Structure of Bovine Pancreatic Cholesterol Esterase at 1.6 Å: Novel Structural Features Involved in Lipase Activation † , ‡
The structure of pancreatic cholesterol esterase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes a wide variety of dietary lipids, mediates the absorption of cholesterol esters, and is dependent on bile salts for optimal activity, is determined to 1.6 A resolution. A full-length construct, mutated to eliminate two N-linked glycosylation sites (N187Q/N361Q), was expressed in HEK 293 cells. Enzymatic activity assays show that the purified, recombinant, mutant enzyme has activity identical to that of the native, glycosylated enzyme purified from bovine pancreas. The mutant enzyme is monomeric and exhibits improved homogeneity which aided in the growth of well-diffracting crystals. Crystals of the mutant enzyme grew in space group C2, with the following cell dimensions: a = 100.42 A, b = 54.25 A, c = 106.34 A, and beta = 104.12 degrees, with a monomer in the asymmetric unit. The high-resolution crystal structure of bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterase (Rcryst = 21.1%; Rfree = 25.0% to 1.6 A resolution) shows an alpha-beta hydrolase fold with an unusual active site environment around the catalytic triad. The hydrophobic C terminus of the protein is lodged in the active site, diverting the oxyanion hole away from the productive binding site and the catalytic Ser194. The amphipathic, helical lid found in other triglyceride lipases is truncated in the structure of cholesterol esterase and therefore is not a salient feature of activation of this lipase. These two structural features, along with the bile salt-dependent activity of the enzyme, implicate a new mode of lipase activation.
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[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bile-salt activated carboxylic ester lipase (CEL) is a major triglyceride, cholesterol ester and vitamin ester hydrolytic enzyme contained within pancreatic and lactating mammary gland secretions. Bioinformatic methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures and gene locations for CEL genes, and encoded proteins using data from several vertebrate genome projects. A proline-rich and O-glycosylated 11-amino acid C-terminal repeat sequence (VNTR) previously reported for human and other higher primate CEL proteins was also observed for other eutherian mammalian CEL sequences examined. In contrast, opossum CEL contained a single C-terminal copy of this sequence whereas CEL proteins from platypus, chicken, lizard, frog and several fish species lacked the VNTR sequence. Vertebrate CEL genes contained 11 coding exons. Evidence is presented for tandem duplicated CEL genes for the zebrafish genome. Vertebrate CEL protein subunits shared 53-97% sequence identities; demonstrated sequence alignments and identities for key CEL amino acid residues; and conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for human CEL. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CEL family of genes which were related to a nematode carboxylesterase (CES) gene and five mammalian CES gene families.0Comments 5Citations
- "The single helix at the C-termini (αN) for the vertebrate CEL subunits was readily apparent, as were the five β-sheet structures at the N-termini of the CEL subunits (β1–β5). It is apparent from these studies that all of these CEL subunits have highly similar secondary structures.Figure 3 describes predicted tertiary structures for mouse CEL and zebrafish CEL1 protein sequences which showed significant similarities for these polypeptides with bovine [1, 36] and human CEL  . Identification of specific structures within the predicted mouse CEL and zebrafish CEL1 sequences was based on the reported structure for a truncated human CEL which identifies a sequence of twisted βsheets interspersed with several α-helical structures [10, 68] which are typical of the alpha-beta hydrolase superfamily . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice (Oryza sativa). LipA is a secretory virulence factor of Xoo, implicated in degradation of rice cell walls and the concomitant elicitation of innate immune responses, such as callose deposition and programmed cell death. Here, we present the high-resolution structural characterization of LipA that reveals an all-helical ligand binding module as a distinct functional attachment to the canonical hydrolase catalytic domain. We demonstrate that the enzyme binds to a glycoside ligand through a rigid pocket comprising distinct carbohydrate-specific and acyl chain recognition sites where the catalytic triad is situated 15 A from the anchored carbohydrate. Point mutations disrupting the carbohydrate anchor site or blocking the pocket, even at a considerable distance from the enzyme active site, can abrogate in planta LipA function, exemplified by loss of both virulence and the ability to elicit host defense responses. A high conservation of the module across genus Xanthomonas emphasizes the significance of this unique plant cell wall-degrading function for this important group of plant pathogenic bacteria. A comparison with the related structural families illustrates how a typical lipase is recruited to act on plant cell walls to promote virulence, thus providing a remarkable example of the emergence of novel functions around existing scaffolds for increased proficiency of pathogenesis during pathogen-plant coevolution.0Comments 28Citations
- "When present, the lid remains permanently open, such as in fungal feruloyl esterases (Hermoso et al., 2004). The lid is absent in certain lipases, cutinases, acetylxylan esterases, and cholesterol esterases (Martinez et al., 1992; Chen et al., 1998; Ghosh et al., 1999; van Pouderoyen et al., 2001). The presence of an unusually large seven-helical domain in place of the usual lid and the absence of any evident movement upon ligand binding in LipA prompted us to check whether LipA has lipase or esterase activity. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complex constraints imposed by protein structure and function result in varied rates of sequence and structural divergence in proteins. Analysis of sequence differences between homologous proteins can advance our understanding of structural divergence and some of the constraints that govern the evolution of these molecules. Here, we assess the relationship between amino acid sequence and structural divergence. Firstly, we demonstrate that the relationship between protein sequence and structural divergence is governed by a variety of evolutionary constraints, including solvent exposure and secondary structure. Secondly, although compensatory substitutions are widespread, we find many radical size-changing mutations that are not compensated by neighboring complementary changes. Instead, these noncompensated substitutions are mitigated by alteration of protein structure. These results suggest a combined mechanism of accommodating substitutions in proteins, involving both coevolution and structural accommodation. Such a mechanism can explain previously observed correlated substitutions of residues that are distant both in sequence and structure, allowing an integrated view of sequence and structural divergence of proteins.0Comments 22Citations
- "The curve of the slopes indicates that some proteins may show more structural similarity in some regions than others. This is demonstrated by 1CLE (Ghosh et al. 1995), 1TRH (Grochulski et al. 1994), and 1THG (Schrag and Cygler 1993) having greater structural conservation as the first 250 residues are superimposed than 2BCE (Chen et al. 1998 ). As the more diverged regions are added to the superposition , these three proteins show greater divergence overall than 2BCE. "
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