Early Outcomes of Primary Sutureless Repair of the Pulmonary Veins

ArticleinThe Annals of thoracic surgery 92(2):666-71; discussion 671-2 · June 2011with21 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.04.024 · Source: PubMed
The "sutureless" repair technique has improved outcomes for post-repair pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the early outcomes of primary sutureless repair of pulmonary venoocclusive disease in infants with congenital PV stenosis-hypoplasia or PVs at high risk for progressive stenosis. This is a retrospective review of infants who had primary sutureless repair of the PVs from October 2002 to April 2010. Twenty-five infants had primary sutureless repair of the PVs. Eighteen infants had total anomalous pulmonary venous return; 14 with obstruction, 10 with heterotaxy syndrome, and 9 with univentricular anatomy. Seven infants had congenital PV stenosis. There were 24 perioperative survivors (96%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 75% to 99%) and 2 late deaths from extracardiac causes. Follow-up was available on 21 out of 22 survivors at a median duration of 34 months (range, 9 to 100 months). Persistence-recurrence of PV stenosis occurred in 3 veins (3%) of 2 infants (8%). On follow-up echocardiography, right ventricular systolic pressure was normal in 13 out of 14 infants with a biventricular heart and 60% of systemic blood pressure in 1 infant. Kaplan-Meier 1-year cumulative survival was 88% (95% CI, 66% to 96%). Kaplan-Meier cumulative disease-free survival was 96% (95% CI, 75% to 99%) at 30 days and 84% (95% CI, 58% to 95%) at 1 year. By Cox proportional hazards, age, univentricular anatomy, and atrial isomerism-heterotaxy syndrome were not associated with an increased risk of death or persistence-recurrence. One-year disease-free survival was lower in infants with prematurity (p=0.0055) and low birth weight (p=0.0011). Primary sutureless repair is a feasible, safe, and relatively effective method of addressing congenital PV stenosis and (or) high-risk PVs, particularly in infants with single ventricle anatomy and (or) heterotaxy syndrome.
    • "However, Toronto group reported that there were no significant differences between the primary sutureless technique for mixed type TAPVC, including the single ventricle, and the conventional repair technique considering the survival rate and freedom from re-inter- vention [6] . They also reported that there were no significant differences between the primary sutureless technique for 'simple' TAPVC and the conventional repair technique in terms of the same points [8]. So far, undeniable advantages of the sutureless technique for initial repair of TAPVC have not been shown, thus the indication should be still carefully considered. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of a sutureless technique for postoperative pulmonary venous stenosis (PVS) following repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) has been reported, though detailed clinical advantages remain unclear. We retrospectively reviewed our surgical experience, and compared outcomes between conventional procedures and a sutureless technique. For relief of postoperative PVS after TAPVC repair, five patients underwent a conventional procedure, such as orifice cutback or resection of a proliferated intima, from 1999 to 2004 (Conventional group, 4 males, median 93 days old, 3.6 kg), then seven underwent a sutureless technique (Sutureless group, 5 males, 119 days old, 3.4 kg) from 2005 to 2011. Patients with a functional single ventricle were excluded. There were no significant differences regarding patient characteristics. Follow-up examinations were completed in all patients. The rate for cumulative survival at 5 years was 60 % in the Conventional group and 71.4 % in the Sutureless group. Re-stenosis after relief of PVS occurred in 100 % (10/10) of patients in the Conventional group and 31.6 % (6/19) of patients in the Sutureless group (p = 0.0088). For bilateral venous stenosis patients, the survival rate was 66.7 % (4/6) in the Sutureless group and 0 % (0/2) in the Conventional group (p = 0.10). Out of three patients who developed whole 4-vein stenosis, only one in the Sutureless group survived. Although overall survival rate was similar in both groups, the Sutureless technique for postoperative PVS following TAPVC repair successfully rescued more pulmonary veins without re-stenosis than conventional procedures. Further follow-up may demonstrate therapeutic advantages.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013
    • "Therefore, once postoperative PVS occurs, elevated pulmonary vascular resistance tends to remain high for Fontan operations. Recently, a few studies reported the efficacy of primary sutureless marsupialization for this anatomical subset192021. As with other reports [6, 7], the vast majority of patients in this study, 95.8%, were associated with right atrial isomerism. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Surgical outcomes of patients with functional single ventricle have improved, though those for patients whose condition is complicated by extracardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) remain poor. We retrospectively reviewed our 21 years of surgical experiences with this challenging group. Methods: From 1990 to 2010, 48 consecutive patients with functional single ventricle complicated by extracardiac TAPVC (26 males, 46 with right atrial isomerism) underwent initial surgical palliation at our centre. The median age and body weight at surgery were 69 days and 3.5 kg, respectively. The type of TAPVC was supracardiac in 31 patients, infracardiac in 14 and mixed type in 3. TAPVC was repaired in 25 patients before bidirectional Glenn (BDG) and 18 at BDG, while it remained in 3 patients. Since 2007, stent implantation for obstructive drainage veins for patients with preoperative pulmonary venous obstruction and sutureless marsupialization for relief of postoperative pulmonary venous stenosis (PVS) have been initiated. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 ± 5.1 years. Results: The overall survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years after the initial surgical intervention were 58.3, 41.1 and 31.3%, respectively. Sixteen patients achieved the Fontan operation (33.3%). The freedom from postoperative PVS rates at 1 and 3 years after repair was 68.7 and 63.4%, respectively. Univariate analysis detected that infracardiac TAPVC (P = 0.036), coexisting major aortopulmonary collaterals (P = 0.017), and TAPVC repair before BDG (P = 0.036) all reduced survival, and multivariable analysis indicated the repair of TAPVC before BDG as the only risk factor (P = 0.032). Whereas the occurrence of postoperative PVS did not reduce survival, which had a significant negative impact on achieving the Fontan operation (P = 0.008). The cumulative survival rate did not improve by surgical era. Conclusions: Surgical outcomes of patients with functional single ventricle undergoing the repair of extracardiac TAPVC in the neonatal period due to obstruction of the venous drainage pathway remain poor. Stent implantation for obstructive drainage veins to delay the timing of surgical correction and sutureless marsupialization as relief of postoperative PVS are expected to improve the late outcomes; however, the effect is still limited.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objective was to evaluate primary sutureless repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) in neonates using a modified technique that minimizes hypothermia and circulatory arrest times. Methods: From 2009 to 2011, seven consecutive patients underwent primary sutureless repair for the treatment of TAPVR, by which the prepared posterior pericardium was sutured to an opening in the left atrium. Three patients had the obstructed infracardiac type, and four patients had the unobstructed supracardiac type of TAPVR. Moderate hypothermia was used in all patients with a median temperature of 28°C (26-32). Circulatory arrest was not used except for the opening of the collector, which lasted between 3 and 5 min. The connecting vein was ligated in all seven patients (five during repair and two early postoperatively). The follow-up was 100% complete, with a median duration of 652 (range 370-1023) days. Results: There was no operative mortality and no late death. No patient required reoperation. Postoperative echocardiography showed unobstructed pulmonary venous flow in all patients. Recurrent pulmonary venous stenosis was not seen during the follow-up in any patient. Conclusions: The sutureless technique is an effective technique with potential advantages even for the primary correction of TAPVR. With the described technique, the need for circulatory arrest is substantially reduced. Not handling the pulmonary venous collector by avoiding a direct anastomosis may contribute to better compliance, better growth and the absence of subsequent stenosis.
    Article · Jul 2012
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