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Influence of Aloe vera on healing of dermal wounds in diabetic rats

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Abstract

The positive influence of Aloe vera, a tropical cactus, on the healing of full-thickness wounds in diabetic rats is reported. Full-thickness excision/incision wounds were created on the back of rats, and treated either by topical application on the wound surface or by oral administration of the Aloe vera gel to the rat. Wound granulation tissues were removed on various days and the collagen, hexosamine, total protein and DNA contents were determined, in addition to the rates of wound contraction and period of epithelialization. Measurements of tensile strength were made on treated/untreated incision wounds. The results indicated that Aloe vera treatment of wounds in diabetic rats may enhance the process of wound healing by influencing phases such as inflammation, fibroplasia, collagen synthesis and maturation, and wound contraction. These effects may be due to the reported hypoglycemic effects of the aloe gel.

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... All studies used Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and evaluated the incision and excision of wound but the duration of each study varies from each other, with one article studied additional burn wound. The evaluation of excision wounds is mainly to determine the rate of wound contraction, while the evaluation of incision wounds is to investigate the tensile strength (23); and these studies followed standard methods as practiced in other wound-healing studies (21)(22)(23). Additionally, all animal studies were found to apply C. striatus in the form of topical treatment, i.e. cream and spray and these studies not only evaluated the effectiveness of pure extract C. striatus, but also formulations with other components such as cetrimides and fusidic acid as well. ...
... All studies used Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and evaluated the incision and excision of wound but the duration of each study varies from each other, with one article studied additional burn wound. The evaluation of excision wounds is mainly to determine the rate of wound contraction, while the evaluation of incision wounds is to investigate the tensile strength (23); and these studies followed standard methods as practiced in other wound-healing studies (21)(22)(23). Additionally, all animal studies were found to apply C. striatus in the form of topical treatment, i.e. cream and spray and these studies not only evaluated the effectiveness of pure extract C. striatus, but also formulations with other components such as cetrimides and fusidic acid as well. ...
... Comparisons of C. striatus extract with other intervention studies shows similar methodologies in evaluating wounds, which are measuring the tensile strength and wound contraction percentage as well. However, it was observed that the period of epithelialization and thickness of granulation tissue in the center of the wound are included in other intervention studies as well, but not present in every study (21)(22)(23). Unlike Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in C. striatus studies, Wistar rats were used in studies of other intervention (21,23). ...
... Collagen provides strength and integrity to the dermis and all other supporting tissues, including epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues. So, in wound healing process, the synthesis, secretion, and subsequent organization of collagen plays an important role [48]. Epithelialization requires collagen molecules, and collagen accumulation begins shortly after beginning of granulation tissue formation in wound site [48]. ...
... So, in wound healing process, the synthesis, secretion, and subsequent organization of collagen plays an important role [48]. Epithelialization requires collagen molecules, and collagen accumulation begins shortly after beginning of granulation tissue formation in wound site [48]. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of SONEL on collagen content in granulation tissues of full-thickness wounds in diabetic rats. ...
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The aim of this study was to develop a novel oil-in-water (o/w) nanoemulsion gel containing levofloxacin for enhanced topical efficacy. Average particle size of sesame oil nanoemulsion without (SONE) and containing levofloxacin (SONEL) was found as 25.2 and 26.3 nm, respectively. Results from scratch test showed that SONEL had better proliferation effect in comparison with negative control. Treated animals with SONEL showed significant reduction in period of epithelialization, wound contraction, and number of inflammatory cells among all groups. Also, SONEL-treated group had the greatest collagen synthesis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed high intensity of CD31 and TGF-β at wound site of treatment groups with SONEL on day 12 post-treatment (P < 0.05). Skin irritation test demonstrated safety of SONEL gel for skin topical application. In conclusion, our studies suggest that SONEL could be an effective formulation for treatment of diabetic wound infection by controlling infection and improving the healing process. .
... After creating the wound, a complex process will occur that helps to restore damaged tissues [Chithra et al., 1998;Estevão et al., 2013]. In the process of wound healing, the production and organization of collagen (as the main structural protein) play an integral role [Chithra et al., 1998;Dwivedi et al., 2015]. ...
... After creating the wound, a complex process will occur that helps to restore damaged tissues [Chithra et al., 1998;Estevão et al., 2013]. In the process of wound healing, the production and organization of collagen (as the main structural protein) play an integral role [Chithra et al., 1998;Dwivedi et al., 2015]. Our results showed that ointments containing lemon and sesame oils improved synthesis of collagen compared with control groups. ...
Article
Wound healing is a complex process and some agents have been reported to accelerate it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing effect of Eucerin-based ointments of lemon, sesame and olive oils on infected full-thickness wounds in rats. Wounds were created on the dorsal surface of Male Albino Wistar rats (n = 12). Wounds were treated with an Eucerin-based ointment containing either of lemon, sesame or olive oils (33% w/w) twice a day for 14 days. Histopathology results showed that contraction of wounds treated with lemon and sesame oils was higher than in the olive oil and control groups on days 10 and 14. In the lemon- and sesame-oil treated groups, on day 14, 50% of rat lesions were completely healed. Total number of inflammatory cells in lemon oil treatment group was significantly smaller than that of others on day 14 (p < 0.001). Also, thickness of the epidermal layer and rejuvenation of the hair follicles and other skin appendages was normal in lemon and sesame oil treated groups. The lemon and sesame oil ointments accelerated the healing process of wounds in macroscopic, morphological and morphmetrical analyses. Therefore, lemon and sesame oil ointments could be considered as alternative dressings for infected full-thickness wounds because of improved wound healing characteristics.
... 3 Hyperglycemia condition changes metabolism of tissue connection because of disturbance in synthesis process and increased the speed of collagen degradation, which results to delayed wound healing process. 4,5 Delayed diabetic wound healing is related to low number of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and other growth factors which are the main factors of angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell migration on wound healing process. 3,6 Cell migration activity decreased in hyperglycemia due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes oxidative stress and DNA damage, also failure in cell function. ...
... 14,15 Topical form of A.vera can accelerate healing process of diabetic wound and plays a role in all stages of wound healing process. 4,16 Aloevera is nontoxic and can maintain or increase epithelial cell and fibroblast cellviability. 17,18 Aloevera contains variety of active compounds such as aloe emodin, β-sitosterol, and acemannanwhich can stimulate VEGF production in ischemia reperfusion damaged brain of Mongolian gerbil and fibroblast cellculture of gingival rats. ...
... This increases the production and secretion of collagen (54). Collagen is the major protein in the extracellular matrix and provides strength and integrity to the dermis and other supporting tissues (54)(55)(56). Aloe vera mucilage enhances the production amount of collagen in the wound, modi es its structure. Increasing cross-connections between collagen strands accelerates wound healing (55,56). ...
... Aloe vera mucilage enhances the production amount of collagen in the wound, modi es its structure. Increasing cross-connections between collagen strands accelerates wound healing (55,56). ...
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Background: Burn injuries are one of the most common sources of trauma globally that comprise a significant drain on long-term personal and healthcare cost Large surface area burn wounds are difficult to manage and may result in significant physiologic and psychological sequelae. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Aloe Vera gel with 2%Nitrofurazone ointment in the healing of superficial partial thickness burns wounds. Methods: The present study was a split body controlled, randomized clinical trial. The sample was recruited from patients with superficial partial thickness burns wound who were prescribed to treat with 2% Nitrofurazone ointment. Thirty patients with at least two burn, each burn on an alternate side of the body, entered the study — samples allocated to two area which received Aloe Vera gel or 2% Nitrofurazone ointment on their burns. Bates-Jensen Wound. assessment tool (BWAT) was used to evaluate the healing of burns. the epithelialization parameter and sum score Bates-Jensen tools evaluated before, one, two and three weeks after the beginning of treatment. Results: The mean ± SD of epithelialization parameter in Aloe Vera area were 5.0±00.00, 4.0±46.57, 3.0±50.57, 2.0±56.62. The mean ± SD of epithelialization parameter in 2% Nitrofurazone ointment area were 5.0±00.00, 4.0±66.54, 3.0±76.50, 3.0±03.61.and The mean ± SD of BWAT scores in Aloe Vera area were 30.32 ± 3.28, 27.33 ± 3.38, 21.33 ± 3.13, 16.12 ± 2.16 respectively (F(2, 65.07) =440.00, p=0.001). The mean ± SD of BWAT scores in 2% Nitrofurazone ointment area were 30.51 ± 3.79, 28.45 ± 3.49, 23.36 ± 2.89, 19.23 ± 2.11 ( F(1, 52.00) =228.00, p=0.001). Conclusions: There is a significant difference in epithelialization parameter and (BWAT) scores between intervention and control area. Based on this study it looks like that aloe vera gel could promoted epithelialization and wound closure more effectively than 2% Nitrofurazone ointment
... Transparent gel-like portion (mucilage) originates from the leaf parenchyma and has been used for the treatment of burns and wounds for its healing properties (Dorneles et al., 2003). This mucilage consists of biologically active molecules that act on fibroblasts during the formation of cicatricial tissue, stimulating the deposition of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix (Chithra et al., 1998). Reynolds and Dweck (Choi, et al., 2002) investigated the biological activities of various Aloe species and observed that the whole gel extract of Aloe vera presents various pharmacological properties which promoting healing of wound, burns byactivate macrophages, stimulate T lymphocytes. ...
... Full size mature leaves were cut from the plant and the rind removed (Chithra P et al.,1998) dried at room temperature without exposure to direct sunlight. After adding a small quantity of water, the leaves were then ground in a blender and centrifuged at 15,000 g to remove the fibers and then filtered through filter papers (Whatman® qualitative filter paper, Grade 1, Sigma-Aldrich, Bengaluru). ...
... É importante ressaltar que a espécie felina apresenta uma pele mais resistente quando comparada ao do cão, sendo considerada a cicatrização em felinos mais lenta. Em cães por terem um maior aporte sanguíneo no processo cicatricial e ainda, maior quantidade de fibras colágeno determina o menor tempo de cicatrização e uma maior tensão nas feridas (Bohling e Henderson, 2006 A utilização do gel da Aloe vera na cicatrização de feridas é mencionada por aumentar a síntese de colágeno por fibroblastos, devido a diversos componentes como polissacarídeos e aminoácidos essenciais que aumentam o poder de estimulação da cicatrização (Crindly and Reynolds, 1986;Chithra et al., 1998). O gel previne que a pele fique seca devido ao alto nível de volume de água. ...
... O gel previne que a pele fique seca devido ao alto nível de volume de água. O alto percentual de glicose presente no mesmo, previne ainda, que bactérias cresçam devido ao alto potencial osmótico (Adzick, 1996) (Crindly and Reynolds, 1986;Brown and Mcdonnell, 1988;Chithra et al., 1998;Takamiya et al., 2003). Reynolds & Deck (1999) propriedades antissépticas que são efetivas na prevenção de infecções (Brown and Mcdonnell, 1988;Vazquez et al., 1996;Kumar and Jagetiz, 2005). ...
... The Appearance of eschar without any raw wound area was treated so that the wound is completely healed. The number of days required for the appearance of eschar without any leftover raw wound was calculated as epithelization period [9]. ...
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Objective: The current research is an attempt to evaluate the wound healing activity of Electrohomeopathic drug Green electricity (GE) in Wistar rats. No data have been reported till date on the wound healing effect of GE. Hence the present research focuses on the scientific investigation of the wound healing activity of GE in rats. Methods: Excision and incision wounds were inflicted upon albino rats. In the excision wound model, the wound contraction, Scar residue, area and time of complete epithelization were measured subsequently on day 0, 3,6,9,12,15, 18 and 21 after inflicting the wound. Wound contraction was calculated as a percentage change in the initial wound size. In the incision wound model, the tensile strength was measured on the 10th post wounding day. Results: It was noted that the effect produced by the GE Showed significant wound healing (p<0.01) in all wound models when compared to the control group. In the case of the excision model, GE statistically increases the wound contraction rate and in the case of the incision model GE showed high tensile strength as compared to the control group. In both cases the epithelization period was significantly decreased as compared to control. Almost 100% wound protection was achieved by GE in 21 d as compared to control. Conclusion: GE (ointment) showed significant wound healing activity (p<0.01) in both the excised wound model and incision wound model in rats.
... Anti-diabetic 300 mg/kg bw (Noor et al., 2008) Hypoglycemic 300 mg/kg bw (Rajasekaran et al., 2004) Wound healing 30 mg (Chithra et al., 1998) Immunomodulation 400 mg/kg bw (Halder et al., 2012) Aloe Arborensces Miller Chemopreventive 1% and 5% (Furukawa et al., 2002) Immunomodulatory 1.2-4.8 mg/ml (Picchietti et al., 2013) Anti-diabetic 500 mg/kg bw (Ajabnoor, 1990) Anti-inflammatory 250 mg/kg bw (El Sayed et al., 2016) Aloe chinensis Anti-oxidant IC-50-22 µg/ml (Wu et al., 2006) Microphage activation 5 mg/ml (Liu et al., 2006) A. ferox Anti-helminthic 200 mg/kg bw (Mwale and Masika, 2014) Anti-microbial 0.5 mg/ml (Kambizi and Afolayan, 2008) Anti-diabetic 300 mg/kg bw ( Aloe macaluta Anti-plasmodial >100 μg/ml (Clarkson et al., 2004) A. marlothii Anti-plasmodial 74 μg/ml (Clarkson et al., 2004) A. perryi Hypoglycemic 2 mg/kg bw every 16 hours for 54 hours study (Ibegbulem and Chikezie, 2013) Anti-bacterial >8 mm inhibition zones against Gram-positive bacteria have wound healing properties, anti-diabetic properties, and antiinflammatory properties (Cock, 2015). ...
Article
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The therapeutic and pharmacological properties of plant bioactive constituents still continue to be the subject of many researches. Species of the Aloe genus have a history in folklore medicine and they have gained more attention over the years due to their various medicinal properties. Phytochemical studies have revealed that the Aloe species contain a number of constituents, such as polyphenols, phytosterols, polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, chromones, and mineral elements. A comprehensive evidence-based review on the different constituents of Aloe species is needed in order to understand the benefits imparted by them. This review presents an overview of the bioactive components of the Aloe genus with emphasis on their anti-diabetic potential and other pharmacological benefits. This information will be beneficial for the advancement of new strategies of Aloe formulations with therapeutic and economical value in the near future. Furthermore, the potential applications and constraints have also been discussed so as to provide a wider prospect for research in this field for the benefit of society.
... Collagen is the predominant dermis protein that has a key role in anatomic integrity of wounds. Moreover, collagen remodelling supports the re-epitalization of wound by providing a proper bed for epithelial cells (30,31). Treated wounds with the three treatments showed an increment of wound contraction and epithelialisation compared to the vehicle group, although combination treatment accelerates the wound closure more than individual treatments. ...
Article
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Objectives: Chemokines are wound mediators that promote angiogenesis during wound healing. We hypothesized that Simvastatin in combination with the bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) improve burn wound healing by ameliorating angiogenesis via SDF-1α/CXCR4 pathway. Materials and methods: Under general anesthesia, deep partial-thickness burns were created on the inter-scapular area of 48 male rats. Study groups were administrated with petroleum jelly (Simvastatin Vehicle), a single dose of intradermal BMSCs (1×106), topical Simvastatin (0.5 mg/kg) daily and combination of BMSCs and Simvastatin for 14 days. In this study, we used MTT assay, in vivo and in vitro wound closure, H&E and Trichorome staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), real- time PCR, Western blot and tube formation assay. Results: A significant improvement in wound closure percentage, epithelial thickness, collagen remodeling, and up-regulation of stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1α), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), protein kinase B (AKT), and phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase (PI3K), as well as CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were observed after treatment with simvastatin, BMSCs and combination of them compared to the vehicle group. However, the co-treatment group revealed considerable superiority in examined factors. BMSCs treated with Simvastatin showed the highest viability in the concentration of 0.5 and 1 Nanomolar (nM). Increment in proliferation and capillary vessels formation of BMSCs was observed in the 0.5 nM and 1 nM concentrations of Simvastatin in vitro. Conclusion: Treatment of deep partial-thickness of burns with co-treatment of BMSCs and Simvastatin resulted in improved burn wound healing through up-regulating of SDF-1α/CXCR4 pathway.
... Aloe Vera (AV) is a cactus-like plant belonging to family Liliaceae, native to South Africa and cultivated in warm climatic conditions and almost spread the entire world [3]. The inner pulp of AL is colorless mucilaginous gel widely used as folk medicine and used as a healing plant in the olden times of mankind [4]. This incredible plant is used as a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries [5,6]. ...
Article
The Aloe Vera nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Zinc sulfate via Photon Induced Method (PIM). A novel green and eco-friendly technique are reported in this paper using Zinc doped Aloe Vera plant extract for Zn-AV NPs. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report the synthesis of Zn doped Aloe Vera nanostructures for visible-light photocatalyst. The synthesized Zn doped AV NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structure formation of Zn-AV NPs and crystallite size 22 nm was confirmed by XRD studies. FT-IR spectra showed the presence of functional groups and protein as the stabilizing agent surrounding the Aloe Vera nanoparticles. The formation of the AV NPs phase was also confirmed by FT-IR. The optical properties were determined by DRS was observed that the bandgap Zn doped AV NPs (2.5 eV) had a degreased band gap than that of pure zinc oxide (3.37 eV), which can be assigned to the visible light absorption of Zn-AV NPs due to the electron transitions from the valence band to the conduction band. We are reported the first time not reported anywhere. This results elucidated a fast, advanced medicine than plant-mediated nanoparticles. The green medicine has no side effect, commercially low cost and eco-friendly method of next-generation green NPs synthesis, which could be used as a potential used as a potent agent against various deadly diseases.
... The underlying mechanisms are revealed due to the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway and the decrease in production of prostaglandin E2 from arachidonic acid [74]. Chithra et al. revealed that AV could increase the amount of collagen in granulation tissue and enhance the development of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the wound area [75]. ...
Article
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Nigella sativa (NS) has been reported to have a therapeutic effect towards skin wound healing via its anti-inflammatory, tissue growth stimulation, and antioxidative properties. This review examines all the available studies on the association of Nigella sativa (NS) and skin wound healing. The search was performed in Medline via EBSCOhost and Scopus databases to retrieve the related papers released between 1970 and March 2020. The principal inclusion criteria were original article issued in English that stated wound healing criteria of in vivo skin model with topically applied NS. The search discovered 10 related articles that fulfilled the required inclusion criteria. Studies included comprise different types of wounds, namely excisional, burn, and diabetic wounds. Seven studies unravelled positive results associated with NS on skin wound healing. Thymoquinone has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties, which mainly contributed to wound healing process.
... In DM induced by STZ, newly synthesized collagen is degraded, or reduced biosynthesis diminishes the skin's collagen content. Chithra et al. (1998) showed that A. vera improved wound healing in a rat model. Inpanya et al. (2012) showed that the combination of fibroin and A. vera gel improved wound healing in STZinduced diabetic rats through the proliferation and attachment of skin fibroblasts. ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is defined as prolonged hyperglycemia, which can harm the eyes, kidneys, and cardiovascular and neurologicalsystems. Herbal agents and their derived supplements have been used for treatment of diabetes mellitus as a part of integratedcomplementary medicine for centuries. Numerous studies have considered Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f, Xanthorrhoeaceae, as analternative medicine due to its abundant bioactive chemicals, such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, and enthrones, with therapeuticalproperties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuro-protective, and anti-diabetic effects. Aloe vera has received consid-erable attention in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases including diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies haveinvestigated the effects of herbal agents on diabetes mellitus using a streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Thereby, this articlereviews the effects of Aloe vera prescription on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus to provide a clear insight into the role ofthis medicinal plant in several biological functions, such as antioxidant, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic,and anti-hyperlipidemic in diabetic models.
... Aloe vera gel also has an antibacterial effect against a broad range of bacteria including S. aureus, (Cock et al., 2000). It is also reported that aloe vera gel not only speeds up healing but also prevents injured surface from getting infected (Chithra et al., 1998). Aloe vera also minimizes demand of other drugs and their side effects (Ahmada et al., 2016). ...
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Cite this article Tamanna, S.J., Shihab, M.M., Akter, M.A., Rahman, M., Alam, M.M. 2020. Therapeutic potentialities of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) on Staphylococcus aureus induced septic wound in goats. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University, 18(1): 105-110. https://doi.org/10.5455/JBAU.94746 ABSTRACT The research has been conducted in Black Bengal goats to determine the therapeutic efficacy of aloe vera and green tea extract on the healing of Staphylococcus aureus induced septic wound. A total 18 surgical wounds were made in goats under three groups; aqueous paste of aloe vera (Group-A), alcoholic extract of green tea (Group-B) and normal saline (as control, Group-C). Each wound was 20 mm length and 5 mm depth. Wound was remained open and 0.5 ml medium (10 7 /ml) containing Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated in each wound. After 72 hours of bacterial inoculation treatment was started. Freshly prepared aloe vera paste and alcoholic extract of green tea was applied once daily onto the wound in group A and B respectively. Similar action was taken in Group-C with normal saline only. Follow up information was recorded from day 0 to day 21 postoperatively. Some morphological characters such as swelling, wound gap and length of wound were observed. Highest wound gap (5.18 ± 0.32 mm) was observed in wounds of control animals where it was lowest (4.63 ± 0.14 mm) in those treated with extract of green tea. Length of wound was also highest (13.74 ± 0.38 mm) in control group and lowest (12.62 ± 0.17 mm) in green tea treated group. All wounds were regularly monitored to observe the complications like swelling, edema, wound dehiscence, wound abscess, local infection and exudation surrounding the wounds. Mean days to heal completely were 15 days for aloe vera, 13 days for green tea and in control group it took 20 days to achieve similar results. Bacteriological studies revealed presence of higher bacterial load in the control group than the other two groups which is responsible for delayed healing. Our results showed that Staphylococcus aureus induced wound healing was prompted by the topical use of both green tea and aloe vera but green tea extract was more effective than aloe vera. Therefore, it can be suggested that alcoholic extract of green tea and aqueous extract of aloe vera could be good alternative to antibiotic for the treatment of Staphylococcal wound in goat.
... Several studies support the role of Aloe vera in wound healing [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. It has been found to decrease the healing time of burn wound patients in comparison with petroleum gel [18]. ...
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Objectives: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent and chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin condition that can influence all age groups. AD is associated with a poor health-related quality of life. This randomized clinical trial was performed to compare the effectiveness of Olivederma (combination of aloe vera and virgin olive oil) or betamethasone regarding disease severity, quality of life, serum IgE and eosinophil count. Methods: Thirty-six AD patients were randomly allocated to topical Olivederma or betamethasone, and were followed for 6 weeks. Results: Total SCORAD severity scores showed significant decrease in both groups, while it was more prominent in Olivederma group (64.5% improvement in Olivederma vs. 13.5% improvement in Betamethasone, p-value < 0.001). Quality of life (DLQI questionnaire) of AD patients was significantly improved after 6 weeks treatment with Betamethasone (22.3%, p < 0.001) and Olivederma (60.7%, p-value < 0.001). Olivederma group showed a significantly lower DLQI score in comparison with Betamethasone treated patients after 6 weeks of therapy (p < 0.001). Improvements in eosinophil count and serum IgE was observed. Conclusion: In summary, this study shows that Olivederma is superior to topical Betamethasone after 6 weeks of therapy with regard to disease severity, quality of life and eosinophil count.
... Collagen is the predominant dermis protein that has a key role in anatomic integrity of wounds. Moreover, collagen remodelling supports the re-epitalization of wound by providing a proper bed for epithelial cells (30,31). Treated wounds with the three treatments showed an increasment of wound contraction and epithelialisation compared to the vehicle group . ...
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Objectives: Chemokines are wound mediators that promote angiogenesis during wound healing. We hypothesized that Simvastatin in combination with the bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) improve burn wound healing by ameliorating angiogenesis via SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. Materials & Methods: While under general anesthesia, deep partial-thickness burns were created on the inter-scapular area of 48 male rats. Study groups were administrated with petroleum jelly (Simvastatin Vehicle), a single dose of intradermal BMSCs (1×10 6), topical Simvastatin (0.5 mg/kg) daily and combination of BMSCs and Simvastatin for 14 days. In this study, we used M.T.T assay, in vivo and in vitro wound closure, H&E and Trichorome staining, IHC, Real-time PCR, western blot as well as tube formation assay. Results: A significant improvement in wound closure percentage, epithelial thickness, collagen remodeling, and up-regulation of SDF1, CXCR4, AKT, and PI3, as well as CD31 and VEGF expression, were observed after treatment with simvastatin, BMSCs and combination of them Compared to the vehicle group. However, the co-treatment group revealed considerable superiority in examined factors. BMSCs treated with Simvastatin showed the highest viability in the concentration of 0.5 and 1 Nanomolar (nM). Increment in proliferation and capillary vessels formation of BMSCs was observed in the 0.5 nM and 1 nM concentrations of Simvastatin in vitro. Conclusion: Treatment of deep partial-thickness of burns with Co-treatment of BMSCs and Simvastatin resulted in improved burn wound healing through upregulating of SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway.
... AG is a β(1, 4)-linked mannane acetylated compound, and the primary polysaccharide extracted from the Aloe vera plant. It is a commercially available topical wound medication that is commonly used to enhance the healing of wounds, burns, and ulcers, while at the same time speeding the healing process (Chithra et al., 1998a;Dart et al., 2005;Maenthaisong et al., 2007;Hamman, 2008;Sahu et al., 2013). The compound stimulates macrophages to enhance the secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). ...
Article
Healing of open wounds is of great medical importance. Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore the function and structure of damaged tissue. This study was conducted to compare secondary intention healing of wounds treated daily with a topical application of commercially available hyaluronic acid (HA), Manuka honey (MH), Acemannan gel (AG), or a placebo. Bilateral wounds were surgically created on the backs of six sheep. At two and six weeks post-wound creation, biopsies were obtained to perform histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses of the wound site. Daily clinical evaluations were performed and weekly photographs were taken of the wounds. HA treatment promoted a physiological progression of the healing process in all wound healing phases, while stimulating an abundant cutaneous adnexa and promoting rapid healing, representing the most compelling treatment. MH-treated wounds were slightly dry. However, the main effect of MH was to promote cell proliferation and neovascularization, with an overall pro-inflammatory effect. Results suggest that MH treatment enhances the healing process. AG treatment dehydrated the wounds and stimulated late granulation tissue and cell proliferation. Moreover, AG-treated wounds produced a mild late pro-inflammatory and neovascularization effect. Our data indicate that AG treatment can have a positive influence on moist wounds with abundant granulation tissue and exudate.
... On the other hand, A. vera is also a medicinal plant which possess anti-inflammatory effect, [8][9][10] anti-ulcer activity, [11,12] astringent effect and enhancing wound healing. [13][14][15][16] A. vera mouthwash has a significant effect on periodontal bacteria. It has natural antifungal and antibacterial properties and it also boosts body ability to create collagen, thereby enhancing gingival health. ...
Article
Background: The medicinal plants are widely used for curing various diseases in day-to-day practice. Ocimumsanctum (Tulsi) is one such popular herb in Ayurvedic medicine, which is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its antimicrobial property. Aloevera is also widely known for its medicinal uses in wound healing and its anti-inflammatory properties. However, studies documenting the effect of O. sanctum and A. vera in treating gingivitis are rare. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two herbal mouthwashes in comparison with chlorhexidine mouthwash on gingivitis. Materials and methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, wherein sixty patients were randomly allocated into three study groups. (1) O. sanctum mouthwash (n = 20) (2) A. vera mouthwash (n = 20) and (3) Chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20). All groups were treated with scaling and asked to rinse with respective mouthwashes twice daily for 1 month. Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and sulcus bleeding index (BI) were recorded at baseline, after 15 days and after 30 days, respectively. Results: Results of the study showed that O. sanctum, A. vera and chlorhexidine are equally effective in reducing plaque, gingival, and bleeding indices at 30-day interval. However, no significant reductions in PI, GI and BI in 15-day interval in group 1 and group 2 when compared with chlorhexidine were evident. Conclusion: The results in the present study indicate that O. sanctum and A. vera may prove to be as effective as chlorhexidine mouthwash in its ability in reducing all the three indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding when used in the long-term follow-up.
... Aside from appropriateness between species and transferability of information, selection of the animal model is also based on the ease of and adaptability to experimental manipulation, cost and availability, ethical implications, etc. Pigs, rabbits, mice and rats are the most frequently used animal models (8,9). The use of the rat as excision wound animal model in the in vivo studies has shown the positive effects of collagen synthesis and reticulation, expression of growth factor, fibroblast proliferation, blood vessel formation, and wound contraction in the healing process (5,29). ...
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Skin is the body's largest organ in both humans and animals. The multi-layered structure is vital to the multiple functions skin performs. Wound healing pathologies may interfere with its protective and metabolic function and lead to systemic complications. Skin repair and regeneration are based on multiple and highly integrated and synchronous events. The mechanisms underpinning skin wound repair and its failure to heal are still poorly understood. Rodent animal models that can reiterate most of the human conditions were developed for use in preclinical studies exploring the wound healing process and the therapeutic options. Except for the initial contraction, the rodent wounds heal through granulation and re-epithelialization, a process similar to that in humans. The excisional splinting model is optimal for the evaluation of the bioactive glass-goldnanoparticles-based ointments effect on the wound healing process. In laboratory animals, two or four symmetric excisional wounds are made on the upper back skin, within T1 and L1 regions, by using a biopsy punch. When rats are used as animal models, a silicon splinting ring is applied around the wound to prevent the wound closure caused by panniculus carnosus contraction. By using the excisional splinting model, wound closure and vascularization can be visualized, measured and assessed at different time points, and the individual factor that may bias results interpretation can be eliminated. The rat and mouse excisional wound splinting models have been used as working protocol in different studies that assessed the skin healing process and tissue regeneration following application of bioactive glass -gold nanoparticles-based ointments or stem cells transplantation. Comparison of their results could provide new insights into the healing process and could eventually be translated to viable clinical treatments in human patients with skin healing pathologies.
... Miazga pochodząca z liści zawiera aminokwasy, antrazwiązki, minerały, enzymy, ligninę, mono-i polisacharydy, saponiny, sterole i witaminy [18]. Wykorzystywany jest w leczeniu ran i oparzeń skóry oraz w prewencji i leczeniu poparzeń słonecznych [49,50,51]. Ekstrakt z liści aloesu użyty jako kontrola w badaniach oceny fotoprotekcyjnych właściwości roślin o zastosowaniu leczniczym na Sri Lance wykazał SPF 28,86±0,11 [52]. ...
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W obliczu wzrastającej zachorowalności na nowotwory skóry zalecane jest stosowanie kremów przeciwsłonecznych o szerokim spectrum ochrony. W celu zapewnienia ochrony w zakresie od 290 nm do 400 nm w kosmetykach stosowane są filtry fizyczne i chemiczne. Surowce i substancje pochodzenia naturalnego wykazujące właściwości absorbujące promieniowanie UV używane są w celu ograniczenia ilości filtrów chemicznych stosowanych w kosmetykach. Substancje te wykazują dodatkowo działanie antyoksydacyjne, przeciwzapalne oraz immunomodulujące dostarczając ochrony przed szkodliwymi skutkami ekspozycji na promieniowanie UV. W pracy zostały opisane surowce i substancje pochodzenia naturalnego wykazujące potencjalne działanie fotoprotekcyjne. Większość przebadanych naturalnych substancji i wyciągów roślinnych posiada jednak zbyt niski wskaźnik ochrony przeciwsłonecznej (SPF), by mogły być stosowane samodzielnie w kremach do opalania, natomiast mogą one stanowić cenny składnik kremów o niskim SPF do codziennego użytku.
... Poly-herbal formulations containing extracts of rhizomes, curcuma, aloe vera have depicted improved wound healing in normal and diabetic rats [21] . Aloe vera was reported to accelerate the process of wound healing by influencing various phases like inflammation, collagen synthesis and wound contraction [22] . Another study also corroborated that both oral and transdermal aloe vera was effective in wound healing [23] . ...
... Similarly, the traditional medicinal uses of exotic species are the same or similar to those applied in their place of origin. Among these species noted for their widespread and multipurpose use to cure wounds are Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, and Punica granatum [74,75]. The treatments essentially involve the application of poultices with the solution obtained from the boiled, crushed or fresh plant parts. ...
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Background Cuatrociénegas is a region of unique biological, geological, geographical and evolutionary importance. It is part of the Chihuahua Desert, its current population is mestizo; however, it protects a high historical, cultural and tourist relevance. It has been listed as Area of Protection of Flora and Fauna by Mexican law, as well as a site of High Protection by the World Wildlife Fund and UNESCO. Because of its complex biological and sociocultural characteristics, we consider it important to find out, determine, identify and analyze the traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and practices in this region. Methods Between 2016 and 2019, seven field trips were carried out to document and photograph the knowledge and use of the flora by local people. Cuatrociénegas is a protected area, collecting botanical material is regulated, so specimens were collected in communities surrounding the city, and also in public and private gardens; later permission was obtained to complete the collection of specimens (2019-2020). The plants were identified and entered into the flora database of the state of Coahuila, as well as deposited in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Forest Sciences, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico. One hundred and ten local residents (50 men and 60 women) between the ages of 27 and 91 were interviewed (semi-structured interviews). the cultural importance of ethnobotanical resources (cultural significance index) and its contribution regarding ethnobotany wealth in other Biosphere Reserves (Mann-Whitney test) was evaluated. Results The ethnobotanical information collected from Cuatrociénegas records 158 species and 132 genera in 57 vascular and non-vascular families, registering greater knowledge and use of cultivated species (84) with respect to wild species (74). The diversity of plants reported, compared to other ethnobotanical studies conducted in Biosphere Reserves in Mexico, is notable; the residents pay more attention to medicinal and ornamental plants. The species that presented the highest use values are Larrea tridentata, Jatropha dioica and Machaeranthera pinnatifida, three characteristic species of the desert region. Conclusions The particular diversity of wild flora in Cuatrociénegas and its surroundings, combined with the varied flora introduced, is an important natural resource with multiple ethnobotanical applications. The broad knowledge and use of ethnobotany are an example, that biocultural diversity (at the conceptual level) is strongly associated with mestizo groups and semi-urban rural landscapes, ceasing to be exclusive to indigenous regions.
... A study by Rout et al. [37] revealed that N. oleander extract has a remarkable wound healing activity in rats, most probably due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The enhancing effect of Aloe vera to collagen levels providing strength and integrity to the tissue matrix and playing an important role in hemeostasis along with epithelialization were also previously reported [15,38]. In accordance with the prior studies, the present study revealed clearly developed epithelization after NAE-8® treatment along with irrefutable reductions in the extent of necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. ...
Article
OBJECTIVE: Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) and Aloe vera (Liliaceae) are among the widely used herbal remedies for treating skin diseases and possess numerous activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antioxidant. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible wound healing effect of Aloev era-based extract of the N. oleander leaf (NAE-8®) based on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and DNA repair capacity along with histological changes and to compare them with the traditional silver sulfadiazine treatment (SSD). METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were randomly grouped as follows: i) control, ii) burn alone (burn), iii) burn with topical NAE-8® (burn+NAE-8®) treatment, and iv) burn with topical 1% silver sulfadiazine (burn+SSD) treatment. All groups received their related topical application twice a day for 14 consecutive days. Upon completion of the experimental protocol, trunk blood and skin tissues were collected for measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), %DNA in the tail (%DNAT) levels along with histological examinations. RESULTS: Thermal injury-induced alterations in MDA, GSH, MPO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and %DNAT levels were significantly reversed by NAE-8® treatment. These ameliorative effects were also supported by histological findings. CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study suggest that NAE-8® is a promising remedy for treating skin burn injury.
... Similarly, the traditional medicinal uses of exotic species are the same or similar to those applied in their place of origin. Among these species noted for their widespread and multipurpose use to cure wounds are Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, and Punica granatum [76,77]. The treatments essentially involve the application of poultices with the solution obtained from the boiled, crushed or fresh plant parts. ...
... In this regard, a large number of studies have shown the healing properties of aloe or chitosan on skin wounds. [17,18] However, some studies reported contrasting results. For example, a human study by Schmidt and Greenspoon showed that A. vera topical gel delayed wound healing. ...
... The 25 μg/mL of the acetone extract for L. fruticosus stimulated the most collagen production at 122% higher than the control. In a previous study it was indicated that Aloe vera extract treatment of wounds in diabetic rats enhanced the process of wound healing by influencing collagen synthesis and maturation, and wound contraction (Chithra et al., 1998). This further confirms that the plant extracts in this study can be potential collagen production agents. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance In South Africa, medicinal plants have a history of traditional use, with many species used for treating wounds. The scientific basis of such uses remains largely unexplored. Aim of the study To screen South African plants used ethnomedicinally for wound healing based on their pro-angiogenic and wound healing activity, using transgenic zebrafish larvae and cell culture assays. Materials and methods South African medicinal plants used for wound healing were chosen according to literature. Dried plant material was extracted using six solvents of varying polarities. Pro-angiogenesis was assessed in vivo by observing morphological changes in sub-intestinal vessels after crude extract treatment of transgenic zebrafish larvae with vasculature-specific expression of a green fluorescent protein. Subsequently, the in vitro anti-inflammatory, fibroblast proliferation and collagen production effects of the plant extracts that were active in the zebrafish angiogenesis assay were investigated using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) and human fibroblast (MRHF) cell lines. Results Fourteen plants were extracted using six different solvents to yield 84 extracts and the non-toxic (n = 72) were initially screened for pro-angiogenic activity in the zebrafish assay. Of these plant species, extracts of Lobostemon fruticosus, Scabiosa columbaria and Cotyledon orbiculata exhibited good activity in a concentration-dependent manner. All active extracts showed negligible in vitro toxicity using the MTT assay. Lobostemon fruticosus and Scabiosa columbaria extracts showed noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The acetone extract of Lobostemon fruticosus stimulated the most collagen production at 122% above control values using the MRHF cell line, while all four of the selected extracts significantly stimulated cellular proliferation in vitro in the MRHF cell line. Conclusions The screening of the selected plant species provided valuable preliminary information validating the use of some of the plants in traditional medicine used for wound healing in South Africa. This study is the first to discover through an evidence-based pharmacology approach the wound healing properties of such plant species using the zebrafish as an in vivo model.
... Its antimicrobial properties include damaging the micro-organism cell by discharge of ions [21]. ZnO composites have also been used as nanofertilizer [22]. ...
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Nanotechnology has found vast applications in everyday life. Use of plant extract in the synthesis of nanocomposites produces relatively less toxic and environment-friendly materials. The present study deals with the synthesis of zinc oxide nanocomposite using gel from leaves of Aloe vera (black Aloe vera (BAV) and white Aloe vera (WAV)) and extract from powder of nuts of Terminalia arjuna. Synthesized nanocomposites were then characterized by using SEM, FTIR, and UV-Vis techniques. Disc diffusion method was opted to inquire the antimicrobial ability of nanocomposites against different bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli (−) and Burkholderia stabilis (+). ZnO-BAV possessed good antimicrobial potential against both selected strains as proved from zone of inhibitions. However, ZnO-WAV and ZnO-N showed potential against E. coli and no response for B. stabilis.
... Rats were anesthetized by an open mask method with anesthetic ether and their backs were shaved with electric clippers. Wounds of size area about 1.5 cm 2 were made by cutting pieces of the skin from the shaven area [40]. The wounds were covered with appropriate dressings. ...
Article
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Microencapsulation is an innovative technique having a growing application in textile finishing. Besides, marine macroalgae contain plenty of phytoconstituents used in various fields especially textile finishing. This work imparts the property of wound healing finish to cotton fabrics producing a bandage from eco-friendly algal volatile organic constituents (VOCs). VOCs extracted from Digenea simplex, Lurencea papillosa, Galaxurea oblongata, and Turbenaria decurrens Egyptian marine macroalgae scattered along the coastline of the Red sea were 0.52, 0.9, 0.87, and 0.62% (v/w), respectively. These VOCs as well as their microencapsulated (VOM) forms were finished onto cotton fabrics by a conventional pad-dry cure technique using sodium alginate (SA) as a shell wall material. The VOCs of each alga were extracted and chemically investigated using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The results indicate, in addition to the identification of 125 volatile compounds, the diversity and outstanding differences in volatile composition among the 4 algae. Wound healing activities of the finished fabrics were evaluated. VOCs microcapsules-finished (VOMF) fabrics were more effective compared to VOCs-finished (VOF) fabrics and almost comparable to mebo-ointment (standard drug)-finished (MoF) fabrics. The differences in VOCs efficiencies may be attributable to the diversity in type and amount of volatiles found in the four algae. Therefore, this is a low-cost, convenient, reproducible, and scalable way to obtain encapsulated VOCs for the application in textile wound healing.
... Collagen is the major protein in the extracellular matrix and provides strength and integrity to the dermis and other supporting tissues (22) . Aloe Vera mucilage enhances the production amount of collagen in the wound, modifies its structure. ...
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Background & Aim: Routine treatment of burn injuries is dressing with Nitrofurazone ointment. It has several complications including sensitivity. Aloe vera is a traditional treatment for wound healing. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Aloe Vera gel with Nitrofurazone ointment in the healing of superficial partial-thickness burns. Methods & Materials: The present study was a split body controlled clinical trial which was carried out on 30 patients with superficial partial-thickness burns. The study was conducted in the Shafa Hospital in Kerman, Iran in 2016. The sample was recruited from patients who had at least two burns, each burn on an alternate side of the body. Samples were allocated to two groups that received Aloe Vera gel or 2% Nitrofurazone ointment on their burns. Bates-Jensen Wound assessment tool was used to evaluate the healing of burns. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS-16 and using the repeated measure ANOVA. Results: The repeated measure ANOVA showed that there was a significant change in the score of BWAT in all areas during the intervention period ( p=0.001), but The trend of healing in the two groups during the intervention period was not significantly different( p=0.098). Conclusion: Based on this study it looks like Aloe vera gel is as effective as 2% Nitrofurazon ointment in healing wounds.
... Loots et al. (2011) have also reported the anti-diabetic activities of Aloe greatheadii at 300 mg/kg BW. Further, Aloe barbadensis has been used for immunomodulation (at 400 mg/kg BW) (Halder et al., 2012), wound healing (30 mg) (Chithra et al., 1998), hypoglycemic (at 300 mg/kg BW) (Rajasekaran et al., 2004) and anti-diabetic (at 300 mg/kg BW) (Noor et al., 2008, Halder et al., 2012. Aloe vera has also exhibited antibacterial, wound burn-healing, anti-arthritic, UV-protective and anti-inflammatory features (Chandran et al., 2006, Furukawa et al., 2002, Reynolds and Dweck, 1999. ...
Article
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Aloe is a genus of flowering succulent plants (with above 500 species) found in the eastern Indian Ocean Islands, Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and African continent. In recent years, Aloe genus have received much attention for their therapeutic benefits. Aloe genus contains several phytoconstituents. For instance, carotenoids, anthraquinone, fatty acids, phenolic acids, and sterols were isolated from Aloe aculeata, Aloe ferox, Aloe saponaria, Aloe legnica and Aloe vera. Similarly, polyphenols, flavonoids, and flavonols were reported in Aloe marlothii and Aloe melanacantha. All these phytochemicals play a vital role in nanoparticle (NP) fabrication. The functional group present in them act as a reducing agent which convert metal ions into metal or metal-oxide NPs. NPs obtained from different Aloe plants have shown various biological and other applications. For example, silver NPs fabricated from Aloe vera extract exhibited antibacterial, antioxidant, wound healing, and catalytic activities. Selenium NPs synthesized from Aloe vera showed antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Titanium dioxide NPs obtained from Aloe barbadensis and Aloe vera are also examined for their antibiofilm potential and photocatalytic activities, respectively. Overall, this review aims to provide an updated information on Aloe-based NPs fabrication (both metal and metal-oxide), characterization and their application in some cutting-edge areas.
... Similarly, the traditional medicinal uses of exotic species are the same or similar to those applied in their place of origin. Among these species noted for their widespread and multipurpose use to cure wounds are Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, and Punica granatum [76,77]. The treatments essentially involve the application of poultices with the solution obtained from the boiled, crushed or fresh plant parts. ...
Article
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Background Cuatrociénegas, part of the Chihuahuan Desert, is a region of unique biological, geological, geographical, and evolutionary importance. Its current population is mestizo; nevertheless, it has high national historical, cultural, and touristic relevance in Mexico. It has been cataloged as nationally significant for its flora and fauna by Mexican law, as well as being designated a High Protection site by the World Wildlife Fund and UNESCO. Because of its diverse and complex biological and sociocultural characteristics, we considered it important to determine, identify, and analyze various aspects of the traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and practices in this region. Methods Between 2016 and 2019, seven field trips were made to document the knowledge and use of flora. Cuatrociénegas is a protected area, collecting botanical material is regulated, so specimens were photographed and collected in neighboring communities, and in public and private gardens. Later permission was obtained to complete the collection of specimens (2019–2020). The plants were identified and entered into the flora database of the state of Coahuila, and deposited in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Forest Sciences, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico. One hundred ten local residents (50 men and 60 women), aged between 27 and 91 years, were interviewed (semi-structured interviews). The cultural importance of ethnobotanical resources (cultural significance index) and its significance with respect to ethnobotanical richness in other Biosphere Reserves in Mexico (Mann-Whitney test), and similarities in the diversity of exotic species (Sørensen index) were studied. Results and discussion The ethnobotanical information registers 158 species and 132 genera in 57 vascular and non-vascular families, documenting a greater knowledge and use of cultivated species (84) with respect to wild species (74). The diversity of plants reported is compared to other ethnobotanical studies carried out in Mexican Biosphere Reserves. These results are highly relevant, in spite of unique exotic species. The people local pay special attention to medicinal and ornamental plants. The species that presented the highest use values are Larrea tridentata , Jatropha dioica , and Machaeranthera pinnatifida , three species characteristic of the desert region. Conclusions The particular diversity of wild flora in Cuatrociénegas Valley, combined with the varied introduced flora, is an important multifunctional resource. Special attention to introduced species is associated with harvesting use restrictions in the protected area as well as the high value of ornamental species that are difficult to maintain in desert areas. The extensive use of ethnobotanical knowledge is an example that biocultural diversity (at the conceptual level) is also strongly associated with socio-ecological systems incorporating mestizo groups and semi-urban rural landscapes, thus ceasing to be an exclusive focus of indigenous communities and regions.
... Similarly, the traditional medicinal uses of exotic species are the same or similar to those applied in their place of origin. Among these species noted for their widespread and multipurpose use to cure wounds are Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, and Punica granatum [76,77]. The treatments essentially involve the application of poultices with the solution obtained from the boiled, crushed or fresh plant parts. ...
... The ascorbic acid in Aloe vera boosts the synthesis of collagen and counter-balances collagen breakdown. Collagen is the main extra cellular protein in the homeostasis and granulation tissue of a healing wound [42]. Morgan et al. stated that Aloe Vera enhances angiogenesis and wound repair through up-regulation of the VEGF and the TGFb1 expression [16]. ...
Article
Background and objectives Among the most important factors in wound healing pathways are transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Botanicals are traditionally used for healing of different types of wounds. In this study, one mixture of plant materials such as Adiantum capillus-veneris, Commiphora molmol, Aloe Vera, and Henna were used to treatment of wound in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Methods The dried leaves and resins were crumbled into a powder and mixed in equal parts with Vaseline. This mixture has been used as an ointment on the induced wounds in 60 diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Localization of TGFb1 and VEGF proteins as important healing markers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and the level of TGFβ1 and VEGF proteins were detected by Western blotting. Results Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis revealed that, VEGF in diabetic rats that treated with herbal mixture were significantly (p < 0.05) increased as compared with diabetic rats that treated with Vaseline at 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment. TGFβ1 in diabetic rats, treated with herbal mixture compared with diabetic rats treated via Vaseline showed no significant (p > 0.05) difference at 7, 14 and 21 days post wounding. TGFβ1 was significantly different (p < 0.05) between diabetic and non-diabetic rats treated with the herbal mixture at 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that the mentioned herbal extracts might be effective in wound healing through the improvement in the amont of TGFβ1and VEGF-A proteins in wound site of diabetic rats.
... Similarly, the traditional medicinal uses of exotic species are the same or similar to those applied in their place of origin. Among these species noted for their widespread and multipurpose use to cure wounds are Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, and Punica granatum [74,75]. The treatments essentially involve the application of poultices with the solution obtained from the boiled, crushed or fresh plant parts. ...
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Background Cuatrociénegas is a region of unique biological, geological, geographical and evolutionary importance. It is part of the Chihuahua Desert, its current population is mestizo; however, it has a high historical, cultural and tourist relevance. It has been cataloged as a Flora and Fauna by Mexican law, as well as a High Protection site by the World Wildlife Fund and UNESCO. Because of its complex biological and sociocultural characteristics, we consider it important to know, determine, identify and analyze the traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and practices in this region. Methods Between 2016 and 2019, seven field trips were made to document the knowledge and use of flora. Cuatrociénegas is a protected area, collecting botanical material is regulated, so specimens were photographed and collected in neighboring communities, and in public and private gardens. Later permission was obtained to complete the collection of specimens (2019-2020). The plants were identified and entered into the flora database of the state of Coahuila, and deposited in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Forest Sciences, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico. One hundred and ten local residents (50 men and 60 women) aged between 27 and 91 years were interviewed (semi-structured interviews). The cultural importance of ethnobotanical resources (cultural significance index) and its significance with respect to ethnobotanical richness in other Biosphere Reserves in Mexico (Mann-Whitney test) ware evaluated. Results and Discussion The ethnobotanical information registers 158 species and 132 genera in 57 vascular and non-vascular families, documenting a greater knowledge and use of cultivated species (84) with respect to wild species (74). The diversity of plants reported, compared to other ethnobotanical studies carried out in Biosphere Reserves, is similar. The people local pay special attention to medicinal and ornamental plants. The species that presented the highest use values are Larrea tridentata, Jatropha dioica and Machaeranthera pinnatifida, three characteristic species of the desert region. Conclusions The particular diversity of wild flora in Cuatrociénegas Valley, combined with the varied introduced flora, is an important multifunctional resource. Special attention to introduced species is associated with use restrictions; as well as the high value of ornamental species, difficult to maintain in desert areas. The extensive knowledge and use of ethnobotany are an example that biocultural diversity (at the conceptual level) is also, strongly associated with socio-ecological system with mestizo groups and semi-urban rural landscapes, ceasing to be exclusive to indigenous regions.
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Background: In medicine, plants considered the main resource for drugs. In fact, it is estimated that 25% of prescription drugs have a plant origin. Aloe vera which is a pharmaceutical plant is useful for improving the body’s physiology and could be used for curing many diseases. However, there are a few studies related to the effects of Aloe vera on the reproductive system. Aim of study: The main objective of this study is to investigatethe effect of perinatal and postnatal exposure to Aloe vera gel extract on the histological status of male mice epididymis at puberty. Materials and Method: Forty mature female Swiss Webster mice were divided intoexperimental and control groups. These female mice were mating with fertile males.Following conception,thefemales given orally 10 μl of fresh Aloe vera gel extract started from the onset of gestationand continued throughout the gestation period (20 days). After parturition and through weaning time these male births were given orally 10 μl of fresh Aloe vera gel extract and continuous till six weeks. The female mice in the control group were given normal saline only by the same dose and route. Around puberty (aged six weeks) the male births were sacrificed then an incision was made in the pelvic region to get their testes. The epididymis was grasping gently, fixed, and then histological sections with a thickness of 5 microns were prepared. Results: Histological observation of male mice epididymis prenatal exposure to a low dose of Aloe vera gel extract and continuous through weaning time till puberty showed a normal structural pattern with a great number of sperms in caput (head), corpus (body) and caudal (tail) epididymis. The lumen of the cauda epididymis contains a larger density of sperm cells. Conclusions: Using a low dose of Aloe vera gel extract revealed a normal structural pattern of the epididymis, and it leads to enhancing the sperm amounts inside the epididymal lumen. Keywords: Aloe vera, Male infertility, Natural therapeutic remedies, Male reproductive system, Epididymis
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Background The present study aimed to prepare effective silk derived formulations in combination with plant extract ( Aloe vera gel) to speed up the wound healing process in diabetic mice. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino mice by using alloxan monohydrate. After successful induction of diabetes in mice, excision wounds were created via biopsy puncture (6 mm). Wound healing effect of silk sericin (5%) and silk fibroin (5%) individually and in combination with 5% Aloe vera gel was evaluated by determining the percent wound contraction, healing time and histological analysis. Results The results indicated that the best biocompatible silk combination was of 5% silk fibroin and 5% Aloe vera gel in which wounds were healed in 13 days with wound contraction: 98.33 ± 0.80%. In contrast, the wound of the control group (polyfax) healed in 19 day shaving 98.5 ± 0.67% contraction. Histological analysis revealed that the wounds which were treated with silk formulations exhibited an increased growth of blood vessels, collagen fibers, and much reduced inflammation. Conclusion It can be concluded that a combination of Bombyx mori silk and Aloe vera gel is a natural biomaterial that can be utilized in wound dressings and to prepare more innovative silk based formulations for speedy recovery of chronic wounds.
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The genus Aloe (family: Xanthorrhoeaceae) encompasses 490 shrubby-succulent-perennial species which are native to Africa. Among these, Aloe vera has grabbed the limelight in the arena of herbal medicine due to the presence of unique phytochemicals such as Aloin A and B, Homonataloin, Aloe emodin, acemannan etc. in its latex. Moreover, its leaf extract contains 99% water, and 75 active compounds including vitamins (A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, C, and E), minerals (Zn, Se, Na, Mn, Mg, K, Cu, Cr, Ca), amino acids, and enzymes (peroxidase, lipase, cellulase, catalase, carboxypeptidase, bradykinase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase). Thus, Aloe vera is revered as a ‘wonder plant’ as it possesses multiple pharmaceutical properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-fungal, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcer, anti-hypertensive and its juice helps to cure gastrointestinal disorders, and dermal diseases, it also strengthens the immune system. Being a xerophyte, Aloe vera is commercially cultivated in many countries which include South Africa, America, Australia, India etc. The Aloe gel, is meticulously extracted, processed and stabilized before using it in preparation of various health care products. This review focuses on the explicit information on origin, botanical description, phytochemistry, nutritional and medicinal benefits, with special emphasis on value-added products of Aloe vera. The review revealed 46 value-added Aloe-products that are being manufactured by different companies worldwide. Thus, sustainable Aloe-cultivation must be ensured to meet the rising global demands for Aloe vera gel and allied products.
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Significance: Millions of people worldwide suffer from diabetes mellitus and its complications, including chronic diabetic wounds. To date, there are few widely successful clinical therapies specific to diabetic wounds beyond general wound care, despite the vast number of scientific discoveries in the pathogenesis of defective healing in diabetes. Recent Advances: In recent years, murine animal models of diabetes have enabled the investigation of many possible therapeutics for diabetic wound care. These include specific cell types, growth factors, cytokines, peptides, small molecules, plant extracts, microRNAs, extracellular vesicles, novel wound dressings, mechanical interventions, bioengineered materials, and more. Critical Issues: Despite many research discoveries, few have been translated from their success in murine models to clinical use in humans. This massive gap between bench discovery and bedside application begs the simple and critical question: what is still missing? The complexity and multiplicity of the diabetic wound makes it an immensely challenging therapeutic target, and this lopsided progress highlights the need for new methods to overcome the bench-to-bedside barrier. How can laboratory discoveries in animal models be effectively translated to novel clinical therapies for human patients? Future Directions: As research continues to decipher deficient healing in diabetes, new approaches and considerations are required to ensure that these discoveries can become translational, clinically usable therapies. Clinical progress requires the development of new, more accurate models of the human disease state, multifaceted investigations that address multiple critical components in wound repair, and more innovative research strategies that harness both the existing knowledge and the potential of new advances across disciplines.
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Assam is a state in Indias north-eastern region, known for its lush floral and cultural diversity. We combed through the literature and discovered that about 117 Assamese plant species had been shown to have antidiabetic potential in preclinical studies. Diabetes, in its many forms, has been a long-standing problem for doctors for decades. Many aspects of diabetes must be investigated, including the physiological actions of insulin and the different clinical features of the condition, such as tissue complications. Since diabetes is a lifestyle disease, careful care with regard to diet and anti-diabetic agents is essential. Herbal diabetes therapy is not a novel concept. Plants and plant extracts have been used to treat diabetes since 1550 B.C., with as many as 400 prescribed before the development of effective diabetes drugs earlier this century.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. extract has been medicinally used for over 5000 years in different cultures for its curative and therapeutic properties ranging from dermatitis to diabetes. It has been demonstrated to alleviate diabetes through its protective effects on pancreatic islets and by improving insulin secretion. Aim of the study: To investigate the simultaneous effect of ethanolic A. vera gel extract on diabetes and obesogenic milieu in Streptozotocin-induced WNIN/GR-Ob mutant obese rats. Materials and methods A total of 30 rats were grouped equally into WNIN/GR-Ob control (received water as a vehicle), WNIN/GR-Ob Diabetic rats (Streptozotocin-35 mg/kg bw), WNIN/GR-Ob Diabetic rats+ Sitagliptin (10 mg/kg bw), WNIN/GR-Ob Diabetic rats + A. vera (300 mg/kg bw) and GR-Ob control + A. vera (300 mg/kg bw). After 4 weeks of treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance and β-cell function, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity, and lipid profiles were studied. In addition, ultrastructural analysis of isolated islets and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis for body composition were also carried out. Results The A. vera treated group showed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in triglyceride, Very low-density lipoprotein levels, Triglyceride to High-density lipoprotein ratio as well as fasting blood glucose levels and DPP-IV activity with a concomitant increase in the serum insulin levels. The increase in IR was observed in both WNIN/GR-Ob control and diabetic rats with a significant decrease in β-cell function in the diabetic rats as per Homeostatic Model Assessment values. Oral administration of A. vera was effective in both reducing Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance and increasing Homeostatic Model Assessment-β values. Also, the treated group demonstrated preservation of islets and a significant increase (p<0.05) in the diameter of β-cell as evident through Scanning electron microscope analysis. The increase in lean body mass was manifested in the treated group with a reduction in Fat percent in comparison with other groups. Conclusion The beneficial effects of A. vera in WNIN/GR-Ob strain may be attributed to its ability to lower lipid profile thus improve insulin sensitivity and/or modulating β-cell function. Thus, it has great therapeutic potential as an herbal remedy for the treatment of diabetes and associated adverse effects such as obesity. The exact mechanism underlying the observation needs to be investigated further to explore the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties of A. vera and advocate its potential application as alternative medicine.
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Skin acts as a protective barrier of body. It keeps the internal body organs safe from external environmental conditions which can prove harmful for them. So, maintenance of skin integrity is very important for normal functioning of body. In our daily life body of both animals and humans encounter to different types of violence, some of them are of such a severity that they break the skin continuity. This breakage of skin continuity is termed as wound. Whenever, the skin continuity is broken, internal organs of body are exposed. This is a dangerous situation and can be fatal for life. Immediate response of skin after wound is the start of wound healing process which starts automatically. This process can be assisted in a number of ways by keeping the wound free from bacterial contamination, moisture and dirt. For this purpose a variety of antiseptic dressings are available which when applied topically support wound healing process. They prevent wound to be contaminated by any micro-organism and reduce wound healing time. Aloe vera is one of them, it possess significant wound healing properties. Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. Herbal medicines, especially in wound management involve disinfection, debridement and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. The super focus of this review is to summarize the findings of earlier scientists with authentic concluding verse for utilization of herbal medicines (Aloe vera) being safe, readily available and cheaper.
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Abstract In medicine, plants considered the main resource for drugs. In fact, it is estimated that 25% of prescription drugs have a plant origin. Aloe vera which is a pharmaceutical plant is useful for improving the body’s physiology and could be used for curing many diseases. However, there are a few studies related to the effects of Aloe vera on the reproductive system. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of perinatal and postnatal exposure to Aloe vera gel extract on the histological status of male mice epididymis at puberty. Forty mature female Swiss Webster mice were divided into experimental and control groups. These female mice were mating with fertile males. Following conception, the females given orally 10 μl of fresh Aloe vera gel extract started from the onset of gestation and continued throughout the gestation period (20 days). After parturition and through weaning time these male births were given orally 10 μl of fresh Aloe vera gel extract and continuous till six weeks. The female mice in the control group were given normal saline only by the same dose and route. Around puberty (aged six weeks) the male births were sacrificed then an incision was made in the pelvic region to get their testes. The epididymis was grasping gently, fixed, and then histological sections with a thickness of 5 microns were prepared. Results showed that the histological observation of male mice epididymis prenatal exposure to a low dose of Aloe vera gel extract and continuous through weaning time till puberty observed a normal structural pattern with a great number of sperms in caput (head), corpus (body) and caudal (tail) epididymis. The lumen of the cauda epididymis contains a larger density of sperm cells. Conclusions: Using a low dose of Aloe vera gel extract revealed a normal structural pattern of the epididymis, and it leads to enhancing the sperm amounts inside the epididymal lumen.
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Skin acts as a protective barrier of body. It keeps the internal body organs safe from external environmental conditions which can prove harmful for them. So, maintenance of skin integrity is very important for normal functioning of body. In our daily life body of both animals and humans encounter to different types of violence, some of them are of such a severity that they break the skin continuity. This breakage of skin continuity is termed as wound. Whenever, the skin continuity is broken, internal organs of body are exposed. This is a dangerous situation and can be fatal for life. Immediate response of skin after wound is the start of wound healing process which starts automatically. This process can be assisted in a number of ways by keeping the wound free from bacterial contamination, moisture and dirt. For this purpose a variety of antiseptic dressings are available which when applied topically support wound healing process. They prevent wound to be contaminated by any micro-organism and reduce wound healing time. Aloe vera is one of them, it possess significant wound healing properties. Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. Herbal medicines, especially in wound management involve disinfection, debridement and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. The super focus of this review is to summarize the findings of earlier scientists with authentic concluding verse for utilization of herbal medicines (Aloe vera) being safe, readily available and cheaper.
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The biocompatibility, hemostatic performance and wound healing capability are key limitations for currently available hemostatic agents. To overcome these problems, a hydrogel inspired by a platelet coagulation mediator is developed...
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This study presents an innovative multifunctional system in fabricating new functional wound dressing (FWD) products that could be used for skin regeneration, especially in cases of infected chronic wounds and ulcers. The innovation is based on the extraction, characterization, and application of collagen (CO)/chitosan-glucan complex hollow fibers (CSGC)/aloe vera (AV) as a novel FWS. For the first time, specific hollow fibers were extracted with controlled inner (500-900 nm)/outer (2-3 µm) diameters from mycelium of Schizophyllum commune. Further on, research and evaluation of morphology, hydrolytic stability, and swelling characteristics of CO/[email protected] were carried out. The obtained FWS showed high hydrolytic stability with enhanced swelling characteristics compared to native collagen. The hemostatic effect of FWS increased significantly in the presence of CSGC, compared to native CO and displayed excellent biocompatibility which was tested by using normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF). The FWS showed high antibacterial activity against different types of bacteria (positive/negative grams). From in vivo measurements, the novel FWS increased the percentage of wound closure after one week of treatment. All these results imply that the new CO/[email protected] has the potential for clinical skin regeneration and applying for controlled drug release.
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Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments are growing in popularity as alternative treatments for common skin conditions. Objectives: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the tolerability and treatment response to CAM treatments in acne, atopic dermatitis (AD), and psoriasis. Methods: PubMed/Medline and Embase databases were searched to identify eligible studies measuring the effects of CAM in acne, AD, and psoriasis. Effect size with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated using the random-effect model. Results: The search yielded 417 articles; 40 studies met the inclusion criteria. The quantitative results of CAM treatment showed a standard mean difference (SMD) of 3.78 (95% CI [-0.01, 7.57]) and 0.58 (95% CI [-6.99, 8.15]) in the acne total lesion count, a SMD of -0.70 (95% CI [-1.19, -0.21]) in the eczema area and severity index score and a SMD of 0.94 (95% CI [-0.83, 2.71]) in the scoring of atopic dermatitis score for AD, and a SMD of 3.04 (95% CI [-0.35, 6.43]) and 5.16 (95% CI [-0.52, 10.85]) in the Psoriasis Area Severity Index score for psoriasis. Limitations: Differences between the study designs, sample sizes, outcome measures, and treatment durations limit the generalizability of data. Conclusions: Based on our quantitative findings we conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support the efficacy and the recommendation of CAM for acne, AD, and psoriasis.
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Diabetic wounds have a slow healing process and easy to be infected. In addition to current drug treatments, supportive approaches are needed for diabetic wound treatment. In this study, we aimed to load Aloe Vera (AV) and Hypericum perforatum oil (HPO) with PCL/Ge (Poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/Gelatine) polymeric biodegradable by electrospinning method into nanofiber dressings on an experimental diabetic wound model to compare the diabetic wound healing effect. Changes in the amount and chemical structure of phospholipids, proteins, and lipids were investigated in the blood and serum and plasma samples of the animals using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. To evaluate biological events associated with the wound repair process in inflammatory phase we used oxidant and antioxidant status to determine the healing status of wounds such as Total antioxidant status (TAS), Total oxidant level (TOS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. TOS level increased in DM groups and decreased in the AV and HPO group. Oxidative stress index decreased and TNF-α level increased in the HPO group. FTIR spectra showed changes in the phospholipids, proteins, and carbon chain of lipids in the whole blood as well as serum of DM rats. FTIR spectra combined with Principal component analysis (PCA) showed, that treated DM rats by AV and HPO caused return chemical structure of blood and serum to this observed in control group. Higher similarity with control group for HPO rats was observed. HPO is better than AV in the alternative for healing on diabetic wound. Thus, we have demonstrated that IR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis and biochemical assays are consistent and correlative with each other.
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Artemisia absinthium (worm wood) (Asteraceae) has been screened for antidiabetic activity. The hypoglycemic activity was carried out in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rat. Artemisia absinthium was administered in different doses (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) orally for 6 weeks. Blood sugar level, food intake and body weight changes were monitored periodically. At the end of the treatment period, the serum from diabetic animals was subjected to the estimation of lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and total cholesterol). Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), urea and creatinine and liver glycogen content was determined. Effect of Artemisia absinthium on glucose tolerance was carried out. A part of liver and pancreas was subjected to Histopathological examination. Artemisia absinthium was found to produce significant hypoglycemic activity in both normal and diabetic animals, which could be compared to Metformin (10 mg/kg). The food intake and body weight was increased with Artemisia absinthium treated diabetic rat. The elevated triglycerides, total cholesterol, ALT, AST, urea and creatinine levels were significantly reduced and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were increased in diabetic rat after Artemisia absinthium treatment. The liver glycogen level was significantly increased. Artemisia absinthium was found to increase the glucose tolerance. Histopathological examination showed that continuous treatment with Artemisia absinthium was found to produce the improved repair of the tissues after streptozotocin induced injury. The present study shows that Artemisia absinthium can be effectively used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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The treatment of diabetic wounds (DWs) is always challenging for the medical community because of its multifaceted pathophysiology. Due to practical and ethical considerations, direct studies of therapeutic interventions on human subjects are limited. Thus, it is ideal for performing studies on animals having less genetic and biological variability. An ideal DW model should progress toward reproducibility, quantifiable interpretation, therapeutic significance, and effective translation into clinical use. In the last couple of decades, various animal models were developed to examine the complex cellular and biochemical process of skin restoration in DW healing. Also, these models were used to assess the potency of developed active pharmaceutical ingredients and formulations. However, many animal models lack studying mechanisms that can appropriately restate human DW, stay a huge translational challenge. This review discusses the available animal models with their significance in DW experiments and their limitations, focusing on levels of proof of effectiveness in selecting appropriate models to restate the human DW to improve clinical outcomes. Although numerous newer entities and combinatory formulations are very well appreciated preclinically for DW management, they fail in clinical trials, which may be due to improper selection of the appropriate model. The major future challenge could be developing a model that resembles the human DW environment, can potentiate translational research in DW care.
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The dried sap of the aloe plant (aloes) is one of several traditional remedies used for diabetes in the Arabian peninsula. Its ability to lower the blood glucose was studied in 5 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and in Swiss albino mice made diabetic using alloxan. During the ingestion of aloes, half a teaspoonful daily for 4-14 weeks, the fasting serum glucose level fell in every patient from a mean of 273 +/- 25 (SE) to 151 +/- 23 mg/dl (p less than 0.05) with no change in body weight. In normal mice, both glibenclamide (10 mg/kg twice daily) and aloes (500 mg/kg twice daily) induced hypoglycaemia after 5 days, 71 +/- 6.2 and 91 +/- 7.6 mg/dl, respectively, versus 130 +/- 7 mg/dl in control animals (p less than 0.01); only glibenclamide was effective after 3 days. In the diabetic mice, fasting plasma glucose was significantly reduced by glibenclamide and aloes after 3 days. Thereafter only aloes was effective and by day 7 the plasma glucose was 394 +/- 22.0 versus 646 +/- 35.9 mg/dl, in the controls and 726 +/- 30.9 mg/dl in the glibenclamide treated group (p less than 0.01). We conclude that aloes contains a hypoglycaemic agent which lowers the blood glucose by as yet unknown mechanisms.
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We studied the effects of aqueous, chloroform, and ethanol extracts of Aloe vera gel on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat paw, and neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity stimulated by carrageenan. We also studied the capacity of the aqueous extract to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity. The aqueous and chloroform extracts decreased the edema induced in the hind-paw and the number of neutrophils migrating into the peritoneal cavity, whereas the ethanol extract only decreased the number of neutrophils. The antiinflammatory agents indomethacin and dexamethasone also decreased carrageenan-induced edema and neutrophil migration. The aqueous extract inhibited prostaglandin E2 production from [14C]arachidonic acid. The chemical tests performed in the aqueous extract for anthraglycosides, reductor sugars and cardiotonic glycosides were positive. In the ethanol extract, the chemical tests performed for saponins, carbohydrates naftoquinones, sterols, triterpenoids and anthraquinones were also positive. In the chloroform extract, the chemical tests performed for sterols type delta 5, and anthraquinones were positive. These results demonstrated that the extracts of Aloe vera gel have antiinflammatory activity and suggested its inhibitory action on the arachidonic acid pathway via cyclooxygenase.
Chapter
The procedure for the determination of nucleic acids described in this chapter is based on the finding that nucleic acids can be separated from other tissue compounds by their preferential solubility in hot trichloroacetie acid. The isolated nucleic acids are then quantitated by means of colorimetric reactions involving the pentose components of the nucleic acids. The determination of nucleic acids in tissues is largely a problem in identification. By means of the extraction procedures described in the chapter and the colorimetric reactions of peptide nucleic acid and DNA, a considerable degree of specificity is placed on the determination of these compounds. Occasionally however, false results will be obtained, owing to the presence of materials in the nucleic acid extracts that interfere with the pentose reactions. It is emphasized that the extraction methods described were developed for nucleic acid determinations by spectrophotometric methods. Although it was at first thought that these procedures might be directly applicable to isotopic work, it has become quite clear that the separations are not sufficiently refined for such studies. The methods have served, however, as starting points for other separation procedures more suitable for isotopic work.
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Two different components were separated from Aloe arborescens var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe in Japanese), which exhibit hypoglycaemic activity in spontaneously diabetic mice and normal mice. One component was separated from the succulent layer of the Aloe leaf (leaf pulp). This component, when administered to mice intraperitoneally or orally, decreased the blood glucose level, and maintained the lower level for about 24 h. On the other hand, administration of the superficial layer of the Aloe leaf (leaf skin) to streptozotocin (pancreatic islets beta-cells toxin) –- induced diabetic mice, significantly depressed hyperglycaemia and examination of the tissue section under the light microscope revealed less denaturation and necrosis of islets beta-cells. These results indicate that Kidachi aloe relieves the diabetic condition by direct hypoglyceration (blood glucose lowering activity) and activates beta-cells.
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The therapeutic effects of Aloe vera have been examined in preventing progressive dermal ischaemia caused by burns, frostbite, electrical injury, distal dying flap and intra-arterial drug abuse. In vivo analysis of these injuries showed that the mediator of progressive tissue damage was thromboxane A2 (TxA2). Experimentally Aloe was compared to a variety of antithromboxane agents to include U38450, a lodoxamide, a lazaroid and Carrington wound gel. In the burn injury Aloe was comparable to the lodoxamide and lazaroid with an 82% to 85% tissue survival when compared with the control and the Carrington wound gel (p=0.05). Tissue survival in the experimental frostbite injury was 28.2% when compared with the control (p=0.05). Similar results were obtained for the electrical injury, and intra-arterial drug abuse. Clinically burn patients treated with Aloe healed without tissue loss as did those with frostbite (p=0.001). In the intra-arterial drug abuse patients Aloe reversed the tissue necrosis. This therapeutic approach was used to prevent progressive tissue loss in each injury by actively inhibiting the localized production of TxA2. Aloe not only acts as a TxA2 inhibitor but maintains a homeostasis within the vascular endothelium as well as the surrounding tissue.
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A method is presented for the quantitative determination of hydroxyproline in biological materials containing as little as one part of hydroxyproline in 4000 parts of amino acids. Thus method has been applied to a study of hydroxyproline distribution in cell particulates, tissue fluids, and purified plant and animal proteins. Significant amounts of hydroxyproline were found in crystalline preparations of pepsin, elastase. and ficin.
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Diabetes is generally discussed in the surgical literature as a single disease which is encountered either in young, thin or older, obese individuals. A more modern understanding is that diabetes - when defined as hyperglycemia associated with vascular, renal and neural changes - is a syndrome with several causes. In children, there is usually a primary injury to the pancreas which causes insulin deficiency. In adults, diabetes is most often related to obesity and is manifested by a complex mechanism of insulin resistance and decreased insulin release from the pancreas. Clinically, great improvements have been made in the care of diabetic patients over the last 80 years. Concurrently, there has been a marked improvement in results of surgical treatment. This suggests a relationship, as there have been no changes in neuropathy, vascular changes, propensity to infection or small vessel disease other than control. Diabetic patients as a group still experience more wound failures, as shown by review of several studies of wounds of the lower extremities. Wound failure, defined as the need for major amputation, occurred in 2.5 to 12 per cent more of the diabetic patients studied than the nondiabetics. Experimentally, wound healing is defective in both insulin deficient and insulin resistant animals. Insulin improves healing in insulin deficient animals but not in animals with obesity and insulin resistance. There is clinical evidence that weight control with concurrent improvement in glucose tolerance is associated with better healing in insulin resistant obese patients. Diabetics have defects in leukocyte function. There is decreased phagocytosis which seems to be secondary to hyperglycemia. There is also decreased chemotaxis which may be an inherent defect in cells from diabetic patients. The defects in leukocyte function contribute to an increased rate of infection. In the perspective of modern knowledge of the importance of the inflammatory response, defects in leukocyte function may partially explain the defective healing seen in the absence of infection. Experiments with timing of insulin therapy also focus attention on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of healing as the time when insulin therapy is most beneficial. The exact mechanism or mechanisms of the defect in healing in diabetes are still unclear and represent a fertile area for further research. Modern methods of insulin infusion allow control of very stable blood glucose levels in diabetics. Results of initial studies suggest a potential use in perioperative treatment of diabetic patients.
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Patients with diabetes often develop complications involving collagen-containing connective tissues. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that glucose inhibits collagen fibril formation and subsequent cross-linking. Collagen with diminished cross-linking is more susceptible to collagenolytic degradation. This may underlie the decreased collagen levels. To test this hypothesis, D-glucose and its two analogs, L-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose, were used in chick calvaria organ cultures to examine parameters of collagen metabolism. L-Glucose is not used by the cell and functions as an extracellular glucose-like molecule, while 2-deoxy-D-glucose inhibits normal D-glucose uptake by blockading the glucose transport mechanism. Each of these three sugars had the ability to inhibit collagen fibril formation. D-Glucose stimulated collagen synthesis; L-glucose had no effect; and deoxyglucose inhibited collagen synthesis. D-Glucose was able to reverse the inhibitory effect of deoxyglucose. D-Glucose did not change levels of degradation of newly synthesized collagen while both L-glucose and deoxyglucose stimulated collagen degradation. When glucose transport was inhibited by deoxyglucose, collagen degradation was further enhanced. We suggest that decreased collagen levels in the connective tissues of diabetics may result from a combination of inhibition of collagen fibril formation and subsequent cross-linking, as well as increased collagen degradation.
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The acute and chronic effects of the exudate of Aloe barbadensis leaves and its bitter principle were studied on plasma glucose levels of alloxan-diabetic mice. Aloes was administered orally, 500 mg/kg, and the bitter principle was administered intraperitoneally, 5 mg/kg. The hypoglycemic effect of a single oral dose of aloes on serum glucose level was insignificant whereas that of the bitter principle was very highly significant and extended over a period of 24 h with maximum hypoglycemia observed at +8 h. In chronic studies, aloes was administered twice daily and the bitter principle was administered once a day for 4 days. The maximum reduction in plasma glucose level was observed at the 5th day in both cases. The hypoglycemic effect of aloes and its bitter principle may be mediated through stimulating synthesis and/or release of insulin from the beta-cells of Langerhans.
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The drug "Titrated Extract from Centella asiatica" (TECA), used for its stimulating properties on the healing of wounds, is a mixture of 3 terpenes extracted from a tropical plant: asiatic acid (30%, w/w), madecassic acid (30%, w/w) and asiaticoside (40%, w/w). The effects of TECA and its individual components were checked on human foreskin fibroblast monolayer cultures. TECA increased the collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent fashion whereas a simultaneous decrease in the specific activity of neosynthesized collagen was observed. Asiatic acid was found to be the only component responsible for collagen synthesis stimulation. TECA and all three terpenes increased the intracellular free proline pool. This effect was independent of the stimulation of collagen synthesis.
Article
Many of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus involve defects in the connective tissue such as poor wound healing, diminished bone formation, and decreased linear growth. Because collagen is the major protein component of these connective tissues, we examined collagen production in diabetic rats as a probe of this generalized defect in connective tissue metabolism. Doses of streptozocin ranging from 35 to 300 mg/kg were used to induce diabetes of graded metabolic severity in rats. Parietal bone or articular cartilage was removed and incubated at 37 degrees C with 5 microCi L-[5-3H]proline for 2 h, and collagen and noncollagen protein production were quantitated after separation with purified bacterial collagenase. Within 2 wk after induction of diabetes, collagen production was significantly reduced in bone and cartilage from diabetic rats to 52% (P less than .01) and 51% (P less than .01) of control (buffer-injected) levels, respectively. In contrast, noncollagen protein production in bone and cartilage from diabetic animals was no different from in tissue from control rats. The correlation between collagen relative to total protein production (relative rate) and the degree of hyperglycemia was highly significant for both bone (r = -.77, P less than .001) and cartilage (r = -.87, P less than .001). Other factors found to correlate with altered collagen production were the duration of diabetes and the amount of weight loss. Thus, diabetes is associated with a marked decrease in collagen production, which was seen early after induction of diabetes and was specific when compared with noncollagen protein production. Cumulative effects of these marked changes in collagen production may contribute to the chronic connective tissue complications in diabetes.
Article
The mucilaginous gel from the parenchymatous cells in the leaf pulp of Aloe vera has been used since early times for a host of curative purposes. This gel should be distinguished clearly from the bitter yellow exudate originating from the bundle sheath cells, which is used for its purgative effects. Aloe vera gel has come to play a prominent role as a contemporary folk remedy, and numerous optimistic, and in some cases extravagant, claims have been made for its medicinal properties. Modern clinical use of the gel began in the 1930s, with reports of successful treatment of X-ray and radium burns, which led to further experimental studies using laboratory animals in the following decades. The reports of these experiments and the numerous favourable case histories did not give conclusive evidence, since although positive results were usually described, much of the work suffered from poor experimental design and insufficiently large test samples. In addition some conflicting or inconsistent results were obtained. With the recent resurgence of interest in Aloe vera gel, however, new experimental work has indicated the possibility of distinct physiological effects. Chemical analysis has shown the gel to contain various carbohydrate polymers, notably either glucomannans or pectic acid, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of the gel have been described, there is no certain correlation between these and the identified gel components.
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The effect of a lathyrogen (aminoacetonitrile) and a corticosteroid (prednisolone acetate) and the combination of both on mechanical properties of connective tissue was studied in rats. The tensile strength and the elasticity module of skin strips as well as the tensile strength of femoral epiphyseal plates were measured after 1 or 10 days of treatment. Aminoacetonitrile induced a slight thinning of skin, a pronounced decrease in tensile strength and elasticity module of skin strips and an even more pronounced decrease in tensile strength of femoral epiphyseal plates depending on the duration of the treatment. Prednisolone acetate effected a strong thinning of skin, an increase in tensile strength and elasticity module of skin strips and an enhancement of femoral epiphyseal plate tensile strength. Both compounds antagonized each other in the combined treatment. The effects can be explained by the fact that lathyrogens decrease and corticosteroids enhance the crosslinking of collagen. The measurement of the physical properties of connective tissue appears to provide a suitable parameter for the maturation of collagen.
Article
PREVIOUS studies from this laboratory showed perplexing wound-tensile strengths in diabetic rats.1 Three groups of animals with alloxan-induced diabetes were studied, and the results are shown in Fig 1. No explanation for the superior healing in the well controlled diabetic animals were found. These results prompted this study of the effect of insulin on wound tensile strength in normal animals.Methods Male albino Wistar rats weighing from 200 to 300 gm were used. Preliminary insulin tolerance experiments were done. Starting at 3 units/day of protamine zinc insulin suspension, 21 animals were given progressively larger doses of insulin. They were maintained for three to four days on 5, 8, 12, and 15 units of protamine zinc insulin suspension. At 15 units of insulin per day, death occurred in approximately one third of the group. The surviving animals showed an average weight gain of 80% over their initial weight after 18
Article
Collagen from human skin was fractionated into neutral salt-soluble, acid-soluble, pepsin-released, and insoluble fractions. No age-related changes were observed in the proportion of collagen extracted by neutral salt. A significant age-related decrease in the proportion of acid-soluble collagen was found. A highly significant (P less than 0.001) age-related decrease in the amount of collagen released by pepsin digestion was observed, with a concomitant age-related increase in the fraction of insoluble collagen. The amount of ketoamine-linked glucose bound to this insoluble collagen also increased significantly with age. Skin collagen from three juvenile onset diabetics (JOD) and one young maturity onset diabetic (MOD) appeared to have undergone accelerated aging. JOD and the young MOD had significantly less collagen released by pepsin digestion and significantly more insoluble collagen than would be predicted by their ages. The collagen released by pepsin digestion of the diabetic samples had more high molecular weight components than similar fractions obtained from age-matched nondiabetic controls. There was also more ketoamine-linked glucose bound to the insoluble collagen of JOD than to that fraction from comparably aged control subjects. The apparent acceleration of collagen aging in diabetes mellitus may play a role in complications of diabetes that occur in collagen-rich tissues.
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To compare the therapeutic effects of systemic pentoxifylline and topical aloe vera cream in the treatment of frostbite. The frostbitten ears of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were assigned to one of four treatment groups: untreated controls, those treated with aloe vera cream, those treated with pentoxifylline, and those treated with aloe vera cream and pentoxifylline. Tissue survival was calculated as the percent of total frostbite area that remained after 2 weeks. The control group had a 6% tissue survival. Tissue survival was notably improved with pentoxifylline (20%), better with aloe vera cream (24%), and the best with the combination therapy (30%). Pentoxifylline is as effective as aloe vera cream in improving tissue survival after frostbite injury.
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Massive cell migration, proliferation, phenotypic differentiation, and enhanced biosynthetic activities characterize the sites of wound healing and fibrosis. Regulation of cellular functions by extracellular matrix, which consists of a dynamic assemblage of a variety of interacting molecules capable of reorganization in response to endogenous and exogenous stimuli, represents a fundamental epigenetic mechanism regulating cellular behavior and phenotype. Interactions of the individual components of extracellular matrix with specific cell surface molecules, integrin receptors, and proteoglycans initiate a cascade of signal transduction leading to varied short-term or persistent cellular responses. Extracellular matrix also serves as an important reservoir of cytokines and growth factors, thus modulating the action of a host of potent biological response modifiers by their selective, local accumulation and release. Currently known mechanisms by which extracellular matrix modulates different facets of the process of tissue remodeling after injury, which culminate either in normal wound repair or fibrosis, are discussed.
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Effects of oral and topical administration of an alcoholic extract of C. asiatica on rat dermal wound healing was studied. The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, protein and collagen content of granulation tissues. Quicker and better maturation and crosslinking of collagen was observed in the extract-treated rats, as indicated by the high stability of acid-soluble collagen and increase in aldehyde content and tensile strength. The extract treated wounds were found to epithelialise faster and the rate of wound contraction was higher, as compared to control wounds. The results show that C. asiatica produced different actions on the various phases of wound repair.
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THE healing wound is of perennial interest and fundamental importance to the surgeon. Despite continued study, however, knowledge to date consists largely of the factors that affect the well known histological sequences of healing and the rate of gain in tensile strength. The intensive inquiries1 , 2 that many investigators have conducted into the nature of connective tissue in the last decade have provided a variety of technics, some old and some new, that require application to the healing wound. This report reappraises the sequences of wound healing on the basis of data obtained from chemical and histochemical studies. Formation of Collagen . . .
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Since 1922 when Wu proposed the use of the Folin phenol reagent for the measurement of proteins (l), a number of modified analytical pro- cedures ut.ilizing this reagent have been reported for the determination of proteins in serum (2-G), in antigen-antibody precipitates (7-9), and in insulin (10). Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sen- sitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent, nevertheless, has considerable merit for certain application, but that its peculiarities and limitations need to be understood for its fullest exploitation, it has been studied with regard t.o effects of variations in pH, time of reaction, and concentration of react- ants, permissible levels of reagents commonly used in handling proteins, and interfering subst.ances. Procedures are described for measuring pro- tein in solution or after precipitation wit,h acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 y of protein.
The antidiabetic activity of aloes
  • Ghannam
Nucleic acids and derivatives
  • Schneider