ArticleLiterature Review

Animal welfare: At the interface between science and society

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Abstract

The general concept of animal welfare embraces a continuum between negative/bad welfare and positive/good welfare. Early approaches to defining animal welfare were mainly based on the exclusion of negative states, neglecting the fact that during evolution animals optimised their ability to interact with and adapt to their environment(s). An animal's welfare status might best be represented by the adaptive value of the individual's interaction with a given environmental setting but this dynamic welfare concept has significant implications for practical welfare assessments. Animal welfare issues cannot simply be addressed by means of objective biological measurements of an animal's welfare status under certain circumstances. In practice, interpretation of welfare status and its translation into the active management of perceived welfare issues are both strongly influenced by context and, especially, by cultural and societal values. In assessing whether or not a given welfare status is morally acceptable, animal welfare scientists must be aware that scientifically based, operational definitions of animal welfare will necessarily be influenced strongly by a given society's moral understanding.

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... Removal of negative factors (e.g., hunger, thirst, pain, fear, and distress), as explicitly stated in the first, second, third and fifth freedoms, are believed to improve welfare. This assumption is challenged by the biological function of these negative states: they may help an animal to cope with its environment and to survive (Ohl and van der Staay, 2012). For example, the experience of pain evokes, in interaction with cognitive processes, certain behavioral reactions such as avoidance of pain inducing stimuli or protection of affected body parts and has as such a protective character (e.g., Rutherford, 2002). ...
... Similarly, the stress response aids the animal in regaining a state of normal biological functioning (Moberg, 2000). Thus, negative (emotional) reactions should be considered as an indicator of an animal's adaptive capacity to avoid 'negative welfare' (Ohl and van der Staay, 2012). Even though negative experiences can temporarily be neutralized by applying (one of) the 5 freedoms, this hardly can be considered an improvement of welfare, as negative experiences form the basis for the animal's motivation to obtain resources or to avoid e.g. ...
... The preponderance of positive experiences increases Quality of Life, at the same time individual variation in the impact of certain experiences needs to be taken into consideration (McMillan, 2005). Yeates (2016) A dynamic concept of animal welfare: welfare as a function of adaptation The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Utrecht University in the Netherlands applies a concept of animal welfare ) developed by Ohl & van der Staay (2012). Building on previous animal welfare concepts, this concept states "An individual is in a positive welfare state when it is able to actively adapt to its living conditions and to reach a state that it perceives as positive." ...
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Article
Animal welfare is a multifaceted issue that can be approached from different viewpoints, depending on human interests, ethical assumptions, and culture. To properly assess, safeguard and promote animal welfare, concepts are needed to serve as guidelines in any context the animal is kept in. Several different welfare concepts have been developed during the last half decade. The Five Freedoms concept has provided the basis for developing animal welfare assessment to date, and the Five Domains concept has guided those responsible for safeguarding animal welfare, while the Quality of Life concept focuses on how the individual perceives its own welfare state. This study proposes a modified and extended version of an earlier animal welfare concept - the Dynamic Animal Welfare Concept (DAWCon). Based on the adaptability of the animal, and taking the importance of positive emotional states and the dynamic nature of animal welfare into account, an individual animal is likely in a positive welfare state when it is mentally and physically capable and possesses the ability and opportunity to react adequately to sporadic or lasting appetitive and adverse internal and external stimuli, events, and conditions. Adequate reactions are elements of an animal’s normal behavior. They allow the animal to cope with and adapt to the demands of the (prevailing) environmental circumstances, enabling it to reach a state that it perceives as positive, i.e., that evokes positive emotions. This paper describes the role of internal as well as external factors in influencing welfare, each of which exerts their effects in a sporadic or lasting manner. Behavior is highlighted as a crucial read-out parameter. As most animals under human care are selected for certain traits that may affect their behavioral repertoire it is crucial to have thorough ethograms, i.e., a catalogue of specific behaviors of the species/strain/breed under study. DAWCon highlights aspects that need to be addressed when assessing welfare and may stimulate future research questions.
... As sentient beings (Mellor, 2019), animals are afforded legal protection through animal welfare legislation. Underpinning this protection are societal values which deem that animals' interests in avoiding pain and suffering are morally relevant and worthy of consideration (Ohl and van der Staay, 2012). In practice, this means governments will generally legislate in the public interest when it comes to animal welfare (Nurse, 2016), making community expectations and opinions a major driver for legislative change. ...
... This concept recognizes the many stakeholders involved in this process and how their interests need to be balanced against one anotherthe community being one key stakeholder. The way animal law enforcement is viewed by the community is affected by public understanding and attitudes (Ohl and van der Staay, 2012), meaning that further education on animal law enforcement and its limitations would likely aid in reducing the perception that greater punitive measures are needed (Hough and Park, 2002;Bohm and Vogel, 2004;Indermaur et al., 2012;Roberts et al., 2012). ...
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Article
Nature of reform to animal welfare legislation in Australia has commonly been attributed to increasing alignment with the ‘communities’ expectations’, implying that the community has power in driving legislative change. Yet, despite this assertion there has been no publicly available information disclosing the nature of these ‘expectations’, or the methodology used to determine public stance. However, based on previous sociological research, as well as legal reforms that have taken place to increase maximum penalties for animal welfare offences, it is probable that the community expects harsher penalties for offences. Using representative sampling of the Australian public, this study provides an assessment of current community expectations of animal welfare law enforcement. A total of 2152 individuals participated in the survey. There was strong support for sentences for animal cruelty being higher in magnitude (50% support). However, a large proportion (84%) were in favour of alternate penalties such as prohibiting offenders from owning animals in the future. There was also a belief that current prosecution rates were too low with 80% of respondents agreeing to this assertion. Collectively, this suggests a greater support for preventing animal cruelty through a stronger enforcement model rather than punishing animal cruelty offenders through harsher sentences. This potentially indicates a shift in public opinion towards a more proactive approach to animal welfare, rather than a reactive approach to animal cruelty.
... It is of interest to note that of the eight alumni from the Bristol Veterinary School who answered to question 12 (see appendix WSAVA Animal Welfare Survey), two thought animal welfare was "well-covered" in the veterinary curriculum when they were students and six thought there was "adequate coverage." Such courses should take local cultural, ethical, and legal differences into account (Cao, 2020;Szűcs, Geers, Jezierski, Sossidou, & Broom, 2012), because what is considered acceptable animal welfare may differ in different regions because it is determined in part by societal values (Ohl & Van der Staaij, 2012). Special Eurobarometers (the European Union's official instrument for measuring public opinion) on Animal Welfare (European Commission, 2007 illustrate the diversity of attitudes regarding animal welfare across European Member States (Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Moore, Morton, Osborne, & Hanlon, 2015). ...
... As animal welfare includes behavioral medicine and animal health (for a definition of animal welfare see Ryan et al., 2019), it might have been included in the curriculum without being termed as such, so that respondents might not have realized that the topic was taught. Furthermore, every definition of animal welfare is influenced by the moral or ethical standards of society (Ohl & Van der Staaij, 2012). It might be relevant to survey the participating institutions (appendix Table A1) about the content of their curricula, as was done by De Briyne et al. (2020) among 57 European veterinary schools. ...
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Article
As part of a wider research on animal welfare, a global survey was developed to gain insight into the opinion of companion animal veterinarians about animal welfare education, namely to investigate i) their exposure to animal welfare teaching during their undergraduate education, ii) their access to continuing professional education on animal welfare, and iii) their opinions on clients' sources of information on animal welfare. The survey was distributed to companion animal veterinarians around the world. The results were highly influenced by the large numbers of respondents who trained in the Russian Federation, Australia, Israel, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, or the United States of America. Worldwide, 58.4% of the respondents thought that animal welfare was poorly covered or not taught at all when they were students. The best coverage of animal welfare was in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Most companion animal veterinarians (65.3%) had access to continuing education on animal welfare, but there were small differences between the six above-mentioned countries. Companion animal veterinarians get information on animal welfare mainly from the internet and veterinary conferences/meetings, and thought that their clients obtained animal welfare information from various sources. The findings show that there is a need to improve education on animal welfare in veterinary curricula and the provision of relevant continuing education, so that companion animal practitioners can keep abreast of developments and societal expectations.
... The question arises, however, as to whether legislators view the needs of the animals as important enough to merit legally enforceable obligations for owners or for the State and, consequently, whether animals should be recognized as having "rights," which has been the question of substantial academic debate (Ohl & Van Der Staay, 2012). Some have argued that humans have legal obligations toward animals, especially those in our care, because we form a closer emotional bond with those animals than we do with others. ...
... Those freedoms were developed primarily in the context of the welfare of farm animals and intended for situations in which the animals live in an environment that is controlled by humans. That concept of animal welfare might be of limited use in the assessment of the welfare of animals whose environment is not rigorously controlled by human intervention, such as wild or free-range animals (Ohl & Van Der Staay, 2012). The ways in which society treats different classes of animals is paradoxical (Mason & Littin, 2003) and is particularly evident for species that are considered pests (e.g., rats, moles, insects) or game animals (e.g., wild boar, rabbits, foxes, wild birds), which often can be killed legally using lower-welfare methods than those used on other species (Baker et al., 2020). ...
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Article
Not all animals are perceived in the same way given the types of crimes of abuse and neglect that are included in the Spanish Criminal Code and the penalties for such crimes. The aim of this study was to assess public opinion (based on sex, age, location, pet ownership) on issues related to animal attributes (based on animals’ rights, whether they are considered sentient beings, and the responsibilities of humans toward them), the importance given to penalizing animal abuse, and which authority is considered the most appropriate for resolving such cases. A questionnaire based on a Likert-type scale attitude assessment model was responded to by 1,473 individuals (40.6% male; 59.5% female). In addition to demographic characteristics, seven statements were included to evaluate a person’s perception of the capacity of animals to feel pain and to suffer, and the animal's status within the family sphere. Three statements were designed to quantify respondents’ perceptions of punishment based on the context in which the abuse occurs. Four statements measured respondents’ perceptions of the role of a judge and the role of a mediator in penalizing animal abuse. The last section of the questionnaire included a question on the type of penalty that is appropriate for punishing those convicted of animal abuse. The study confirmed that humans differentiate animals based on how emotionally close to humans is the animal with which we form an attachment. In addition, the responses of women, young persons, urban dwellers, and pet owners were more sensitive to an animal's position in society. Respondents expressed greater agreement with fines rather than prison sentences as a punishment for animal abuse.
... The latter view has by some (Weary and Robbins, 2019) been motivated by an effort to bring animal welfare science in line with popular views. Within society, animal welfare is subject to a plethora of different ethical, economic, and political viewpoints, which have mostly been studied in the global north (Lund et al., 2006;Ohl and van der Staay, 2012;Miele and Lever, 2013;Kupsala et al., 2015). These points of viewplayed out by the attitudes, beliefs, behaviours, actions, values, and policies of a variety of societal stakeholders-influence how animal welfare is perceived and valued. ...
... There is a recognised need to address and conceptualise animal welfare in a manner which reflects both societal and scientific perspectives (see Lund et al., 2006;Ohl and van der Staay, 2012). It has been argued that 'progress can be made' when lay-person perspectives are considered by and integrated into scientific perspectives of welfare (Weary and Robbins, 2019). ...
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Article
Societal and scientific perspectives of animal welfare have an interconnected history. However, they have also, somewhat, evolved separately with scientific perspectives often focusing on specific aspects or indicators of animal welfare and societal perspectives typically taking a broader and more ethically oriented view of welfare. In this conceptual paper, we examine the similarities and differences between scientific and societal perspectives of positive welfare and examine what they may mean for future discussions of animal welfare considered as a whole. Reviewing published studies in the field we find that (UK and Republic of Ireland) farmers and (UK) members of the public (i.e., society) typically consider both negatives (i.e., minimising harms) and positives (i.e., promoting positive experiences) within the envelope of positive welfare and prioritise welfare needs according to the specific context or situation an animal is in. However, little consideration of a whole life perspective (e.g., the balance of positive and negative experiences across an animal's lifetime) is evident in these societal perspectives. We highlight how addressing these disparities, by simultaneously considering scientific and societal perspectives of positive welfare, provides an opportunity to more fully incorporate positive welfare within a comprehensive understanding of animal welfare. We suggest that a consideration of both scientific and societal perspectives points to an approach to welfare which accounts for both positive and negative experiences, prioritises them (e.g., by seeing positive experiences as dependent on basic animal needs being fulfilled), and considers the balance of positives and negatives over the lifetime of the animals. We expand on this view and conclude with its potential implications for future development of how to understand and assess animal welfare.
... Importantly it paved the way for animals -including fish -to be considered by European law as sentient beings, in the Lisbon Treaty of 2007 (European Union, 2007). Even so, the approach is open to criticism: it implies that captive animals are passive within their environment (Ohl and van der Staay, 2012) when it is clear that they are not. In addition, understandably at the time, the emphasis was very much on protecting animals from negative experiences, epitomising the view that 'free from harm equals good'. ...
... Animal welfare law seeks to regulate human conduct towards animals by codifying what society deems as unacceptable treatment of animals. This jurisprudential model recognizes that animals can experience pain and suffering, and that their interests in avoiding these experiences are considered morally relevant by society [1]. Protection of animals is provided in animal welfare legislation through the provision of offences for cruelty and the establishment of a duty of care. ...
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Article
Media portrayals of animal cruelty can shape public understanding and perception of animal welfare law. Given that animal welfare law in Australia is guided partially by ‘community expectations’, the media might indirectly be influencing recent reform efforts to amend maximum penalties in Australia, through guiding and shaping public opinion. This paper reports on Australian news articles which refer to penalties for animal cruelty published between 1 June 2019 and 1 December 2019. Using the electronic database Newsbank, a total of 71 news articles were included for thematic analysis. Three contrasting themes were identified: (1) laws are not good enough; (2) laws are improving; and (3) reforms are unnecessary. We propose a penalty reform cycle to represent the relationship between themes one and two, and ‘community expectations’. The cycle is as follows: media reports on recent amendments imply that ‘laws are improving’ (theme two). Due to a range of inherent factors in the criminal justice system, harsher sentences are not handed down by the courts, resulting in media report of ‘lenient sentencing’ (theme one). Hence, the public become displeased with the penal system, forming the ‘community expectations’, which then fuel future reform efforts. Thus, the cycle continues.
... While the Five Freedoms provide a minimum baseline for animal welfare, many scholars equate animal wellbeing with 'positive states' rather than solely the absence of the negative states associated with the Five Freedoms (Yeates & Main, 2008). Positive welfare suggests that animals are granted the freedom and ability to behave in adaptive ways to positive and negative stimuli (Ohl & van der Staay, 2012). For example, "positive affective engagement" may be when a therapy animal has the opportunity to engage willingly in an interaction with a person (Mellor, 2016). ...
... Several modern animal welfare definitions incorporate the animal's ability to successfully cope with challenges in the environment (i.e., maintain homeostasis), and to reach a mental state that the animal experiences as positive (Mellor, 2016;Ohl and van der Staay, 2012). Successful adaptation to a challenge result in a relatively swift recovery to baseline parameters, and this could be referred to as resilience (Colditz and Hine, 2016). ...
... Para Broom & Fraser (2010), quando um determinado indivíduo está submetido a um estímulo ambiental que dificulta a sua adaptação ao mesmo, ocorre uma sobrecarga do seu sistema fisiológico. Isto acontece quando organismo animal está numa condição ambiental desfavorável que não permite a realização normal das suas funções fisiológicas; pois, ele está em condição de desequilíbrio com o meio ambiente (Maia et al., 1997;Ohl & Van der Staay, 2012). Todavia, quando há um ambiente favorável que ajuda na adaptação desses animais ao meio, ocorre o estado de homeostasia. ...
Article
A caprinocultura leiteira apresenta-se como uma ótima oportunidade de negócio para o crescimento econômico e desenvolvimento social; pois, o retorno do investimento obtido com a atividade é mais rápido e vantajoso quando comparado com de outras culturas voltadas para a produção animal. O tipo de manejo aplicado aos animais tende a refletir em sua produção; pois, um manejo calmo e seguro traz tranquilidade e bom grau de bem-estar aos animais. No caso de animais como as cabras leiteiras, que possuem um comportamento bastante sociável, essa relação pode ser bastante importante. São animais que possuem a necessidade de uma rotina e a alteração em seu comportamento pode ser bem clara quando algo de seu costume é modificado. Assim, objetivou-se com essa revisão descrever os eventos relacionados ao sistema de criação, comportamento e o bem-estar dos caprinos leiteiros. Foi observado na literatura que os avanços nas avaliações do bem-estar animal e os estudos sobre a bioclimatologia, têm mostrado resultados positivos para uma maior produção de leite de cabra. Com isso, tais estudos comprovam que é necessário buscar novos padrões para a produção de leite de cabra, sempre levando em consideração o bem-estar dos animais.
... This perception of animal welfare is remarkable because, in literature, animal welfare is defined broader than safeguarding the basic health and functioning of an animal (Carenzi and Verga, 2009;Ohl and van der Staay, 2012;Mellor et al., 2020). One aspect that is emphasized in these definitions is 'affective states' (Fraser and Weary, 2004). ...
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Article
Farm animal veterinarians are often involved in on-farm end-of-life (EoL) decisions and questions concerning euthanasia. These decisions can be challenging for the veterinarian, particularly if the interests of the animal and owner conflict. Moreover, the challenge is related to fundamental assumptions about roles and responsibilities veterinarians ascribe to themselves in EoL situations. Getting insight into what roles and responsibilities veterinarians perceive in these situations is important to understand the challenges veterinarians face and to explore ways to enable them to manage such situations. Existing literature and professional guidelines do not provide sufficient clarity and guidance in terms of the role conception and responsibilities of veterinarians in on-farm EoL situations. The objective of the current qualitative study was to better understand the views of farm animal veterinarians in the Netherlands regarding their roles and responsibilities associated with on-farm EoL situations. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 farm animal veterinarians. In terms of roles in EoL situations, our analysis shows that 1) seven roles can be distinguished based on the interviews, 2) two contextual dimensions influence role perception: a) the stage in which a veterinarian gets involved at the end of an animal’s life and b) the question of whose interests should be taken into consideration and how to prioritize (conflicting) interests by a veterinarian, 3) veterinarians enact a number of the identified roles and the combination of roles varies between individuals and 4) the individual veterinarian changes between roles depending on contextual aspects. In terms of responsibilities in EoL situations, analyses show that 1) individual veterinarians perceive a combination of five identified responsibilities, and 2) the perception of responsibilities relates predominantly to specific animal sectors. This insight into the roles and responsibility perceptions of veterinarians facilitates understanding the challenges veterinarians face in on-farm EoL situations and creates a starting point for how veterinarians can be supported to deal with potential conflicts of interest. These insights could also be valuable in the training of future veterinarians and lifelong learning of veterinarians as it provides a starting point to reflect on, and discuss, one’s role and responsibility in EoL situations.
... The nature of conceptions of animal welfare is similarly diverse as the one of resilience (Weary and Robbins, 2019). Common interpretations include the three-circle framework of biological functioning, affective states and natural living (Fraser et al., 1997) and the dynamic approach of focusing on positive welfare and the adaptive capacities of animals (Ohl and Van der Staay, 2012). In a probably less controversial way than resilience, animal welfare can be framed both as an empirically accessible scientific concept and as a moral concept, including hybrid approaches (Stafleu et al., 1996). ...
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Conference Paper
Pig production is related to many societal challenges. This raises the question whether and how pig production systems can be transformed in a way that better includes animal welfare and is responsive to (other) societal concerns. In a project funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), we focus on the role of resilience to explore the possibilities of defining novel production systems that better match with the interests and adaptive capacities of animals. However, to play this central role, the concept of resilience needs an integrated and transdisciplinary approach. Using the ‘SmartResilience’ project as an example, we argue that to address societal challenges in livestock production it is not sufficient to view one topic through the lenses of multiple disciplines and to produce research results from each discipline which are only supplementary to one another. We argue why complex societal challenges like transforming livestock systems can only be tackled by real collaboration between different disciplines, and why this collaboration already needs to start in the design-phase of innovations. We discuss three stages of collaboration that will lead to a deepened integration of disciplines, which will ultimately result in positive societal impact: (1) identifying the underlying concepts that play a role for achieving the project aim (e.g. animal welfare, resilience); (2) making the implicit assumptions of these concepts explicit by integrating knowledge and methods from different disciplines (e.g. philosophy and animal science); and (3) translating and incorporating the explicit assumptions of concepts into practice and into further actions within the project (e.g. pig breeding or housing strategies). By doing this, we expect to prepare a route forward for more welfare-friendly and sustainable pig production that is in dialogue with society.
... This perception of animal welfare is remarkable because, in literature, animal welfare is defined broader than safeguarding the basic health and functioning of an animal (Carenzi and Verga, 2009;Ohl and van der Staay, 2012;Mellor et al., 2020). One aspect that is emphasized in these definitions is 'affective states' (Fraser and Weary, 2004). ...
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Article
Farm animal veterinarians are often involved in on-farm end-of-life (EoL) decisions and questions concerning euthanasia. These EoL decisions can be challenging for the veterinarian, particularly if the interests of the animal and owner are conflicting. Moreover, the challenge is related to fundamental assumptions about roles and responsibilities veterinarians ascribe to themselves in EoL situations. Getting insight into what role and responsibilities veterinarians ascribe to themselves in EoL situations is important to understand the challenges veterinarians face and to explore ways to enable them to deal with such situations. Existing literature and professional guidelines partially help to clarify expectations and role perceptions by the veterinarian. Nonetheless, they are not conclusive in terms of the role conception and responsibilities of the veterinarian in the context of EoL situations. To better understand role perceptions and views on responsibilities by veterinarians, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with Dutch farm animal veterinarians. Patterns and diversity of responses regarding the role and responsibility concepts were characterized. In terms of roles in EoL situations, analyses show that 1) veterinarians define a variety of roles, 2) two fundamental dimensions underlie these roles namely a) the extent to which a veterinarian gets involved and b) the question of whose interests are taken into consideration by a veterinarian, 3) the identified roles function next to each other both on an inter- and intrapersonal level and 4) veterinarians change between roles. In terms of responsibilities in EoL situations, analyses show that 1) veterinarians describe multiple responsibilities, 2) a combination of responsibilities is perceived by individual veterinarians, and 3) responsibilities relate predominantly to specific animal sectors. A better understanding of the role and responsibility perceptions of farm animal veterinarians is valuable as it facilitates to get grip on the challenges veterinarians face in EoL situations and creates a starting point for how veterinarians can be supported to deal with the related conflicts of interest. The gained insights could be of value in the training of future veterinarians and lifelong learning of veterinarians as a tool to reflect on, and discuss, one’s role and responsibility in EoL situations.
... Several modern animal welfare definitions incorporate the animal's ability to successfully cope with challenges in the environment (i.e. maintain homeostasis), and to reach a mental state that the animal experiences as positive (Ohl and Van der Staay, 2012;Mellor, 2016). Successful adaptation to a challenge results in a relatively swift recovery of baseline parameters, and this could be referred to as resilience (Colditz and Hine, 2016). ...
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Article
Resilience could be referred to as the animal’s ability to successfully adapt to a challenge. This is typically displayed by a quick return to initial metabolic or activity levels and behaviors. Pigs have distinct diurnal activity patterns. Deviations from these patterns could potentially be utilized to quantify resilience. However, human observations of activity are labor intensive and not feasible in practice on a large scale. In this study, we show the use of a computer vision tracking algorithm to quantify resilience based on activity individual patterns following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, which induced a sickness response. We followed 121 individual pigs housed in barren or enriched housing systems, as previous work suggests an impact of housing on resilience, for eight days. The enriched housing consisted of delayed weaning in a group farrowing system and extra space compared with the barren pens and environmental enrichment. Enriched housed pigs were more active pre-injection of LPS, especially during peak activity times, than barren housed pigs (49.4 ± 9.9 vs. 39.1 ± 5.0 meter/hour). Four pigs per pen received an LPS injection and two pigs a saline injection. LPS injected animals were more likely to show a dip in activity than controls (86% vs 17%). Duration and Area Under the Curve (AUC) of the dip were not affected by housing. However, pigs with the same AUC could have a long and shallow dip or a steep and short dip. Therefore the AUC:duration ratio was calculated, and enriched housed pigs had a higher AUC:duration ratio compared to barren housed pigs (9244.1 ± 5429.8 vs 5919.6 ± 4566.1). Enriched housed pigs might therefore have a different strategy to cope with an LPS sickness challenge. However, more research on this strategy and the use of activity to quantify resilience and its relationship to physiological parameters is therefore needed.
... Although many definitions of animal welfare exist [2][3][4][5], there is general agreement that welfare can vary along a continuum and can change over time. Thus, welfare can be viewed as a dynamic process [6]. For applied welfare practitioners in zoos, aquariums, and laboratories, evaluating welfare is often done in an effort to drive husbandry changes that can enhance welfare. ...
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Article
Animal welfare is a dynamic process, and its evaluation must be similarly dynamic. The development of ongoing behavior monitoring programs in zoos and aquariums is a valuable tool for identifying meaningful changes in behavior and allows proactive animal management. However, analyzing observational behavior data in an ongoing manner introduces unique challenges compared with traditional hypothesis-driven studies of behavior over fixed time periods. Here, I introduce business intelligence software as a potential solution. Business intelligence software combines the ability to integrate multiple data streams with advanced analytics and robust data visualizations. As an example, I provide an overview of the Microsoft Power BI platform, a leading option in business intelligence software that is freely available. With Power BI, users can apply data cleaning and shaping in a stepwise fashion, then build dashboards using a library of visualizations through a drag-and-drop interface. I share two examples of data dashboards built with Power BI using data from the ZooMonitor behavior recording app: a quarterly behavior summary and an enrichment evaluation summary. I hope this introduction to business intelligence software and Microsoft Power BI empowers researchers and managers working in zoos and aquariums with new tools to enhance their evidence-based decision-making processes.
... In a competitive and demanding market, which requires the necessary from each of the involved parts, the aspects related to animal welfare (AWF) appear as a demonstration of special attention objects. The human actions over animal production should, by themselves, be a sufficient reason for consideration, not only for ethic and moral concerns, but also for the clear impact over the productive economy (Ohl & Van Der Staay, 2012). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-slaughter time about some blood constituents used as stress indicators in the evaluation of animal welfare in cattle. In the practice of ethology, animal welfare is assessed through physiological and behavioral indicators. For the determination of serum biomarkers of animal stress, a total of 180 animals was used, divided into two major groups according to the time of pre-slaughter. In the acceptable group, the animals had a pre-slaughter time up to 24 hours and in the not acceptable group the pre-slaughter time was greater than 24 h. These two groups were split up into three animal categories (males, females and castrated males). In this study, 30 samples were collected from each animal category of the two groups, acceptable and not acceptable, totaling 180 samples. Samples were separated for analysis of muscle enzymes creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (CK and LDH), glucose and cortisol. Physiological values, regardless of the animal category and pre-slaughter time, were higher than the normal values of reference, expressing the prior management effect on animal welfare. The data clearly show a need to update and adapt the entire production chain to animal welfare practices, with the objective of producing competitive quality meat in the world market.
... In the Netherlands, the Oostvaardersplassen rewilding project has been subject to controversy after large herbivores (Konik horses, Heck cattle and red deer) introduced by humans starved when they exceeded the carrying capacity of the fenced-in nature reserve. There was a political debate among the Dutch public and animal protection NGOs, who felt responsibility for the welfare of these animals and the duty to prevent unnecessary suffering, and managers stressing the importance of noninterference and allowing natural processes to occur (Kopnina et al., 2019;Lorimer and Driessen, 2014;Ohl and van der Staay, 2012). These animals straddle the divide between wild and domesticated and raise questions regarding our level of responsibility for their welfare, and indeed what their rights are. ...
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Chapter
Over fifty years of global conservation has failed to bend the curve of biodiversity loss, so we need to transform the ways we govern biodiversity. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity aims to develop and implement a transformative framework for the coming decades. However, the question of what transformative biodiversity governance entails and how it can be implemented is complex. This book argues that transformative biodiversity governance means prioritizing ecocentric, compassionate and just sustainable development. This involves implementing five governance approaches - integrative, inclusive, adaptive, transdisciplinary and anticipatory governance - in conjunction and focused on the underlying causes of biodiversity loss and unsustainability. Transforming Biodiversity Governance is an invaluable source for academics, policy makers and practitioners working in biodiversity and sustainability governance. This is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
... In order to assess it meaningfully, it is important to consider what is meant by 'animal welfare', and there are varied definitions of the term (see, for example, [36][37][38][39][40][41]). These include ideas that welfare is the animal's state regarding attempts to cope with his/her environment [42], incorporating both physical health and mental wellbeing, which are influenced by factors such as those from the 'five freedoms' [43] and the 'five domains' [44], and concepts focusing on the quality of life, such as 'a life worth living' [45]. Differences in definitions may arise due to differences in moral or ethical standards of society [46] and stakeholders being inclined to emphasise different aspects of animal welfare [47] (e.g., health, productivity, behaviour, 'naturalness', etc.). Additionally, welfare assessment methodologies may focus on different types of measures, such as resource inputs, environmental conditions or animal-based indicators [48]. ...
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Article
Equestrian sports, including racing (e.g., flat, steeple-chasing, harness or donkey derby); show-jumping; cross-country; dressage; polo; polocrosse; endurance; carriage driving; vaulting and hunting; are hugely popular in the UK, and they involve a significant number of people, both as participants and spectators, and tens of thousands of equids. In this paper, we discuss animal welfare as a complex and disputed issue, clarifying what the term means and how it can be measured. We review many aspects of welfare risk to equids used for sport, addressing issues encountered throughout their lives, including housing, feeding, veterinary intervention, shoeing, handling, training, breeding and equipment. This is followed by a unique exploration of the institutions and social processes influencing equine welfare. The institutional components comprise the rules of competition, the equids, attributes of the stakeholders and the space where participants strive to achieve a common purpose. We endeavour to untangle the most significant elements that create barriers or provide opportunities for equine welfare improvement. We expose the challenges faced by a broad range of stakeholders with differing ethics, attitudes and values. Evidently, there are many welfare risks to which equids used in sports continue to be exposed. It is also evident that significant improvements have occurred in recent times, but there remains a barrier to reducing the risks to an acceptable level. We conclude with recommendations regarding a process for change, involvement of stakeholders and management of knowledge to improve equine welfare that involves identifying and prioritising the risk factors and ultimately leading to interventions, further research and/or education.
... Proposições são levantadas pelas diversas frentes que assumem esse posicionamento, tais como a criação de sistemas formais de aconselhamento para o uso de evidências que busquem tanto a redução de vieses como a legitimação e a transparência do processo com a sociedade (op. cit.), ou de meios de "avaliação do conhecimento", que -ao reconhecer o caráter de provisoriedade, falseabilidade e possível ausência de consenso na produção científica -busca justamente expor publicamente os limites, as lacunas e as falhas das evidências disponíveis como uma meta-avaliação para o tomador de decisão (Funtowicz, 2006). ...
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Technical Report
Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo traçar uma radiografia do uso de evidências pelos burocratas dirigentes do governo federal, a partir de um survey aplicado entre novembro de 2020 e janeiro de 2021, com 787 ocupantes de cargos de direção e assessoramento superior (DAS), níveis 4, 5, 6 e correlatos, em organizações da administração direta e indireta. Como parte do projeto O Que Informa as Políticas Públicas: o Uso e o Não Uso de Evidências pela Burocracia Federal, o estudo explora questões sobre os condicionantes e as finalidades de uso de evidências científicas pelos burocratas dirigentes, em comparação com resultados de survey conduzido em 2019, com o universo geral dos burocratas federais. Esta análise inova ao propor experimentos em survey e traz como principais resultados: i) a preponderância das fontes internas entre os recursos informacionais utilizados pelos burocratas dirigentes – padrão já identificado no survey de 2019; ii) o alto potencial de absorção de evidências científicas pelos burocratas dirigentes, dadas a elevada capacidade analítica acumulada e a natureza relacional da atuação desse perfil; e iii) a identificação de desafios relacionados ao desenvolvimento de capacidades organizacionais e de sistemas de governança para ampliação do uso de evidências científicas no governo federal.
... In the case of a species that may be detrimental to others in a given location but in decline globally, the spatial scale and the population considered for evaluating the terms of Equations 1 to 5 is crucial to determine appropriate management actions. Similarly, management actions may also result in a temporary decrease in welfare conditions for animals, which may increase later on (Ohl and Van der Staay 2012), or the impacts may be manifested with a temporal lag. In that case, determining the appropriate time period over which to evaluate the terms of Equations 1 to 4 will not be straightforward. ...
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Perspectives in conservation are based on a variety of value systems. Such differences in how people value nature and its components lead to different evaluations of the morality of conservation goals and approaches, and often underlie disagreements in the formulation and implementation of environmental management policies. Specifically, whether a conservation action (e.g. killing feral cats to reduce predation on bird species threatened with extinction) is viewed as appropriate or not can vary among people with different value systems. Here, we present a conceptual, mathematical framework intended as a tool to systematically explore and clarify core value statements in conservation approaches. Its purpose is to highlight how fundamental differences between these value systems can lead to different prioritizations of available management options and offer a common ground for discourse. The proposed equations decompose the question underlying many controversies around management decisions in conservation: what or who is valued, how, and to what extent? We compare how management decisions would likely be viewed under three idealised value systems: ecocentric conservation, which aims to preserve biodiversity; new conservation, which considers that biodiversity can only be preserved if it benefits humans; and sentientist conservation, which aims at minimising suffering for sentient beings. We illustrate the utility of the framework by applying it to case studies involving invasive alien species, rewilding, and trophy hunting. By making value systems and their consequences in practice explicit, the framework facilitates debates on contested conservation issues, and complements philosophical discursive approaches about moral reasoning. We believe dissecting the core value statements on which conservation decisions are based will provide an additional tool to understand and address conservation conflicts.
... Local breeds, such as NIT, which show a reduced performance (body weight) (Tixier-Boichard et al., 2009;Tiemann et al., 2020) and are not included in intensive breeding programmes may retain their advantageous behavioural traits. These traits such as reduced fear reactions, increased exploration and better adaptive capabilities can favour welfare of animals (Ohl and van der Staay, 2012;Krautwald-Junghanns et al., 2018), as animals are often confronted with unknown or threatening stimuli in husbandry systems, including free-range systems (Meuser et al., 2021). ...
Article
Characterisation of fear response in turkey breeds could bring important beneficial information for future breeding, animal welfare and preservation of breeds. The two major turkey breeds raised presently in Nigeria are Hybrid Converter turkey (HCT) and Nigerian indigenous turkey (NIT). The HCT has been selected for fast growth and can adapt to different environmental and management conditions. In contrast, NIT is an unselected slow-growing bird that is hardy and well-adapted to the tropical climate of Nigeria. This study examined fear behaviour in turkey poults of fast and slow growing breeds to know how genetic selection for fast growth has shaped fear response in young turkeys. Twenty-five each of white NIT and HCT poults were used for this study. Fear tests such as tonic immobility, emergence, open field, inversion and attention bias tests were used to assess fear responses in the turkey poults during the first 16 days of life. A Wilcoxon Two-Sample test was used to determine the effect of the turkey breed on the poults’ fear responses. There was a significant breed effect on the duration of tonic immobility (Ws=482.00, z = −3.0138, p = 0.003) and latency to emerge from a dark box (Ws=382.00, z = −4.9521, p = 0.000). The HCT stayed in tonic immobility longer than NIT, while NIT emerged faster than HCT from the dark box. There was also a significant breed effect on vocalization duration (Ws=664.50, z = 3.65, p = 0.000) in the open field arena, with longer duration of vocalization in NIT compared with HCT. More escape attempts (Ws=598.00, z = 3.05, p = 0.004) and more explored floor squares (Ws=606.50, z = 2.43, p = 0.015) were observed in NIT compared with HCT during the open field test. The results obtained from this study showed significant breed differences in the fear responses of the turkey poults, with HCT poults being more fearful than NIT. The increased fear response observed in HCT poults appears to be an unintended consequence of selection for fast growth. Genetic selection programmes aimed at improving growth in turkeys should also consider their fear behaviour.
... Prior approaches to defining animal welfare were based mainly on the exclusion of negative states, without recourse to modifications by evolution in animals that impacts their ability to interact with and adapt to their environment (Ohl and Van der Staay 2012). However, the early orientation towards welfare was increasingly considered minimalist. ...
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The welfare of laying hens has been a subject of interest among consumers, breeders, and animal welfare organisations across the globe. Laying hens' behaviour is an important indicator of their welfare and provides feedback on how they perceive their housing environment. A relationship is believed to exist between serotonin levels and other coordinating axes of the brain such as the hypotha-lamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which regulates various types of behaviour , and this provides the opportunity to achieve specific targeted modulatory interventions. Despite increasing interest in the use of feed additives in poultry production, there are inconsistencies in their application to promote positive behaviour in laying hens because of several factors, including age, sex, housing system, and genotype of the hens. This mini review expounds on the use of various feed additives such as phytogenic substances, probiotics, essential oils, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, as well as dietary fibre additives for promoting positive behaviour and overall welfare of laying hens. Feed additives have previously been used extensively for their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-fungal properties in poultry production, but their potential for promoting positive behaviour in laying hens through physical, physiological, anxiolytic, anti-depressive, and neuromodulatory activities was reviewed in this article.
... The concept of animal welfare initially revolved around major threats to animal survival (e.g. disease, thirst…), but it progressively evolved as research progressed and public values changed 3 . Nowadays, the definition of animal welfare includes the notion of affective states 4,5 , which reflects the animal's subjective experience of events. ...
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Affective states can be inferred from responses to ambiguous and threatening stimuli, using Judgement Bias Tasks (JBTs) and Attention Bias Tasks (ABTs). We investigated the separate and interactive effects of personality and housing conditions on dairy cattle affective states. We assessed personality in 48 heifers using Open-Field, Novel-Object and Runway tests. Personality effects on responses to the JBT and to the ABT were examined when heifers were housed under reference conditions. Heifers were subsequently housed under positive or negative conditions, and housing effects on animal responses in both tasks were investigated while controlling for personality. A Principal Component Analysis revealed three personality traits labelled Activity, Fearfulness and Sociability. Under reference conditions, personality influenced heifers’ responses to the JBT and to the ABT, therefore questioning the tasks’ generalizability across individuals. Against expectations, housing did not influence responses to the JBT and heifers in the negative conditions looked at the threat later than heifers in the positive or reference conditions. More research is warranted to confirm the validity and the repeatability of the JBT and of the ABT as appropriate measures of affective states in dairy cows.
... Animal welfare has grown into an important interdisciplinary area involving significant public concern and societal influence [1][2][3][4][5]. Nonetheless, there are still controversies over the application of the wellbeing and welfare (the state of wellbeing [2]) concepts to animals [3,[6][7][8]. ...
Article
To understand animal wellbeing, we need to consider subjective phenomena and sentience. This is challenging, since these properties are private and cannot be observed directly. Certain motivations, emotions and related internal states can be inferred in animals through experiments that involve choice, learning, generalization and decision-making. Yet, even though there is significant progress in elucidating the neurobiology of human consciousness, animal consciousness is still a mystery. We propose that computational animal welfare science emerges at the intersection of animal behaviour, welfare and computational cognition. By using ideas from cognitive science, we develop a functional and generic definition of subjective phenomena as any process or state of the organism that exists from the first-person perspective and cannot be isolated from the animal subject. We then outline a general cognitive architecture to model simple forms of subjective processes and sentience. This includes evolutionary adaptation which contains top-down attention modulation, predictive processing and subjective simulation by re-entrant (recursive) computations. Thereafter, we show how this approach uses major characteristics of the subjective experience: elementary self-awareness, global workspace and qualia with unity and continuity. This provides a formal framework for process-based modelling of animal needs, subjective states, sentience and wellbeing.
... Animal welfare can be defined as an animal's combined physical, mental and emotional state as perceived by the animal itself over a period of time (Harley and Clark 2019;AZA 2020). It can range from negative/bad welfare -impairing the animal -to positive/good welfare (Ohl and van der Staay 2012). Several zoo and aquarium associations worldwide already require their members to have a clearly documented animal welfare policy (e.g., AZA 2020; BIAZA 2020). ...
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Zoos need to monitor their animals in order to evaluate to what extent animal welfare policies result in adequate welfare. Since it is usually not feasible for zoos to structurally measure corticosteroid concentrations or conduct extensive behavioural observations, zoos often rely on their caretakers to assess animal welfare using surveys. The Animal Welfare Assessment Grid (AWAG) allows zoos to quantify and visualise animal welfare based on keeper ratings. This tool has previously been used to monitor the welfare of zoo-housed animals, but it has not yet been used in practice by zookeepers. Therefore, the welfare of two groups of western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla was monitored daily for three months by caretakers using the AWAG to assess its usability and reliability. Behavioural observations were conducted simultaneously to validate keeper ratings of animal-based welfare indicators. This study demonstrated that the AWAG can be used to get a good indication of the welfare of an individual or group and to identify potential welfare issues. Welfare appeared to be relatively stable in the long term, which indicates that it is not necessary to perform daily welfare audits. Keepers' assessments captured more subtle changes in welfare compared to assessments made retrospectively by researchers in previous studies. Inter-rater reliability was good, but caretakers' scores did not always correspond with data from behavioural observations. Extra training, regular staff meetings and longer observation times will most likely increase the degree of detail of keeper ratings.
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Preprint
The fundament of an evidence-based severity assessment in laboratory animal science is reliable distress parameters. Many readouts are used to evaluate and determine animal distress and the severity of experimental procedures. Therefore, we analyzed four distinct parameters like the body weight, burrowing behavior, nesting, and distress score in the four gastrointestinal animal models (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), pancreatitis, CCl 4 intoxication, and bile duct ligation (BDL)). Further, we determined the parameters‘ robustness in various experimental subgroups due to slight variations like drug treatment or telemeter implantations. We used non-parametric bootstrapping to get robust estimates and 95 % confidence intervals for the experimental groups. It was found that the performance of the readout parameters is model-dependent and that the distress score is prone to experimental variation. On the other hand, we also found that burrowing and nesting can be more robust than, e.g., the body weight when evaluating PDA. However, the body weight still was highly robust in BDL, pancreatitis, and CCl 4 intoxication. To address the complex nature of the multi-dimensional severity space, we used the Relative Severity Assessment (RELSA) procedure to combine multiple distress parameters into a score and mapped the subgroups and models against a defined reference set obtained by telemeter implantation. This approach allowed us to compare the severity of individual animals in the experimental subgroups using the maximum achieved severity (RELSA max ). With this, the following order of severity was found for the animal models: CCl 4 < PDA ≈ Pancreatitis < BDL. Furthermore, the robustness of the RELSA procedure and outcome was externally validated with a reference set from another laboratory also obtained from telemeter implantation. Since the RELSA procedure reflects the multi-dimensional severity information and is highly robust in estimating the quantitative severity within and between models, it can be deemed a valuable tool for laboratory animal severity assessment.
Chapter
Free-living deer in deer parks are, in effect, wild deer confined within a boundary. They cannot be routinely gathered or handled for normal husbandry like farmed deer or domesticated livestock. Their welfare, however, is the responsibility of the owner or keeper of the park. This poses particular challenges in respect of welfare monitoring and disease control. This chapter sets out basic principles whereby animal welfare in a deer park can be safeguarded, and disease challenges can be met. The key to health and welfare is correct stock density, adequate supplementary feeding and appropriate responses to pathological problems in the deer. Tuberculosis is a particular challenge to the deer park and is discussed in detail.
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The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
The second volume of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides a comprehensive overview of the major genetically modified mouse lines used to model human neurobehavioral disorders; from disorders of perception, of autonomous and motor functions to social and cognitive syndromes, drug abuse and dependence as well as neurodegenerative pathologies. Mouse models obtained with different types of genetic manipulations (i.e. transgenic, knockout/in mice) are described in their pathological phenotypes, with a special emphasis on behavioral abnormalities. The major results obtained with many of the existing models are discussed in depth highlighting their strengths and limitations. A lasting reference, the thorough reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
Chapter
Over fifty years of global conservation has failed to bend the curve of biodiversity loss, so we need to transform the ways we govern biodiversity. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity aims to develop and implement a transformative framework for the coming decades. However, the question of what transformative biodiversity governance entails and how it can be implemented is complex. This book argues that transformative biodiversity governance means prioritizing ecocentric, compassionate and just sustainable development. This involves implementing five governance approaches - integrative, inclusive, adaptive, transdisciplinary and anticipatory governance - in conjunction and focused on the underlying causes of biodiversity loss and unsustainability. Transforming Biodiversity Governance is an invaluable source for academics, policy makers and practitioners working in biodiversity and sustainability governance. This is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Chapter
From the nineteenth century, market growth in animal agriculture was accompanied by anti-cruelty legislation, an increasing number of animal protection organisations, as well as general critiques of the sector. The regulatory dilemma centred on how to balance these competing ideologies, to support animal production and trade while simultaneously dealing with cruelty and animal disease. Ultimately, neither anti-cruelty regulation of the nineteenth century nor animal welfare regulation of the twentieth century, led to the optimum treatment of farm animals. Instead, the individual animal became invisible, subsumed into the merchantability of the whole, receiving what little protection the market could spare. By 1964, problems in the sector culminated in the publication of Ruth Harrison’s seminal tome, Animal Machines, detailing institutionalised cruelty in British livestock production. This resulted in the establishment of a committee to investigate these allegations and draft what came to be known as the Brambell Report. Part of the problem derived from the fact that farm animals were primarily treated as articles of trade, or commodities; their wellbeing shaped by commercial values ascribed to them (as explicated by Karl Marx) and delineated by the whims of the marketplace.KeywordsAnimal commodificationAnimal welfareAnti-cruelty legislationBrambell ReportKarl MarxRuth Harrison
Chapter
The use of biotechnologies has dramatically increased in recent years, radically changing our relationship with animals and their use in several fields, from food industry to scientific research. Provided here is an overview of those biotechnologies having the most relevant impact on our approach to animals, and a discussion of their implications in bioethical terms as well as their scientific and general advantages versus their limitations. This chapter concentrates on biotechnologies applied to biomedical science, providing a large range of examples particularly focused on genetic modifications of laboratory animals.KeywordsGenetically modified miceMouse modelsCRISPR/Cas9Gene-targetingNeuropsychiatric disorders
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Başıboş dolaşan kedi ve köpekler dünya genelinde olduğu gibi ülkemizde de sahipsiz hayvan olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Varlığı, çevre ve insan sağlığı açısından hoş karşılanmayan sahipsiz hayvanların kontrol dışı üremesi, sahipli hayvanların terkedilmesi, sahipli hayvanların yavrularının çevreye bırakılması gibi sebepler sahipsiz hayvanların mevcudunu giderek arttırmaktadır. Dolayısıyla insanlarla iç içe bir yaşam söz konusudur. Durum böyle olunca da onların sağlığı ve refahı direkt olarak insanları ilgilendirmektedir. Avrupa Birliği müzakere pozisyonunun esaslarında yer alan çok önemli konular arasında hayvan refahına da yer verilmektedir. İngiltere’de kurulan Hayvan Refahı Komitesi 1993 yılında hayvan hakları bağlamında “1- Hayvanların açlık, susuzluk vb. şeklinde ihtiyaçlarından yoksun bırakılmaması, 2- Hayvanların bulundukları çevre şartlarından rahatsız olmamaları, 3- Hayvanların acı ve ağrıya neden olan çarpma, yaralanma ve hastalıklardan korunması, 4- Hayvanların normal davranışlarını sergileyebilmesi, 5- Hayvanların korku ve strese neden olan olaylardan korunması” şeklindeki beş maddeyi yayınlamıştır. Hayvan Refahı; hayvanların rahat, huzurlu, sağlıklı ve kolaylıkla yaşam sürmesinin sağlanması olarak tanımlanabilir. Bu çalışma kapsamında öncelikli olarak dünya ülkelerinde sokak hayvanlarının refahına yönelik genel bilgilerin yanında, özellikle yakın coğrafyamızda yer alan Ermenistan, Azerbaycan, Arnavutluk, Moldova ve Ukrayna gibi ülkelerde hayvanların refahının korunması yönündeki yetersiz uygulamalardan bahsedildi. Ayrıca Finlandiya, Hollanda, İtalya, Almanya, İngiltere ve Fransa gibi ülkelerde ileri düzeydeki çalışmalardan da özet bilgiler verildi. Ülkemizdeki İçişleri Bakanlığı, Orman ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı, Sağlık Bakanlığı, Gıda Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlıkları’nın sahipsiz hayvanların refahı ve kayıt altına alınmaları ile Elektronik Bilgi Sistemi kurulması uygulamalarına yönelik mevcut durum ve sorunlar irdelenerek, çözüm önerileri hakkında özlü bilgiler sunuldu.
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The aim of this paper is to take normative aspects of animal welfare in corporate practice from a blind spot into the spotlight, and thus connect the fields of business ethics and animal ethics. Using insights from business ethics and animal ethics, it argues that companies have a strong responsibility towards animals. Its rationale is that animals have a moral status, that moral actors have the moral obligation to take the interests of animals into account and thus, that as moral actors, companies should take the interests of animals into account, more specifically their current and future welfare. Based on this corporate responsibility, categories of corporate impact on animals in terms of welfare and longevity are offered, including normative implications for each of them. The article concludes with managerial implications for several business sectors, including the most animal-consuming and animal-welfare-threatening industry: the food sector. Welfare issues are discussed, including the issue of killing for food production.
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A obra intitulada “Estudos e conhecimentos voltados para a medicina veterinária vol.1”, publicada pela Brazilian Journals Publicações de Periódicos e Editora, apresenta um conjunto de sete capítulos que visa abordar trabalhos voltados para a medicina veterinária. Assim, os trabalhos deste livro abordam o desempenho reprodutivo de um rebanho de 36 fêmeas ovinas submetidas à estratégia alimentar denominada flushing, realizado previamente e durante o acasalamento. O próximo trabalho apresenta a construção de uma prótese para um bezerro, que foi submetido a amputação parcial do membro pelvino esquerdo, com foco de avaliar o método de fixação da prótese, resistência física e adaptação do animal, para que ele obtivesse o retorno de deambulação, proporcionando uma melhor qualidade de vida e bem-estar animal. Em seguida, o próximo trabalho relata o caso de um Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) doméstico sem sinais clínicos, parasitado por um helminto condizente com Hymenolepis diminuta, que provoca zoonose. Após, é discutida a necessidade de um estudo para realizar a catalogação das espécies de cetáceos odontocetos encalhados nas praias de Peruíbe, Litoral Sul de São Paulo, através da coleta e estudo de encalhes ocorrentes na região. Posteriormente o próximo trabalho discute a aplicação das técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura para identificar a presença de uma estrutura óssea localizada no hioide na região ventral do crânio junto com a mandíbula de indivíduos juvenis de tartarugas verdes. O penúltimo trabalho analisa o manejo da ordenha e seu efeito na qualidade bromatológica e higiênica do leite de cabra em uma cooperativa de crédito e serviços. E, por fim, o último trabalho relata o atendimento a 4 jabutis tutelados pelo Instituto, oriundos de resgate, apresentando distúrbios respiratórios, oftálmicos e piramidismo. Dessa forma, agradecemos aos autores por todo esforço e dedicação que contribuíram para a construção dessa obra, e esperamos que este livro possa colaborar para a discussão e entendimento de temas relevantes para a área da medicina veterinária, orientando docentes, estudantes, gestores e pesquisadores à reflexão sobre os assuntos aqui apresentados.
Chapter
A obra intitulada “Estudos e conhecimentos voltados para a medicina veterinária vol.1”, publicada pela Brazilian Journals Publicações de Periódicos e Editora, apresenta um conjunto de sete capítulos que visa abordar trabalhos voltados para a medicina veterinária. Assim, os trabalhos deste livro abordam o desempenho reprodutivo de um rebanho de 36 fêmeas ovinas submetidas à estratégia alimentar denominada flushing, realizado previamente e durante o acasalamento. O próximo trabalho apresenta a construção de uma prótese para um bezerro, que foi submetido a amputação parcial do membro pelvino esquerdo, com foco de avaliar o método de fixação da prótese, resistência física e adaptação do animal, para que ele obtivesse o retorno de deambulação, proporcionando uma melhor qualidade de vida e bem-estar animal. Em seguida, o próximo trabalho relata o caso de um Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) doméstico sem sinais clínicos, parasitado por um helminto condizente com Hymenolepis diminuta, que provoca zoonose. Após, é discutida a necessidade de um estudo para realizar a catalogação das espécies de cetáceos odontocetos encalhados nas praias de Peruíbe, Litoral Sul de São Paulo, através da coleta e estudo de encalhes ocorrentes na região. Posteriormente o próximo trabalho discute a aplicação das técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura para identificar a presença de uma estrutura óssea localizada no hioide na região ventral do crânio junto com a mandíbula de indivíduos juvenis de tartarugas verdes. O penúltimo trabalho analisa o manejo da ordenha e seu efeito na qualidade bromatológica e higiênica do leite de cabra em uma cooperativa de crédito e serviços. E, por fim, o último trabalho relata o atendimento a 4 jabutis tutelados pelo Instituto, oriundos de resgate, apresentando distúrbios respiratórios, oftálmicos e piramidismo. Dessa forma, agradecemos aos autores por todo esforço e dedicação que contribuíram para a construção dessa obra, e esperamos que este livro possa colaborar para a discussão e entendimento de temas relevantes para a área da medicina veterinária, orientando docentes, estudantes, gestores e pesquisadores à reflexão sobre os assuntos aqui apresentados.
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To start milk production, dairy goats need to give birth at least once. While most female kids are reared to become the next generation of dairy goats, only a small proportion of male kids (buck kids) are reared with reproduction aims. The market for buck kid meat, especially within Northern European countries, is currently relatively small compared to the number of bucks born. Therefore, the purposes for buck kids are limited and a substantial proportion of buck kid meat is used for pet food. Due to the limited economic value of buck kids, farmers are faced with a dilemma. Although raising bucks costs more money than it yields, the birth of kids is a prerequisite for production of milk and should be seen as an investment for business-wise healthy dairy goat farming. In that perspective, dairy goat farmers have an ethical responsibility toward buck kids, as well. In this paper, we compare various scenarios of dealing with the issue of surplus male animals. We provide recommendations for the rearing of buck kids based on the sector‘s experience and current practice in the Netherlands. Reducing the number of surplus (male) offspring, e.g., by an optimized prolonged lactation management and/or by artificial insemination with sex-sorted semen, could alleviate the issue of low value buck kids. Killing surplus animals before or directly after birth, on the other hand, is met with increasing societal scrutiny. Initiatives to propagate a market for buck kid meat for human consumption are important to enable a suitable and sustainable production system. To maintain the health and welfare of goat kids, amongst other factors, sufficient and good quality colostrum, milk, and an appropriate diet as they grow older, needs to be provided. One option to assure the safeguarding of health and welfare of all goat kids are quality assurance schemes for milk production. These schemes make dairy farmers accountable for the health and welfare of all kids in the rearing period, including the provision of colostrum and adequate care for newborn buck kids. We conclude that the combination of reducing the number of surplus kids, increasing the demand for goat products, and quality assurance schemes that may help to safeguard the welfare of buck kids.
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Objectives Information on knowledge of public health professionals about health aspects of the human–animal interface, referred to as One Health, is limited. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with animal welfare attitudes, practices, and One Health awareness among US Public Health Service (USPHS) officers to assess preparedness for public health response. Methods USPHS officers participated in an online, self-administered survey from February 15 through March 2, 2018. A total of 1133 of 6474 (17.5%) USPHS officers responded. We collected information on officers’ demographic characteristics, animal welfare attitudes and practices, volunteer and work exposure to animals, and One Health knowledge. We compared (1) One Health knowledge and animal work exposure (deployment, regular assignment, or none) and (2) animal welfare importance and animal work exposure. To adjust for demographic characteristics associated with One Health knowledge, we used multivariable logistic regression. Results One-third of nonveterinary officers reported encountering animals during deployment, and 65% reported that animal welfare was very or extremely important. We found no difference in One Health knowledge between nonveterinary officers who participated in deployments involving animals and nonveterinary officers who had no work exposure to animals (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.71-1.75). Nonveterinary officers who participated in animal-related public health activities during regular assignment were more likely to have One Health knowledge than nonveterinary officers who had no work exposure to animals (aOR = 7.88; 95% CI, 5.36-11.59). Conclusions One Health knowledge and awareness should be further explored in the current US public health workforce to identify training needs for emergency preparedness and other collaborative opportunities.
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Many researchers believe that the concept of adaptation is useful for understanding the human mind and human behavior.1-7 These researchers agree that adaptations are design features of organisms that evolved because they enhanced fitness in ancestral environments. They see the psychological mechanisms that make up the human mind as evolved adaptations. Further they are convinced that these adaptations are more likely to produce adaptive effects in environments similar to ancestral ones. In other words, the more similar the present environment to the ancestral one, the more likely the adaptation is to confer the reproductive advantage that led to its evolution. On the other hand, adaptations are less likely to confer an adaptive advantage in novel environments. Despite these shared views, the question of exactly how to characterize these expectations has led to a major disagreement among researchers who study human behavior and psychology from an evolutionary perspective. One group, whose members label themselves evolutionary psychologists, has dealt with this problem by elaborating the concept of the environment of evolutionary adaptedness, (EEA).8-9 Other researchers, who are variously labeled behavioral ecologists, evolutionary ecologists, sociobiologists, or human paleontologists, have tended to question the value of this concept.10-14 In this paper, I review and critique the concept of the EEA and the associated evolutionary psychological view that the human mind consists of many specific-purpose decision-making mechanisms rather than just a few general-purpose ones. I then suggest an alternative to the EEA concept that I believe will serve better the purpose of modeling the relationship between adaptations and environments. I see this concept as a more logical complement than the EEA to the view that the human mind consists of many specific mechanisms. I refer to this new concept as the adaptively relevant environment (ARE). The expression "relevant environment" may also serve as a shorter label. The key idea motivating the ARE concept is that an organism consist of a large number of special-purpose adaptations, each interacting with only a part of the organism's environment. Thus, when a particular element of an environment changes, it is likely to affect some adaptations but not others. Logically, this idea is closely related to the idea that evolutionary change is mosaic: In the course of evolutionary change, some aspects of organisms change while others remain the same. In order to understand an adaptation fully at the proximate level, we need to study its design, the structure of its relevant environment, and the interaction of the two. Before proceeding, a word of caution is necessary regarding the label evolutionary psychology. The label has both a broad and a narrow meaning. In its narrow meaning, it refers to the research program of scholars such as Barkow, Cosmides, Symons, and Tooby who rely heavily on the EEA and associated concepts and who insist that others who do not share this emphasis are not strict Darwinians or true adaptationists.2 However, many writers use the terms in a broader sense that includes all recent attempts to study human behavior and psychology in evolutionary terms. Robert Wright's recent book, The Moral Animal,15 uses the word in this broader sense.
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Observation of behaviour, especially social behaviour, and experimental studies of learning and brain function give us information about the complexity of concepts that animals have. In order to learn to obtain a resource or carry out an action, domestic animals may: relate stimuli such as human words to the reward, perform sequences of actions including navigation or detours, discriminate amongst other individuals, copy the actions of other individuals, distinguish between individuals who do or do not have information, or communicate so as to cause humans or other animals to carry out actions. Some parrots, that are accustomed to humans but not domesticated, can use words to have specific meanings. In some cases, stimuli, individuals or actions are remembered for days, weeks or years. Events likely to occur in the future may be predicted and changes over time taken into account. Scientific evidence for the needs of animals depends, in part, on studies assessing motivational strength whose methodology depends on the cognitive ability of the animals.
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There are many definitions of animal welfare. These do not only differ in their meaning, but also in their function for making a broad concept accessible for scientific research. Lexical [dictionary] definitions establish what the common meaning is of the concept to be studied, and help to find some concrete phenomena which are related to the often vague and general descriptive terms. Explanatory definitions provide an elementary theoretical background for studying the phenomena. Operational definitions contain the parameters used in concrete measurements. In each step we reduce the concept to more measurable elements but lose other elements of the concept. In the case of animal welfare this results in an evolution of definitions which makes animal welfare more objectively assessable. But it also results in an erosion: development of a confusing diversity in parameters and a loss of the moral aspect of the concept of animal welfare. This erosion has a negative influence on political decisionmaking. It is important to recognize the possibilities and limitations of problem solving, based on 'animal welfare science'.
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Although the term 'quality of life' (QoL) is not unfamiliar to veterinary surgeons, only recently has the scientific community attempted to measure it in farm and companion animals. Typically such studies have applied methodologies from the field of human health-related quality of life (HRQoL), without due consideration of the applicability of both the term and its measurement to animals. However, it is necessary to clarify the philosophical basis of QoL if it is to be defended as a rigorous and reliable aid to decision-making in animal welfare science. In this paper we review common concepts in human HRQoL and discuss the value of, and difficulties regarding, the transfer of the concept of human HRQoL to companion animals. Human definitions tend to focus on individuals and their assessment of the state of their life in terms of physical, social and psychological functioning. The use of the term 'quality of life' for animals may therefore expand on what is usually considered when using the term 'welfare', and thereby improve on current practice, which tends to focus on relatively few outcome measures that are largely indicative of poor welfare. However, failure in the human literature to properly define QoL and defend the choice of measures accordingly, together with the common use of objective indicators and proxies, has led to confusion over the relative roles of objective and subjective measures in the determination and constitution of QoL. A suggestion for an appropriate definition of animal QoL that clarifies these relationships is offered, together with a list of social/environmental and physical/psychological health-related domains that may be suitable for a generic companion animal QoL assessment tool. In the absence of knowledge on both basic needs and individual preferences, particularly for institutionalised animals, QoL tools may be more appropriately designed as outcome-based tools, focussing on observable signs of health and behaviour. The extent to which recent QoL assessment tools for companion animals have covered these domains, and the extent to which the psychometric properties of the tools have been addressed, is also briefly discussed.
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In this paper, we present and defend the theoretical framework of an empirical model to describe people’s fundamental moral attitudes (FMAs) to animals, the stratification of FMAs in society and the role of FMAs in judgment on the culling of healthy animals in an animal disease epidemic. We used philosophical animal ethics theories to understand the moral basis of FMA convictions. Moreover, these theories provide us with a moral language for communication between animal ethics, FMAs, and public debates. We defend that FMA is a two-layered concept. The first layer consists of deeply felt convictions about animals. The second layer consists of convictions derived from the first layer to serve as arguments in a debate on animal issues. In a debate, the latter convictions are variable, depending on the animal issue in a specific context, time, and place. This variability facilitates finding common ground in an animal issue between actors with opposing convictions.
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Evolutionary biologists often use phenotypic differences between species and between individuals to gain an understanding of organismal design. The focus of much recent attention has been on developmental plasticity – the environmentally induced variability during development within a single genotype. The phenotypic variation expressed by single reproductively mature organisms throughout their life, traditionally the subject of many physiological studies, has remained underexploited in evolutionary biology. Phenotypic flexibility, the reversible within-individual variation, is a function of environmental conditions varying predictably (e.g. with season), or of more stochastic fluctuations in the environment. Here, we provide a common framework to bring the different categories of phenotypic plasticity together, and emphasize perspectives on adaptation that reversible types of plasticity might provide. We argue that better recognition and use of the various levels of phenotypic variation will increase the scope for phenotypic experimentation, comparison and integration.
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A better understanding of animal emotion is an important goal in disciplines ranging from neuroscience to animal welfare science. The conscious experience of emotion cannot be assessed directly, but neural, behavioural and physiological indicators of emotion can be measured. Researchers have used these measures to characterize how animals respond to situations assumed to induce discrete emotional states (e.g. fear). While advancing our understanding of specific emotions, this discrete emotion approach lacks an overarching framework that can incorporate and integrate the wide range of possible emotional states. Dimensional approaches that conceptualize emotions in terms of universal core affective characteristics (e.g. valence (positivity versus negativity) and arousal) can provide such a framework. Here, we bring together discrete and dimensional approaches to: (i) offer a structure for integrating different discrete emotions that provides a functional perspective on the adaptive value of emotional states, (ii) suggest how long-term mood states arise from short-term discrete emotions, how they also influence these discrete emotions through a bi-directional relationship and how they may function to guide decision-making, and (iii) generate novel hypothesis-driven measures of animal emotion and mood.
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Welfare concerns that matter to animals is their state of need. Satisfaction and frustration of needs are associated with emotional states, the subjective experience of which directly determines the welfare status of an animal. Because emotional states are difficult to assess, overall welfare assessment (OWA) is best approached as an assessment of needs. For actual OWA, a list of needs must be formulated. Different authors have formulated different lists. From these lists a concept need-list was constructed. For validation the needs-based approach for OWA was discussed in interviews with experts (n=21) in the field of ethology and other welfare related sciences. These experts generally used mental terminology to define welfare, but when asked to classify their definition of welfare, many preferred a definition in terms of measurable parameters or a combination of both mental terms (feelings) and measurables. Most experts believed that welfare can be assessed objectively and that the problem of OWA is indeed best approached through an assessment of needs. Experts differ as to the exact composition of the list of needs. A list of needs is formulated which we intend to use for OWA in the case of sows.
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In the field of anxiety research, animal models are used as screening tools in the search for compounds with therapeutic potential and as simulations for research on mechanism underlying emotional behaviour. However, a solely pharmacological approach to the validation of such tests has resulted in distinct problems with their applicability to systems other than those involving the benzodiazepine/GABAA receptor complex. In this context, recent developments in our understanding of mammalian defensive behaviour have not only prompted the development of new models but also attempts to refine existing ones. The present review focuses on the application of ethological techniques to one of the most widely used animal models of anxiety, the elevated plus-maze paradigm. This fresh approach to an established test has revealed a hitherto unrecognized multidimensionality to plus-maze behaviour and, as it yields comprehensive behavioural profiles, has many advantages over conventional methodology. This assertion is supported by reference to recent work on the effects of diverse manipulations including psychosocial stress, benzodiazepines, GABA receptor ligands, neurosteroids, 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and panicolytic/panicogenic agents. On the basis of this review, it is suggested that other models of anxiety may well benefit from greater attention to behavioural detail.
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Exposure to novelty has been shown to induce anxiety responses in a variety of behavioural paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exposition of naïve rats to novelty would result in a comparable or a different pattern of responses in an open space versus enclosed space with or without the presence of an object in the centre of the field. Lewis and Wistar rats of both genders were used to illustrate and discuss the value and validity of these anxiety paradigms. We examined a wide range of measures, which cover several aspects of animals’ responses.
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Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current science of animal welfare is less scientific than what has been claimed. In our view, it is overly guided by anthropocentric thinking about how animals ought to be handled and neglects the latest concept of physiology: 'The Allostasis Concept'. Allostasis, which means stability through change, has the potential to replace homeostasis as the core model of physiological regulation. Not constancy or freedoms, but capacity to change is crucial to good physical and mental health and good animal welfare. Therefore, not homeostasis but allostasis is at the basis of our new animal welfare concept. This paper is aimed at a broader scientific discussion of animal welfare that includes knowledge from the latest scientific developments in neurobiology and behavioral physiology, and generates views that are extremely relevant for the animal welfare discussion.
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Increased production has been the major goal of animal breeding for many decades, and the correlated side-effects have grown to become a major issue in animal welfare. In this paper, the main genetic mechanisms in which such side-effects may occur are reviewed with examples from our own research in chickens. Pleiotropy, linkage and regulatory pathways are the most important means by which a number of traits may be affected simultaneously by the same selection pressure. Pleiotropy can be exemplified by the gene PMEL17 which causes a lack of black pigmentation in chickens and, simultaneously, predisposes them to become the victims of feather pecking. Linkage is a probable reason why a limited region on chicken chromosome 1 affects many different traits, such as growth, reproduction and fear-related behaviour. Gene regulation is affected by stress, and may cause modifications in behaviour and phenotype which are transferred from parents to offspring by means of epigenetic modifications. Insights into phenomena, such as these, may increase our understanding not only of how artificial selection works, but also evolution at large.
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This paper discusses the current state of development of on-farm cattle welfare assessment systems with special regard to the approach of Welfare Quality® that focuses on animal-related measures. The central criteria validity, reliability and feasibility are considered with regard to selected welfare measures. All welfare measures incorporated into the Welfare Quality® protocol possess face validity, but for most of them construct or criterion validity as, eg shown for lameness, have not been demonstrated. Exemplarily the cases of qualitative behaviour assessment and measurement of avoidance distance towards humans or social licking are discussed. Reliability issues have often been neglected in the past and require more thorough investigation and discussion in the future, especially with respect to appropriate test statistics and limits of acceptability. Means of improving reliability are the refinement of definitions or recording methods and training. Consistency of results over time requires further attention, especially if farms are to be certified, based on infrequent recordings. Considering feasibility, time constraints are the main concern for assessment systems that focus seriously on animal-based measures; currently they require several hours of on-farm recordings, eg about 6 h for a herd of 60 dairy cows. The Welfare Quality® project has promoted knowledge and discussion about validity, reliability and feasibility issues. Many welfare measures applied in the Welfare Quality® on-farm assessment approach can be regarded sufficiently valid, reliable and feasible. However, there are still a considerable number of challenges. They should be tackled while using the present assessment system in order to constantly improve it.
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Assessing the experience of pain in animals is a difficult task, yet one that is important in animal welfare research. Some approaches to pain assessment in animals are reviewed here. General qualities of pain scales and specific parameters suitable for clinical and experimental pain assessments are discussed. It is argued that pain assessment will progress through an integration of objective and subjective observations of behaviour coupled with multiple measures in various other areas. Such multidimensional pain scales allow an adequate characterisation of the complexity of an individual animal's pain experience to be made. This knowledge improves the recognition and treatment of pain and will allow informed moral debate on the acceptability of practices such as castration and tail-docking of lambs.
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The scientific study of animal welfare has generated a welter of complex, equivocal and often contradictory results. Consequently, there is little agreement about how impairment of welfare should be measured. While some solutions to this have been suggested, these have usually relied on more sophisticated versions of, or more control over, existing measures. However, we argue that the difficulties arise because of questionable assumptions in the definition and measurement of welfare, in particular the measurement of suffering and the assumed importance of individual well-being. We contend that welfare can be interpreted only in terms of what natural selection has designed an organism to do and how circumstances impinge on its functional design. Organisms are designed for self-expenditure and the relative importance of self-preservation and survival, and the concomitant investment of time and resources in different activities, varies with life history strategy. The traditional notions of coping and stress are anthropomorphisms based on homeostatic mechanisms of self-preservation in a long-lived species. Suffering-like states are viewed as generalized subjective states that are geared to avoiding deleterious circumstances with which the organism does not have specific adaptive mechanisms to deal. Attempts to measure suffering-like states directly are likely to remain inconclusive, at least for the foreseeable future, because such states are private and subjective, may take many forms fundamentally different from our own and are likely to depend on the operation of phenotype-limited priorities and decision rules. However, measuring the impact of circumstances on functional design via the organism's decision rules provides a practicable means of giving benefit of the doubt by indicating when suffering, or an analogous subjective state, is likely.
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The impact of animal welfare on the food chain is considerable. Firstly, an animal's welfare, its health status, level of stress prior to slaughter etc. has a direct impact on the quality of the product from that animal. The second impact is via citizens, whose strong commitment to animal welfare has led to increasing EU policy in the area. The third is by consumers concerned about the welfare quality of the products they buy. Although linked to food safety, this concern incorporates the whole area of animal welfare including the different criteria inherent in the concept of good animal welfare.
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Can suffering in non-human animals be studied scientifically? Apart from verbal reports of subjective feelings, which are uniquely human, I argue that it is possible to study the negative emotions we refer to as suffering by the same methods we use in ourselves. In particular, by asking animals what they find positively and negatively reinforcing (what they want and do not want), we can define positive and negative emotional states. Such emotional states may or may not be accompanied by subjective feelings but fortunately it is not necessary to solve the problem of consciousness to construct a scientific study of suffering and welfare. Improvements in animal welfare can be based on the answers to two questions: Q1: Will it improve animal health? and Q2: Will it give the animals something they want? This apparently simple formulation has the advantage of capturing what most people mean by ‘improving welfare’ and so halting a potentially dangerous split between scientific and non-scientific definitions of welfare. It can also be used to validate other controversial approaches to welfare such as naturalness, stereotypies, physiological and biochemical measures. Health and what animals want are thus not just two of many measures of welfare. They provide the definition of welfare against which others can be validated. They also tell us what research we have to do and how we can judge whether welfare of animals has been genuinely improved. What is important, however, is for this research to be done in situ so that it is directly applicable to the real world of farming, the sea or an animal’s wild habitat. It is here that ethology can make major contributions.
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Living things are not created identical: In sexually reproducing species, individuals—except monozygotic twins—are different. Although widely acknowledged, behavioral individuality has received relatively little empirical or theoretical attention. Yet it seems likely that research focusing on individual differences will yield important insights for evolutionarily minded students of behavioral biology, including those interested in better understanding Homo sapiens.
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Although the study of adaptation is central to biology, two types of adaptation are recognized in the biological field: physiological adaptation (accommodation or acclimation; an individual organism’s phenotype is adjusted to its environment) and evolutionary–biological adaptation (adaptation is shaped by natural selection acting on genetic variation). The history of the former concept dates to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and has more recently been systemized in the twenty-first century. Approaches to the understanding of phenotypic plasticity and learning behavior have only recently been developed, based on cellular–histological and behavioral–neurobiological techniques as well as traditional molecular biology. New developments of the former concepts in phenotypic plasticity are discussed in bacterial persistence, wing di-/polymorphism with transgenerational effects, polyphenism in social insects, and defense traits for predator avoidance, including molecular biology analyses. We also discuss new studies on the concept of genetic accommodation resulting in evolution of phenotypic plasticity through a transgenerational change in the reaction norm based on a threshold model. Learning behavior can also be understood as physiological phenotypic plasticity, associating with the brain–nervous system, and it drives the accelerated evolutionary change in behavioral response (the Baldwin effect) with memory stock. Furthermore, choice behaviors are widely seen in decision-making of animal foragers. Incorporating flexible phenotypic plasticity and learning behavior into modeling can drastically change dynamical behavior of the system. Unification of biological sciences will be facilitated and integrated, such as behavioral ecology and behavioral neurobiology in the area of learning, and evolutionary ecology and molecular developmental biology in the theme of phenotypic plasticity.
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The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare assessment. Natural behavior may be defined as behavior that animals have a tendency to exhibit under natural conditions, because these behaviors are pleasurable and promote biological functioning. Animal welfare is the quality of life as perceived by the animal. Animals have evolved cognitive-emotional systems (“welfare needs”) to deal with a variable environment. Animals do not only have so-called physiological needs such as the need for food, water, and thermal comfort. They also need to exercise certain natural behaviors such as rooting or nest-building in pigs, and scratching or dust-bathing in poultry. All needs must be taken into account in order to assess overall welfare. The degree of need satisfaction and frustration can be assessed from scientific information about the intensity, duration, and incidence of (welfare) performance criteria such as measurements of behavior and/or (patho)physiology. Positive welfare value relates to how animals are inclined to behave under natural conditions, in preference tests, and in consumer-demand studies. Negative welfare value relates to stress, frustration, abnormal behavior, aggression, and reduced fitness. Examples are given to illustrate how the need to perform natural behaviors can be assessed following the general principles for welfare assessment, providing a first approximation of how different natural behaviors affect animal welfare.
Article
In animals, including humans, free access to high-quality (generally energy-dense) food can result in obesity, leading to physiological and health problems. Consequently, various captive animals, including laboratory and companion animals and certain farm animals, are often kept on a restricted diet. Quantitative restriction of food is associated with signs of hunger such as increases in feeding motivation, activity and redirected oral behaviours which may develop into stereotypies. An alternative approach to energy intake restriction is to provide more food, but of a reduced quality. Such alternative diets are usually high in fibre and have lower energy density. The benefits of these alternative diets for animals are controversial: some authors argue that they result in more normal feeding behaviour, promote satiety and so improve animal welfare; others argue that ‘metabolic hunger’ remains no matter how the restriction of energy intake and weight gain is achieved. We discuss the different arguments behind this controversy, focusing on two well-researched cases of food-restricted farmed livestock: pregnant sows and broiler breeders. Disagreement between experts results from differences in assumptions about what determines and controls feeding behaviour and food intake, from the methodology of assessing animal hunger and from the weighting placed on ‘naturalness’ of behaviour as a determinant of welfare. Problems with commonly used behavioural and physiological measures of hunger are discussed. Future research into animal feeding preferences, in particular the relative weight placed on food quantity and quality, would be valuable, alongside more fundamental research into the changes in feeding physiology associated with alternative diets.
Article
1. Due to intensive selection, broiler chickens became the most efficient meat-producing animals because of their fast growth, supported by a virtually unlimited voluntary feed intake. These characteristics cause many problems in the management of broiler breeder hens because of the negative correlation between muscle growth and reproduction effectiveness. 2. This problem, namely the fast muscle growth versus reproduction health paradox, induces a second paradox, acceptable reproduction and health versus hunger stress and impaired welfare, because broiler breeder hens require dedicated programmes of feed restriction (1) to maximise egg and chick production and (2) to avoid metabolic disorders and mortality in broiler breeders. 3. Given that poultry selection is a global large-scale business and chickens are a prolific species, improvement in profit can only be obtained by selecting on feed conversion and/or for higher breast meat percentage, which will intensify the broiler-breeder paradox. 4. New feeding strategies are being studied, but it is questionable if the paradox can be solved by management tools alone. Because breeding and selection are long-term processes, involving animals, farmers, consumers, industry, environment etc., a more sustainable breeding goal needs to be determined by a multidisciplinary approach and an open debate between several actors in the discussion. 5. Using dwarf broiler breeder hens could be one alternative, because dwarf hens combine relatively good reproductive fitness with ad libitum feeding. Another possibility is to accept lower broiler productivity by assigning economic values to welfare and including integrity traits in an extended breeding goal.
Article
The demand for replicability of behavioral results across laboratories is viewed as a burden in behavior genetics. We demonstrate how it can become an asset offering a quantitative criterion that guides the design of better ways to describe behavior. Passing the high benchmark dictated by the replicability demand requires less stressful and less restraining experimental setups, less noisy data, individually customized cutoff points between the building blocks of movement, and less variable yet discriminative dynamic representations that would capture more faithfully the nature of the behavior, unmasking similarities and differences and revealing novel animal-centered measures. Here we review ten tools that enhance replicability without compromising discrimination. While we demonstrate the usefulness of these tools in the context of inbred mouse exploratory behavior they can readily be used in any study involving a high-resolution analysis of spatial behavior. Viewing replicability as a design concept and using the ten methodological improvements may prove useful in many fields not necessarily related to spatial behavior.
Article
Animal-welfare issues are usually portrayed in the media in a black-and-white fashion, with simple, single-perspective solutions proposed for what are often, in fact, complex policy issues. In this article, we argue that animal welfare is a multifaceted international and domestic public-policy issue that must take account of not only scientific, ethical, and economic issues but also religious, cultural, and international trade policy considerations. Management of animal welfare at a government policy level also requires an approach based on incremental change. Such change must be both science based and ethically principled, and the rate of change must recognize both the expectations of society and the constraints on the animal user. Ideally, such change should involve full ownership and buy-in from the affected animal user group. The range of stakeholders involved in the animal-welfare debate includes industry and producer groups, science bodies, and animal-welfare non-governmental organizations and professional groups, including the veterinary and legal professions. The veterinary profession, in particular, is expected to play an animal-welfare leadership role, and we discuss expectation versus reality at both a national and an international level. This latter discussion includes specific reference to the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (the OIE) as an intergovernmental organization representing 175 countries and details some of the major achievements since the OIE assumed its international animal-welfare standard-setting role in 2002. We also address the role of the veterinary profession at national, regional, and international levels.
Article
Various studies have shown the associations between differences in human behavioral traits and genetic polymorphism of neurotransmitter-related proteins such as receptors, transporters and monoamine oxidase. To clarify the genetic background of animal behavior, corresponding regions in animals have been analyzed. The study has been especially focused on primates, as the evolutionally closest animal to humans, and on dogs, as the socially closest animal to humans. In primates, polymorphisms were discovered between or within species, and the functional effects on neural transmission were found to be different by alleles. Even in apes, the closest species to humans, function was different from that in humans. In dogs, allele distributions of several genes were different among breeds showing different behavioral traits, and genes associated with individual differences in aggressiveness and aptitude of working dogs were surveyed. The survey of behavior-related genes has also been carried out in other mammals such as horses and cetaceans. Genes controlling various behaviors in birds have also been reported. The marker genes for behavior will provide useful information for human evolution, welfare of zoo animals and effective selection of working dogs and industry animals.
Article
There remains a lack of a clear overarching policy framework for decision-making in pest control programmes. In comparison, ethical principles have been extensively developed for scientific procedures, such as those underlying the UK's Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. This paper assesses the extent to which the principles and methodology underlying the act and secondary guidance could be used to provide principles of rodent management. Useful principles include that any programme has a legitimate purpose; that methods are used only if the harms are outweighed by the benefits; that harms are minimised by refinement, replacement and reduction and that there is personal responsibility. The usefulness and implications for pest control of each principle and the overall approach are discussed.
Article
Normal anxiety is an adaptive emotional response. However, when anxiety appears to lack adaptive value, it might be defined as pathological. Adaptation in animals can be assessed for example by changes in behavioural responses over time, i.e. habituation. We hypothesize that non-adaptive anxiety might be reflected by impaired habituation. To test our hypothesis, we repeatedly exposed male mice from two inbred strains to a novel environment, the modified hole board. BALB/cJ mice were found to be initially highly anxious, but subsequently habituated to the test environment. In contrast, 129P3/J mice initially showed less anxiety-related behaviour compared with the BALB/cJ mice but no habituation in anxiety-related behaviour was observed. Notably, anxiety-related behaviour even increased during the experimental period. Complementary, 129P3/J mice did not show habituation in other parameters such as locomotor and exploratory activity, whereas significant changes appeared in these behaviours in BALB/c mice. Finally, the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos differed between the two strains in distinct brain areas, known to regulate the integration of emotional and cognitive processes. These results suggest that 129P3/J mice might be a promising (neuro)-behavioural animal model for non-adaptive, i.e. pathological anxiety.
Article
Join a global conversation at http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2008/12/10/alex-jadad-on-defining-health/ On 7 April 1948, the member states of the United Nations ratified the creation of the World Health Organization. It was set up with the fundamental objective of “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.” This lofty goal was coupled with an equally ambitious opening statement that defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”1 This definition invited nations to expand the conceptual framework of their health systems beyond the traditional boundaries set by the physical condition of individuals and their diseases, and it forced us to pay attention to what we now call social determinants of health. Consequently, WHO challenged political, academic, community, and professional organisations devoted to …