Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementation on inflammatory factors and tumor marker CEA in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Methods: In this study, 81 patients with stage ӀӀ or ӀӀӀ colorectal cancer were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) control: receiving a vitamin D placebo, weekly + two omega-3 fatty acid placebo capsules, daily; (2) omega-3 fatty acid, receiving two omega-3 fatty acid capsules (each capsule containing 330 mg of omega-3 fatty acids), daily + a vitamin D placebo, weekly; (3) vitamin D, receiving a 50,000 IU vitamin D soft gel, weekly + two omega-3 fatty acid placebo capsules, daily; (4) co-supplementation, receiving a 50,000 IU vitamin D soft gel, weekly + two omega-3 fatty acids capsules, for 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention, serum levels of 25(OH)D, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, NF-kB activity, and tumor marker CEA, were measured.
Results: After 8 weeks of intervention, patients who received combined vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids supplements compared with omega-3, vitamin D, and placebo had significantly decreased TNF-α, and IL-1β (P < .05). In addition, serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor marker CEA were decreased significantly in omega-3, vitamin D, and co-supplementation of them, compared with baseline. NF-kB activity was decreased significantly in vitamin D and co-supplementation groups, compared with baseline. Regarding CEA, there was no significant difference between the four groups at the end of intervention (P > .05).
Conclusion: Results show that co-supplementation of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementation, in colorectal cancer patients have beneficial impacts on inflammation and tumor marker CEA.