Consistent with expectations, participants reported higher levels of mood, perceived office attractiveness, and (in some cases) perceived comfort when plants were present than when they were not present. Decreased productivity scores are linked to the influence of positive and negative affect on decision making and cognitive processing.
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Subjects viewed sixty color slides of either (1) nature with water, (2) nature dominated by vegetation, or (3) urban environments without water or vegetation. The information rates of the three slide samples were equivalent. Measurements were taken of the effects of the slide presentations on alpha amplitude, heart rate, and emotional states. Results revealed several significant differences as a function of environment, which together indicate that the two categories of nature views had more positive influences on psychophysiological states than the urban scenes. Alpha was significantly higher during the vegetation as opposed to urban slides; similarly, alpha was higher on the average when subjects viewed water rather than urban content. There was also a consistent pattern for nature, especially water, to have more positive influences on emotional states. A salient finding was that water, and to a lesser extent vegetation views, held attention and interest more effectively than the urban scenes. Implications of the findings for theory development in environmental aesthetics are discussed.
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Depending on what is in the view, looking out the window may provide numerous opportunities for restoration. Unlike other restorative opportunities, however, window viewing is more frequent and for brief moments at a time. The setting is also experienced from afar rather than while being in it. A study conducted at six low-rise apartment communities, using a survey with both verbal and visual material, provides considerable support for the premise that having natural elements or settings in the view from the window contributes substantially to residents’ satisfaction with their neighborhood and with diverse aspects of their sense of well-being. Views of built elements, by contrast, affected satisfaction but not well-being. Views of the sky and weather did not have a substantial effect on either outcome. The potential of nature content in the view from home to contribute so significantly to satisfaction and well-being suggests clear action mandates.
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Shifting the focus from fear, guilt, and indignation related to deteriorating environmental quality, the authors hypothesized that people who see greater potential for restorative experiences in natural environments also do more to protect them by behaving ecologically, as with recycling or reduced driving. University students (N = 488) rated a familiar freshwater marsh in terms of being away, fascination, coherence, and compatibility, qualities of restorative person-environment transactions described in attention restoration theory. They also reported on their performance of various ecological behaviors. The authors tested a structural equation model with data from a randomly drawn subset of participants and then confirmed it with the data from a second subset. For the combined subsets, perceptions of the restorative qualities predicted 23% of the variance in general ecological behavior. As the only direct predictor, fascination mediated the influences of coherence, being away, and compatibility.
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The argument for preceding multiple analysis of variance ({anovas}) with a multivariate analysis of variance ({manova}) to control for Type I error is challenged. Several situations are discussed in which multiple {anovas} might be conducted without the necessity of a preliminary {manova}. Three reasons for considering multivariate analysis are discussed: to identify outcome variable system constructs, to select variable subsets, and to determine variable relative worth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Attention Restoration Theory (ART) proposes that effortful directed attention can become fatigued in modern urban environments. Restoration can occur in a setting that evokes fascination (effortless attention). Ordinary natural settings evoke soft fascination, that is, moderate fascination accompanied by esthetic pleasure. Such settings enable a fully restorative experience, including the recovery of directed attention and the opportunity for serious reflection. Settings broadly classified as sports/entertainment are more likely to evoke hard fascination, that is, very high levels of fascination that fill the mind. Such settings permit directed attention recovery but afford little opportunity for reflection. We tested these ideas by having participants rate the perceived restorative effectiveness of three kinds of settings (ordinary natural, sports/entertainment, and everyday urban) under two goal-set conditions (as places for attentional recovery or for reflection). Ordinary natural settings were seen as having the highest overall restorative effectiveness, everyday urban settings as having the lowest, and sports/entertainment settings as in between. Moreover, sports/entertainment settings were seen as higher in restorative effectiveness for the attentional-recovery goal set than for the reflection goal set. No such goal-set difference occurred for the other two setting categories combined. These results are in agreement with the predictions of ART.
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In this study we investigate the effect of leafy plants on subjects' task performance and mood. As independent variables, two types of tasks and several room arrangements were used. There was an association or a sorting task and the room was arranged either with the plant placed in front of the subjects, to the side of the subjects, or with no plant placed in the room. Gender was also considered as a variable for analysis. Undergraduate students (F=63,M =83) performed either the association task or the sorting task under one of the three room arrangements. The association task was to create no more than 30 words for 20 different items. The sorting task was to sort 180 index cards into Japanese syllabary order.As for the task performance, Room×Gender interaction was significant in the scores of the association task (p<0·05). Male subjects working without plants performed worse than female subjects under the same conditions (p<0·01). Moreover, the task performances of the male subjects using the front arrangement were higher than that of the male subjects working without plants (p<0·10). It was concluded that the presence of the plants affected the association task more than the sorting task, and male subjects more than female subjects. It was also suggested that the presence of the leafy plants might affects creative work positively.
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Different conceptual perspectives converge to predict that if individuals are stressed, an encounter with most unthreatening natural environments will have a stress reducing or restorative influence, whereas many urban environments will hamper recuperation. Hypotheses regarding emotional, attentional and physiological aspects of stress reducing influences of nature are derived from a psycho-evolutionary theory. To investigate these hypotheses, 120 subjects first viewed a stressful movie, and then were exposed to color/sound videotapes of one of six different natural and urban settings. Data concerning stress recovery during the environmental presentations were obtained from self-ratings of affective states and a battery of physiological measures: heart period, muscle tension, skin conductance and pulse transit time, a non-invasive measure that correlates with systolic blood pressure. Findings from the physiological and verbal measures converged to indicate that recovery was faster and more complete when subjects were exposed to natural rather than urban environments. The pattern of physiological findings raised the possibility that responses to nature had a salient parasympathetic nervous system component; however, there was no evidence of pronounced parasympathetic involvement in responses to the urban settings. There were directional differences in cardiac responses to the natural vs urban settings, suggesting that attention/intake was higher during the natural exposures. However, both the stressor film and the nature settings elicited high levels of involuntary or automatic attention, which contradicts the notion that restorative influences of nature stem from involuntary attention or fascination. Findings were consistent with the predictions of the psycho-evolutionary theory that restorative influences of nature involve a shift towards a more positively-toned emotional state, positive changes in physiological activity levels, and that these changes are accompanied by sustained attention/intake. Content differences in terms of natural vs human-made properties appeared decisive in accounting for the differences in recuperation and perceptual intake.
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Records on recovery after cholecystectomy of patients in a suburban Pennsylvania hospital between 1972 and 1981 were examined to determine whether assignment to a room with a window view of a natural setting might have restorative influences. Twenty-three surgical patients assigned to rooms with windows looking out on a natural scene had shorter postoperative hospital stays, received fewer negative evaluative comments in nurses' notes, and took fewer potent analgesics than 23 matched patients in similar rooms with windows facing a brick building wall.
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This experiment assessed the effects of a red versus a green versus a white office environment on worker productivity and mood. An equal number of males and females completed a mood questionnaire before and after proofreading in one of the three offices. It was predicted that the subjects in the red office would report more tension and possibly make more errors. However, the subjects in the red office made the fewest errors, while the subjects in the white office made the most errors. Females scored significantly better on the proofreading task, and reported more tension and less vigour than males in the experiment. Subjects who worked in the red office found the colour of their office more distracting than subjects who worked in and rated the white office. The subjects in the white office reported that they would like to work in this environment and considered this colour most appropriate for an office. The authors speculate that a sterile, white environment may not be as conducive to work as is believed.
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Previous research by Hirt, Melton, McDonald, and Harackiewicz (1996) found that mood effects on creativity were not mediated by the same mechanisms as were mood effects on quantitative measures of performance and evaluations of performance, suggesting that mood may simultaneously be working through different processes (dual process view). However, other research (Martin & Stoner, 1996; Sinclair, Mark, & Clore, 1994) supports a single process, mood-as-information model for similar effects of mood on processing. In the present research, we hypothesized that if a single, mood-as-information process accounts for mood effects on both creativity and quantitative performance, then all mood effects should be eliminated if participants are cued that their mood is irrelevant to the task (cf. Schwarz & Clore, 1983). We manipulated participants' moods prior to task performance and presented them with either an enjoyment-based or a performance-based stop rule; half of the participants were cued to the true source of their moods, half were not. Cueing participants eliminated mood effects on quantitative measures of performance (e.g., number generated). However, consistent with a dual-process view, the cueing manipulation did not affect creativity; happy participants generated the most creative responses regardless of stop rule or cue.
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In this study, three experiments were performed in order to investigate the effect of ornamental foliage plants on visual fatigue caused by visual display terminal operation. Visual fatigue was evaluated as critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF). Four students served as subjects in each experiment.The experiment (1) was carried out to examine the reduction of visual fatigue by viewing plants during visual display terminal operation. As the results, the CFF of the subjects in case of viewing plants was higher than that in case of viewing no plant. Especially, the difference of the CFF of the subject A was 9.3%.The experiment (2) was carried out to examine the recovery of visual fatigue by viewing plants after visual display terminal operation. As the results, the CFF of the three subjects except A increased in case of viewing plants and decreased in case of viewing no plant. The differences of the CFF of the subjects B and D were 4.6% and 3.6% respectively.The experiment (3) was carried out to determine whether difference in kinds of plants could bring about difference of the recovery of visual fatigue. As the results, average of the CFF of the subjects in case of viewing Schefflera arboricola “Hong Kong”, Cupressus macrocarpa “Gold Crest” and no plant decreased by 2.7%, 3.1% and 6.0% respectively, while average of the CFF of the subjects in case of viewing Dracaena fragrans “Massangeana” showed an increase of 0.6%.
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VDT作業によるテクノストレス (主として視覚疲労) が緑を見ることによって解消されるかを実験的に究明した。その結果, パーソナルコンピュータによるVDT作業を一定時間行わせた後に鉢物の緑遠景の樹林, 屋上の芝生などの緑を見せることによって, 無刺激条件 (何もしない), 模造品の緑を見せるなどに比べて, フリッカー値の低下 (率) は著しく抑制される。いうならば, 視覚疲労が明らかに緩和, 回復されることが明らかとなった。
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The study presents an investigation of the effects of the recommended office lighting on subjects' mood and cognitive performance in the physical setting of an office. In addition, a gender effect in the performance appraisal task was examined, both as a between-and within-subject factor. The results showed no significant effect of the lighting on the performance of cognitive tasks. However, an interaction between gender and color temperature on mood showed that 3000K (more reddish) and 4000K (more bluish) office lighting may communicate different affective loadings or meanings to each gender. The cognitive workload induced by almost 2 hours of intellectual work diminished the subjects' positive mood and augmented a negative mood. Moreover, independently of their gender, the raters evaluated the neutral female significantly different from the neutral male ratee. Implications of these findings for the mood effects of indoor lighting and the gender effect in work-related judgment are discussed.
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Task type and the presence of windows and posters were manipulated to examine their effects on individuals' performance, mood, and perceptions. Male and female undergraduates worked either a filing, computational, or creative task in a windowed or windowless room, with or without a poster (i.e., task-relevant cues). As predicted, the presence of windows did not affect performance. Window presence increased perceptions that the room was motivating and the likelihood that one looked about the room for help with the computational task. Unexpectedly, the number of errors on the computational task was reduced when the task-relevant poster was present. Poster presence also increased positive mood and decreased fatigue perceptions for individuals performing the creative task. Overall, poster presence increased confidence. Because perceptions of task demand were related to several outcome variables, the stimulation from windows and posters appears to interact with the task demand.
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The utility of different theoretical models of restorative experience was explored in a quasi-experimental field study and a true experiment. The former included wilderness backpacking and nonwilderness vacation conditions, as well as a control condition in which participants continued with their daily routines. The latter had urban environment, natural environment, and passive relaxation conditions. Multimethod assessments of restoration consisted of self-reports of affective states, cognitive performance, and, in the latter study, physiological measures. Convergent self-report and performance results obtained in both studies offer evidence of greater restorative effects arising from experiences in nature. Implications for theory, methodology, and design are discussed.
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This research examines the use of visual material to decorate windowed and windowless offices. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Occupants of windowless offices should put up more visual materials than do occupants of windowed offices to compensate for the stimulus deprivation; (2) visual materials in windowless offices should consist of more "surrogate views" (e.g., landscapes and cityscapes) than the visual materials in windowed offices where real views are present; and (3) visual decor in windowless offices should be dominated by materials with a nature content. A detailed content analysis of wall decor used in 75 offices on the University of Washington campus was conducted. Results show that occupants of windowless space used twice as many (195 versus 82) visual materials to decorate their offices. Further, materials in windowless offices were dominated by nature themes as predicted in hypothesis 3. Although windowless occupants did not use significantly more "surrogate views" overall than did occupants of windowed spaces, content of the surrogate views was significantly different for the two windowed conditions. People in windowless offices used more landscapes and fewer cityscapes than did occupants of windowed spaces.
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Two experiments investigated the effect of indoor lighting on cognitive performance via mood. Experiment 1 varied two lighting parameters in a factorial, between-subject design: two illuminance levels (dim; 300 lx vs bright; 1500 lx) by two colour temperatures (‘warm’ white; 3000K vs ‘cool’ white; 4000K) at high CRI (Colour Rendering Index; 95). In experiment 2 the parameters of lighting were identical to the first experiment, except for the low CRI (CRI; 55). In both experiments gender was introduced as an additional grouping factor. Results in experiment 1 showed that a colour temperature which induced the least negative mood enhanced the performance in the long-term memory and problem-solving tasks, in both genders. In experiment 2, the combination of colour temperature and illuminance that best preserved the positive mood in one gender enhanced this gender's performance in the problem-solving and free recall tasks. Thus, subjects' mood valences and their cognitive performances varied significantly with the genders' emotionally different reactions to the indoor lighting. This suggests, in practice, that the criteria for good indoor lighting may be revised, taking into account females' and males' emotional and cognitive responses as well.
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The authors report further evidence bearing on the relations among restorative experiences, self-regulation, and place attachment. University students (n = 101) described their favorite places and experiences in them, and 98 other students described unpleasant places. Natural settings were overrepresented among favorite places and underrepresented among the unpleasant places. In open-ended accounts, frequent mention of being relaxed, being away from everyday life, forgetting worries, and reflecting on personal matters indicated a link between favorite places and restorative experience. Restoration was particularly typical of natural favorite places. Structured evaluations of being away, fascination, coherence, and compatibility indicated they were experienced to a high degree in the favorite places, although fascination to a lesser degree than compatibility. The favorite and unpleasant places differed substantially in all four restorative qualities but especially in being away and compatibility. Self-referencing appears to be more characteristic of favorite place experiences than engaging or interesting environmental properties.
Article
Reviews the 2 problems for which a discriminant analysis is used—separation and classification. Issues related to the use and interpretation of a discriminant analysis are those pertaining to (a) distinguishing between a linear discriminant function and a linear classification function, (b) misusing stepwise discriminant analysis programs, (c) ordering variables and selecting variable subsets, (d) choosing a classification rule, (e) estimating true classification hit rates, (f) assessing classification accuracy, and (g) examining and using classification results. Most of these issues deal with information available from package discriminant analysis computer programs. (50 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Explored the underlying structure of the reading scores of 235 men and 163 women (aged 17–64 yrs) using separate speed and accuracy measures from tests of reading comprehension and vocabulary. Gender differences were then examined with respect to both overall reading measures and the underlying basic processes. Speed and accuracy measures of basic processes involved in the reading of single words revealed reading differences which support the findings from the general reading tests. It was concluded that the female advantage in verbal tasks relates primarily to faster and more accurate use of lexical and orthographic knowledge, but that this accuracy advantage disappears when the reading task requires higher order processing skills. This work suggests that exploration of the speed and accuracy components of basic processing tasks is a fruitful approach to understanding individual differences, such as those related to gender. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
presents some of the findings regarding the impact of mild positive affect on thinking and motivation / explores the processes underlying them and the circumstances under which they are likely to be observed / focus is on decision making, but in order to understand affect's influence on decisions, it is helpful to consider its impact on cognitive organization (or the way material is thought about and related to other material) and on motivation (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Theory and research dealing with place identity and restorative environments have for the most part proceeded independently. Assuming that emotional- and self-regulation are processes underlying the development of place identity, and that a person's favorite place is an exemplar of environments used in such regulation processes, the present study goes beyond preliminary observations about restorative aspects of favorite places to consider how individuals evaluate their favorite places using terms set out in restorative environments theory. Finnish university students (n=78) evaluated the central square of their city (Tampere) and favorite and unpleasant places of their own designation using the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS), an instrument based on attention restoration theory. Consistent with notions of self-regulation, PRS subscale scores for Being Away, Fascination, Coherence, and Compatibility were all high in the favorite place evaluations, but Coherence and Compatibility were reliably higher than Being Away, which was in turn reliably higher than Fascination. Also, PRS subscale scores for the favorite places were reliably higher than those for the central square, which were in turn higher than those for the unpleasant places. Furthermore, differences were also found in self-reported emotional states associated with each place. The discussion suggests ways to develop further mutually reinforcing relations between restorative environments research and research on place identity.
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The impact of indoor lighting, gender, and age on mood and cognitive performance was examined in a between-subject experiment. It was hypothesized that indoor lighting is an affective source that may convey emotional meanings differentiated by gender, age, or both. A two-way interaction between type of lamp and age on negative mood showed that younger adults (about 23 years old) best preserved a negative mood in the “warm” (more reddish) white lighting while working with a battery of cognitive tasks for 90 minutes; for the older adults (about 65 years old), “cool” (more bluish) white lighting accounted for the identical effect. The younger females were shown to preserve the positive mood as well as the negative mood better than the younger males, and a main effect of age in all cognitive tasks revealed the superiority of younger to older adults in cognitive performance.
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Author's Note: This article benefited greatly from the many improvements in organization, expression, and content made by Rachel Kaplan, and the many suggestions concerning consistency, clarity, and accuracy made by Terry Hartig. Thanks also to the SESAME group for providing a supportive environment for exploring many of the themes discussed here. The project was funded, in part, by USDA Forest Service, North Central Experiment Station, Urban Forestry Unit Co-operative Agreements. Abstract An analysis of the underlying similarities between the Eastern meditation tradition and attention restoration theory (ART) provides a basis for an expanded framework for studying directed attention. The focus of the analysis is the active role the individual can play in the preservation and recovery of the directed attention capacity. Two complementary strategies are presented which can help individuals more effectively manage their attentional resource. One strategy involves avoiding unnecessary costs in terms of expenditure of directed attention. The other involves enhancing the effect of restorative opportunities. Both strategies are hypothesized to be more effective if one gains generic knowledge, self knowledge and specific skills. The interplay between a more active form of mental involvement and the more passive approach of meditation appear to have far-reaching ramifications for managing directed attention. Research on mental restoration has focused on the role of the environment, and especially the natural environment. Such settings have been shown to reduce both stress and directed attention fatigue (DAF) (Hartig & Evans, 1993). Far less emphasis, however, has been placed on the possibility of active participation by the individual in need of recovery. A major purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of this mostly neglected component of the restorative process.
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This study is based on a theoretical view which suggests that under increased demands for attention, individuals' capacity to direct attention may become fatigued. Once fatigued, attentional restoration must occur in order to return to an effectively functioning state. An attention-restoring experience can be as simple as looking at nature. The purpose of this study was to explore whether university dormitory residents with more natural views from their windows would score better than those with less natural views on tests of directed attention. Views from dormitory windows of 72 undergraduate students were categorized into four groups ranging from all natural to all built. The capacity to direct attention was measured using a battery of objective and subjective measures. Natural views were associated with better performance on attentional measures, providing support for the proposed theoretical view.
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Window access, task type, and the room (windowed or windowless) were manipulated to investigate their effects on performance and individuals' perceptions of the task and room. Students (n = 180) performed one of three tasks (filing, computational, creative) in either a windowed or windowless room, and had either a direct or indirect interaction with the window. Contrary to expectation, performance and perceptions were not affected by the interaction of window access, task type, and the room. Also, performance was not higher for those working in a room with a window. A marginal interaction effect (p < 0.10) indicated that the creative task is affected by the type of access. Also, the effects on perceptions of the task and room tend to indicate that windowed rooms do contribute a dynamic environment. Specifically, the windowed room appeared to effect more positive perceptions for the creative task. Interestingly, some positive perceptions about the monotonous task occurred in the windowless room; however, boredom tended to be reduced when one faced the window. Implications of these results and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Article
Two studies were conducted with the aim of developing a set of rating scale measures of restorative components of environments. In Study 1, 238 Norwegian undergraduates acting as subjects imagined themselves to be either in a nature environment or a city environment which they rated on unipolar scales intended to describe how they experienced the environments. In Study 2 another sample of 157 subjects recruited from the same population of Norwegian undergraduates viewed videos of a forest, park, sea area, city, and a snowy mountain, imagining themselves to be in these environments while performing ratings on the same scales. In both studies factor analyses yielded results in agreement with a theory proposed by Kaplan and Kaplan (1989). However, the being away factor posited by the theory was split into two factors, one with high loadings on rating scales tapping being physically away, the other with high loadings on rating scales tapping being psychologically away. The remaining three factors were defined by rating scales tapping extent, fascination, and compatibility, respectively. Composite measures of the factors had acceptable reliability. Furthermore, as predicted, environments with nature elements generally scored higher than city environments on all measures. Compatibility and fascination predicted preference ratings of the environments, whereas escape and compatibility predicted selfratings of relaxation.
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Directed attention plays an important role in human information processing; its fatigue, in turn, has far-reaching consequences. Attention Restoration Theory provides an analysis of the kinds of experiences that lead to recovery from such fatigue. Natural environments turn out to be particularly rich in the characteristics necessary for restorative experiences. An integrative framework is proposed that places both directed attention and stress in the larger context of human-environment relationships.
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The patterns of information available in the environment are often ignored in analyses of the fit or congruence between person and environment. By viewing such information patterns (in conjunction with the environmental constraints on behavior and the individual's purposes) as potential sources of incompatibility, it is possible to understand a substantially wider range of human-environment relationships. From this perspective, person-environment incompatibility turns out to be a problem that is widespread and that extracts high psychological costs. It might seem that the solution to such problems requires an increase in environmental controllability; such an assumption can, however, be questioned on a number of grounds. An alternative approach is proposed in terms of the concepts of supportive and restorative environments. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/66976/2/10.1177_0013916583153003.pdf
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The well-being of the workforce is clearly a matter of concern to the employer. Such concern translates to considerable costs in the form of fringe benefit packages, health promotion programs, ergonomics, and other ways to reduce absence and enhance health and satisfaction. Despite such efforts, however, one way to address well-being that entails relatively low costs has been largely ignored in the work context. Proximity and availability of the natural environment can foster many desired outcomes, even if the employee does not spend a great amount of time in the natural setting. A theoretical framework is presented that helps explain why even the view from the window can have a positive impact with respect to well-being. Results from two studies offer some substantiation. Further research on the role of nature in the workplace is essential; however, decisions to provide health promoting programs and to enhance fringe benefit packages have not been offered as a direct consequence of empirical verification. While providing windows at work may not be a simple matter, other ways to increase contact with vegetation may provide a low-cost, high-gain approach to employee well-being and effectiveness. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/30542/1/0000175.pdf
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We investigated the influence of windows on performance, mood, and satisfaction for different task types. Forty students worked computational or managerial tasks in offices with or without windows. Contrary to expectation, windowed offices did not effect higher performance, positive mood, or satisfaction. Actually, students felt slightly more confident (p < .10) and more in control (p < .01) in the windowless condition, suggesting a need for privacy to reduce evaluation apprehension. How windows affect performance, mood, and satisfaction remains unclear.
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Research on psychological restoration and restorative environments is a needed complement to work on stress and environmental stressors. Two laboratory experiments tested the utility of two restorative environments theories, one concerned with directed attention capacity renewal and the other with stress reduction and associated changes in emotion. Various strategies were employed to distinguish restorative effects from other effects, to limit the role of arousal reduction in attentional restoration, and to begin mapping the time course for the emergence of outcomes. Both experiments tested for differential emotional and performance effects as a function of photographic environmental simulation (natural or urban environment). Across the experiments the natural environment simulation engendered generally more positive emotional self-reports. That consistent performance effects were not found in either study suggests that attentional restoration as reflected in performance is a more time-intensive process.
  • Lewin C.