Leptin is associated with craving in females with alcoholism

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany.
Addiction Biology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 09/2004; 9(3-4):213-9. DOI: 10.1080/13556210412331292541
Source: PubMed


The appetite and weight regulating peptide leptin was associated recently with alcohol craving during withdrawal. Nevertheless, correlations were only significant with craving displayed on the visual analogue scale for maximum craving during the previous week (VAS), and not if assessed with the highly validated Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). The objective of the following study, therefore, is to elucidate further the associations between the leptin system and craving concepts during alcohol withdrawal. A sufficiently large sample size should allow multiple statistical subgroup and confounder analyses. We prospectively investigated 102 chronic alcoholic inpatients (23 females, 79 males) during withdrawal on days 0 (admission), 1, 2 and days 7-10. In addition to the statistical analysis of the total sample, females and males were to be analysed separately. For detecting associations between leptin levels and craving scores multiple regression analysis was performed. Plasma leptin levels were determined, and craving for ethanol was assessed by both the OCDS and the VAS. Leptin plasma levels significantly increased during alcohol withdrawal compared to day 0, while all craving scores decreased. Body mass corrected leptin plasma levels predicted craving on day 0 in the OCDS total score (R=0.55, F=7.91, df=1.19, p<0.05) and in the OCDS obsessive subscore (R=0.57, F>=8.48, df=1.19, p<0.05) in females. Neither in males nor in the total population did multiple regression analysis reveal any significant results. Leptin levels seem to change during inpatient alcohol withdrawal. In a multivariate model, correlations between leptin levels and the highly validated craving scores of the OCDS can only be assumed in females. Hence, gender differences have to be taken into account when searching for neurobiological models of alcohol craving.

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    • "(Wrust et al., 2003) no found significant differences between serum leptin levels in alcoholic patients between the first and seventh day of abstinence. Kraus et al. (2004) found a correlation between increased leptin levels with the intensity by craving in alcoholic women. Overall, the results suggest that an increase in leptin levels at the beginning of withdrawal may be considered a factor that influences the increase in drug craving. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin inhibits cortisol release and may increase the craving for cigarettes, hindering the process of smoking cessation. We evaluate the influence of the initial concentration of cortisol and serum leptin on craving and smoking status in individuals after one month of treatment for smoking cessation. The leptin concentration was adjusted by the Initial Body Mass Index (BMI) (leptin/BMI) and the initial percentage of body fat (%BF) (leptin/%BF). The craving was assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief). The QSU-Brief was assessed about a score of factor 1 (positive reinforcement by tobacco), and factor 2 (negative reinforcement by tobacco). Correlation was found between QSU-Brief (Factor 1 and 2) with the initial concentration of leptin/BF% among those who continued to smoke. There was a negative correlation between cortisol levels and leptin/%BF in individuals who remained smokers after 1 month. There was a positive correlation between leptin/BMI and leptin/%BF with the QSU-Brief (Factor 2) of 1 month in women who remained smokers (r=0.565; p=0.023) and the QSU-Brief (Factor 2) initial among the abstinent women (r=0.551; p=0.033). The highest concentrations of leptin were associated with greater craving and difficulty in achieve abstinence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Psychiatry Research
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    • "In patients experiencing alcohol withdrawal, leptin levels are found to be highly correlated with alcohol craving (Kiefer, Jahn, Jaschinski, et al., 2001; Kiefer, Jahn, Kellner, Naber, & Wiedemann, 2001; Kraus et al., 2004). The fact that drugs used to treat alcohol dependence (such as naltrexone and acamprosate) decrease serum leptin in abstinent alcohol addicts suggests that the correlation is meaningful (Kiefer et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutamate-modulating agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been considered as a potential anti-addictive drug. Beneficial effects were reported for cocaine, cannabis, and tobacco addicts, but the effect of NAC in alcoholics or in alcohol animal models is unknown. The aggravation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, has been associated with increased levels of serum corticosterone and leptin. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of NAC on anxiety, as well as corticosterone and leptin serum levels, after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with 2 g/kg ethanol, twice daily, by gavage for 30 days; control animals received an appropriate dose of glucose to balance caloric intake. Rats were treated for 4 days with NAC (60 and 90 mg/kg, intra-peritoneally [i.p.]) or saline after alcohol cessation. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, rats were exposed to a 5-min session in the open-field test (OF). Corticosterone and leptin serum levels were determined by ELISA in samples collected within 30 min after the OF. Results showed that rats were hypoactive (decreased rearing, peripheral, and total crossings), and that corticosterone and leptin levels were increased 5 days after alcohol cessation. Four days of NAC prevented the behavioral and biochemical changes brought about by alcohol cessation. We suggest that, in addition to the anti-addictive properties reported for other drugs of abuse, NAC is potentially useful in the management of alcohol withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)
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    • "Depression could be an important mediator of the effect of childhood maltreatment in inflammatory markers (Lopes et al., 2012), however we did not find any difference between CM+ and CM À groups regarding major depression. It is also important to consider that we did not exclude participants with alcohol consume in the last 30 days prior admission despite increased levels of adiponectin , resistin (Hillemacher et al., 2009) and leptin (Kraus et al., 2004) have been reported in alcohol dependence. However, we only included participants with the primary diagnosis of cocaine dependence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood maltreatment has been associated with addiction and immune dysregulation, although neurobiological substrates underlying this association remain largely unknown. The aim of the study was to compare plasma levels of adipokines during early abstinence in crack cocaine dependent women with (CM+) and without history of childhood maltreatment (CM-). One hundred four crack cocaine female users were followed for 20 days in a detoxification inpatient treatment unit. Plasma levels of adiponectin, resistin and leptin were assessed every 7 days during 3 weeks of follow-up. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) retrospectively assessed childhood maltreatment history. A healthy control group was included to provide adipokines reference values (HC). All crack users increased leptin plasma levels during early abstinence despite concentrations remained lower in comparison with non-users group. Crack users reporting childhood maltreatment exhibited a significant reduction in plasma levels of adiponectin and resistin when compared to CM- group. In addition, only CM- participants increased plasma levels of adiponectin during detoxification. This is the first study evaluating adipokines during crack cocaine abstinence. Our results suggest a modulator effect of childhood maltreatment on inflammatory status in treatment-seeking crack cocaine dependents during early abstinence.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Psychiatry Research
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