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Neonothopanus gardneri: A new combination for a bioluminescent agaric from Brazil


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The bioluminescent agaric, Agaricus gardneri Berk., was rediscovered recently in central Brazil. The new combination, Neonothopanus gardneri, is proposed for this long-forgotten taxon supported by morphological and molecular data.
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Neonothopanus gardneri
: a new combination
for a bioluminescent agaric from Brazil
Marina Capelari
Nu´ cleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botaˆnica,
Caixa Postal 3005, 01031-970 Sa˜o Paulo, SP, Brazil
Dennis E. Desjardin
Department of Biology, San Francisco State University,
San Francisco, California 94132
Brian A. Perry
Department of Biology, University of Hawaii at Hilo,
Hilo, Hawaii 96720
Tatiane Asai
Nu´ cleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botaˆnica,
Caixa Postal 3005, 01031-970 Sa˜o Paulo, SP, Brazil
Cassius V. Stevani
Departamento de Quı
mica Fundamental, Instituto de
mica, Universidade de Sa˜o Paulo, Caixa Postal
26077, 05599-970 Sa˜o Paulo, SP, Brazil
: The bioluminescent agaric,
Agaricus gard-
Berk., was rediscovered recently in central Brazil.
The new combination,
Neonothopanus gardneri
proposed for this long-forgotten taxon supported by
morphological and molecular data.
Key words:
Agaricales, Basidiomycota, biolumi-
nescence, omphalotoid clade, taxonomy
In 1840 George Gardner published a short paper
titled ‘‘Description of a new phosphorescent species
’’ wherein he recounted observing boys
amusing themselves with a luminous object in the
streets of Vila de Natividade, Goia´s State, Brazil
(Gardner 1840). Gardner at first thought the object
was some sort of large firefly, but on closer inspection
he recognized it as a species of
belonging to
of Fries. The locals called it ‘‘flor-de-
coco’’ and noted that it grew abundantly on decaying
fronds of a dwarf palm that they called ‘‘pindoba’’.
Gardner sent a brief description and drawing of the
luminous agaric to M.J. Berkeley at Kew and indicated
that if the species was new he intended to name it
Agaricus phosphorescens
. Berkeley responded that the
species indeed was new and was referable to Fries’
new genus
species with coriaceous texture) but that he
(Berkeley) thought
A. phosphorescens
was not an
appropriate epithet because phosphorescence (lumi-
nescence) was not unique to the new species.
Berkeley suggested that the taxon should be named
after the collector. Hence in Gardner’s paper
(Gardner 1840) the new luminescent agaric was
described formally as
Agaricus gardneri
Berk. ex
Gardner. Three years later Berkeley (1843) reported
the species as
in his
‘‘Notices of some Brazilian fungi’’. Saccardo (1887)
transferred it as
Pleurotus gardneri
(Berk. ex Gardner)
Sacc., repeating the Latin diagnosis of Gardner and
reporting the species from Brazil as well as from
Queensland, Australia. Saccardo was undoubtedly
following Berkeley and Broome (1879) who reported
A. gardneri
from Brisbane, although the latter was a
misapplied name for
Omphalotus nidiformis
, a com-
monly encountered luminescent agaric in Queens-
land (cf. May and Wood 1997).
Pegler (1988) provided a revised description of the
species based on his examination of type material
labeled by Berkeley as
A. gardneri
(K), and noted that
‘‘the overall caespitose habit, the woody substratum,
spore form and the properties of luminescence are
also typical of
Omphalotus olearius
Pegler added that distinguishing
A. gardneri
as a
distinct species or as a yellow, geographical variant of
O. olearius
would require examination of fresh
material, unavailable at the time. Ample fresh
material of this long-forgotten luminescent species
was collected recently from Piauı´ and Tocantins
states, Brazil, allowing a re-evaluation of its taxonomic
affinities. We herein transfer
A. gardneri
to the genus
based on a combination of morpho-
logical and molecular data.
Morphological study.—
Microscopic analyses were made
from dried material rehydrated in 70% ethanol followed
by 5% KOH and stained with Melzer’s reagent. Q
represents the mean length/width quotient of all spores
measured. Colors notations correspond to those of Ku¨ppers
(1979). All specimens are deposited in the Herba´rio do
Instituto de Botaˆnica (SP).
Molecular study.—
To elucidate the relationships of
nothopanus gardneri
to members of the omphalotoid clade
(Moncalvo et al. 2000, 2002) ITS and nLSU sequence data
were generated from recently collected material and
analyzed within a phylogenetic framework.
Submitted 28 Mar 2011; accepted for publication 3 May 2011.
Corresponding author. E-mail:
103(6), 2011, pp. 1433–1440. DOI: 10.3852/11-097
2011 by The Mycological Society of America, Lawrence, KS 66044-8897
DNA extraction followed an adapted protocol of Ferreira
and Grattapaglia (1995) using lyophilized basidiomata
ground to a fine powder in liquid nitrogen. The sample
was resuspended in 50
mL TE, incubated at 37 C for 30 min
after the addition of RNase A (0.01 mg/
mL) and stored at
220 C. The ITS and nLSU regions were amplified
respectively with the primer set ITS1F/ITS4 and LR0R/
LR5 (White et al. 1990, Gardes and Bruns 1993, Moncalvo et
al. 2000). PCR reactions contained these concentrations in
mL final volume: 2.0 U PlatinumH Taq DNA Polymerase
(Invitrogen), 0.2 mM of each dNTP, 1.5 mM MgCl
mM of each primer. PCR protocols consisted of a 5 min
denaturation step at 94 C, followed by 40 cycles of 40 s at
94 C, 30 s at 55 C and 60 s at 72 C, and final extension step
of 72 C for 5 min. Resulting PCR product was purified with
PureLink PCR Purification Kit (Invitrogen). DNA sequenc-
ing reactions were performed with the DYEnamic ET dye
terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit on a MegaBACE 1000
DNA sequencer (Molecular Dynamics) according to the
manufacturer’s instructions. Consensus sequences were
generated with the Phred/Phrap/Consed package (Ewing
et al. 1998, Ewing and Green 1998, Gordon et al. 1998).
Edited ITS and nLSU sequences of
N. gardneri
deposited in GenBank (T
Sequences of
N. gardneri
were aligned manually to
other sequences of the omphalotoid clade (T
ABLE I) with
MacClade 4 (Maddison and Maddison 2000). Phylogenetic
analyses were performed with parsimony, maximum
likelihood and Bayesian methods. Parsimony searches
were performed in PAUP* 4.0 (Swofford 2003), using a
branch-and-bound algorithm with furthest sequence addi-
tion, M
ULTREES on, collapse of zero length branches and
equal weighting of all characters. Support of individual
clades was assessed by bootstrap (BS) analyses (Felsenstein
1985), using 500 branch-and-bound replicates with the
same parameter settings as above. Maximum likelihood
(ML) searches also were conducted in PAUP*, under a
GTR + I + G model of sequence evolution determined
with the Akaike information criterion as calculated in
Modeltest 3.7 (Posada and Crandall 1998), with starting
trees obtained via neighbor joining, TBR branch swap-
ping, M
ULTREES on, and all parameter values estimated by
the program. Clade support was assessed by nonparamet-
ric ML bootstrap (BS) analyses as implemented in Garli
(Zwickl 2006) and consisted of 1000 replicates run under
the same model of sequence evolution as the ML search,
with all parameters estimated by the program. Bayesian
analyses to obtain posterior probabilities (PP) were
performed with MCMCMC methods as implemented in
MrBayes 3.1.2 (Huelsenbeck and Ronquist 2001, Ronquist
and Huelsenbeck 2003) using the same model as the ML
analyses. Bayesian analyses consisted of two parallel
searches, run 2 000 000 generations and initiated with
random starting trees. Chains were sampled from the
posterior distribution every 200 generations for a total of
10 000 trees each. All trees sampled before the distribu-
tion reaching a spit deviation frequency of 0.01 were
discarded as the burn-in, while the remaining trees were
used to calculate posterior probabilities (PP) of the
individual clades. The default settings were used in
MrBayes to set the incremental heating scheme, uncon-
strained branch lengths and uninformative topology
priors. Sequence alignment was submitted to TreeBASE
(submission number 11243).
Molecular analysis.—
After excluding regions
deemed too ambiguous for alignment the ITS
dataset consists of 652 aligned positions for 16
ingroup taxa and contains 207 parsimony informa-
tive positions. The nLSU dataset includes 761
aligned positions for 13 ingroup taxa and contains
58 parsimony informative positions. For both data-
sets a sequence of
sp. was used as an
outgroup taxon for rooting purposes. Parsimony
analyses of both datasets results in topologically
similar trees. Before combining the ITS and nLSU
data parsimony bootstrap analyses were performed
(as described above) to determine whether either
data partition recovers well supported taxonomic
groupings that conflict with those recovered by the
other partition. Once a lack of taxonomic conflict
was determined the ITS and nLSU data were
combined. Parsimony analyses of the combined data
recovered three trees of 1000 steps (CI 5 0.6780, RI
5 5619), differing only in the placement of several
taxa within a clade corresponding to the genus
. Maximum likelihood (ML) analyses
recovered a single tree (F
IG.1) (2 ln 5
4596.33572) identical in topology to one of the
trees recovered by parsimony analysis. Bayesian
analyses reached an average standard deviation of
split frequencies below 0.01 after approximately
170 000 generations. The first 2500 trees sampled
were excluded as the burn-in.
Neonothopanus gardneri
is moderately supported as
the sister taxon to
Neonothopanus nambi
in our
analyses (70% ML-BS, 0.91 Bayesian PP). The
clade is weakly supported as the sister
clade to a well supported
(96% BS, 1.0
PP) represented by eight taxa. Both species of
included in the analyses,
A. archeri
A. lateritium
, are well supported as sister taxa
(99% BS, 1.0 PP), whereas the two species of
G. contrarius
G. dryophilus
do not form a monophyletic lineage.
is weakly supported in a position subtend-
ing the
species, and
G. dryophilus
falls out in a well supported clade with
Rhodocollybia maculata
(100% BS, 0.99
Neonothopanus gardneri
did not form a mono-
phyletic lineage with
species in any
analyses; instead it was sister to
N. nambi
with varied
statistical support in all analyses.
1434 M
Neonothopanus gardneri (Berk. ex Gardner) Cape-
lari, Desjardin, Perry, Asai & Stevani, comb. nov.
MycoBank MB519818
Basionym: Agaricus gardneri
Berk. ex Gardner, J. Bot.
(Hooker) 2:427 (1840).
Synonyms: Pleurotus gardneri
(Berk. ex Gardner)
Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5:352 (1887).
Dendrosarcus gardneri
(Berk. ex Gardner) Kuntze,
Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 3:464 (1898).
Pileus 10–90 mm diam, convex to applanate with a
small umbo when young, applanate to depressed or
infundibuliform when mature, smooth, glabrous,
hygrophanous; margin irregular, sometimes lacerate
or lobate, striatulate; yellow (N
) overall when
young, the disk darker yellow (N
margin paler yellow (N
), sometimes fading
on the margin to buff or nearly white, sometimes with
small scattered brownish spots. Context fleshy, thick,
cream to pale yellow (N
). Lamellae deeply
decurrent, distant with 2–3(–5) series of lamellulae,
broad (3–7 mm); edges entire, yellow, concolorous
with pileus margin (N
), becoming paler with
age. Stipe 30–50 3 8–15 mm, eccentric or sometimes
central, cylindrical to narrowed toward the base, solid,
tough, fibrous, smooth or reticulate near lamellae
ends, light yellow, concolorous with the pileus surface
) above, base darker with
brown tones; partial veil absent. Flavor not recorded.
Odor pleasant. Pileus and lamellae strongly lumines-
cent (bright yellowish green; F
IG. 2b, d); mycelium
luminescent (F
IG. 2f).
Basidiospores 9.5–12 3 (8.5–)9–11
mm(x5 10.2 6
0.7 3 9.7 6 0.7
mm, Q 5 1.00–1.18, Q
5 1.07 6 0.02,
n 5 25 spores), globose to subglobose with a
prominent hilar appendix, smooth, hyaline, inamy-
loid, thin-walled. Basidia 35–48 3 7.5–12
mm, sub-
cylindrical to clavate, four sterigmata, occasionally
two sterigmata, hyaline, thin-walled, clamped. Basi-
dioles 35–50 3 7–12
mm, cylindrical to clavate,
hyaline, thin-walled. Pleurocystidia absent. Lamella-
edge heteromorphous, with basidia, basidioles and
scattered cystidia. Cheilocystidia 30–50 3 4–8
TABLE I. Collection data and GenBank accession number of the taxa analyzed
herbarium number Origin
GenBank number
Anthracophyllum archeri
(Berk.) Pegler PBM 2201 AY745709
TFB 3511 Australia DQ444308
TENN 50049
A. lateritium
(Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Singer CULTENN 4419 AF261324
TFB 4043 USA DQ444309
TENN 50256
sp. MCA 1527 Guyana AY916699 AY916701
Gymnopus contrarius
(Peck) Halling AFTOL-ID 1758 USA DQ457670 DQ486708
Gymnopus dryophilus
(Bull.) Murrill AFTOL-ID 559 USA AY640619 DQ241781
Lentinula lateritia
(Berk.) Pegler RV 95-376 AF356164 AF031179
Neonothopanus gardneri
(Berk. ex Gardner)
Capelari et al.
SP 416340 Brazil JF344714 JF344713
N. nambi
(Speg.) R.H. Petersen & Krisai RVPR1308 Puerto Rico AF042577
Watling 193/95 Malaysia DQ444307
Omphalotus illudens
(Schwein.) Bresinsky & Besl TUB 012155 USA DQ071741 AY313271
O. japonicus
(Kawam.) Kirschm. & O.K. Mill. isolate 456 AF042008 AY313286
culture 2305 Japan
O. mexicanus
Guzma´n & V. Mora TENN51283 Mexico AY313274
O. nidiformis
(Berk.) O.K. Mill. T1946.8 AF042621
Vilgalys E5332 Austra´lia AY313275
O. olearius
(DC: Fr.) Singer AFTOL-ID 1718 Slovenia DQ470816
culture 9061b France AY313277
O. olivascens
H.E. Bigelow et al. VT645.7 AF261325
TENN56257 USA AY313279
O. olivascens
G. Moreno et al. CBS101447 Mexico AF525065
O. subilludens
(Murril) H.E. Bigelow TENN54320 USA AY313283
Rhodocollybia maculata
(Alb. & Schwein.) Singer AFTOL-ID 540 USA AY639880 DQ404383
COMB. NOV. 1435
body submerged and difficult to discern, apices
slightly projecting, elongate-fusoid to sinuous-cylin-
drical, hyaline, thin-walled. Pileipellis undifferentiat-
ed from the underlying tramal tissue, composed of
repent hyphae, 2.5–5
mm diam, hyaline or pale
yellowish in KOH, inamyloid, thin-walled, non-gelat-
inous. Pileus and stipe tramal tissues composed of
hyphae 3.5–6.5
mm diam, cylindrical or sometimes
inflated and branched, hyaline, inamyloid, thin- to
slightly thick-walled, with clamp connections. Hyme-
nophoral trama compact, with a subregular to
irregular mediostratum and a more loosely arranged
lateral stratum; hyphae 2.5–5
inamyloid, thin- to slightly thick-walled. Stipitipellis
similar to pileipellis. Clamp connections present in all
habitat and known distribution:
Growing at
the base of palm trees (pindoba palm [
Attalea humilis
Mart. ex Spreng.], piac¸ava [
A. funifera
Mart. ex
Spreng.], and babac¸u [
Orbignya phalerata
Goia´s, Piauı´ and Tocantins States, Brazil.
Specimens examined:
S STATE: Vila de
Natividade, Dec 1839,
Gardner s.n
STATE: Gilbue´s City, Fazenda Boa Vista, 91uS and 45uW,
Mar 2006,
D. Fragaszy & P. Izar s.n
. (SP416340); same
location, 27 Feb 2008,
M.G. de Oliveira s.n
. (SP416341);
Teresina City, Fazenda Cana Brava, 5u 5939.50S,
42u23912.820W, 17 May 2008,
I. Dantas s.n
. (SP416342);
TOCANTINS STATE, Itaguatins City, Fazenda Sa˜o Paulo,
FIG. 1. Phylogenetic tree based on maximum likelihood (ML) analysis of the combined ITS + nLSU datasets, rooted with
sp. Support at the nodes is represented by ML bootstrap/Bayesian posterior probability.
21 Mar 2008,
C.E.C. Nascimento & L.S. Arau´ jo-Neta s.n
Neonothopanus gardneri
is characterized by this
combination of features: omphalotoid basidiomes
with yellow to yellowish white pileus 10–90 mm diam,
deeply decurrent, distant, broad lamellae, a well
developed, eccentric to central stipe, and pale yellow
context tissues; hyaline, inamyloid, smooth, globose
basidiospores with mean 10.2 3 9.7
mm; elongate-
fusoid to sinuous-cylindrical cheilocystidia; cutis-type
pileipellis and stipitipellis tissues with inamyloid, non-
gelatinized hyphae; growth on debris of dwarf palm;
and basidiomes that are strongly luminescent. Our
material undoubtedly represents the species first
reported by Gardner (1840) from basidiomes growing
on pindoba palm fronds in central Brazil. No
micromorphological details were provided in the
FIG. 2. Basidiomes (a–d) and cultures (e–f) of
Neonothophanus gardneri
taken in natural light (left) and in the dark (right).
Bars 5 30 mm.
COMB. NOV. 1437
protolog, although a type study was published by
Pegler (1988). Our material matches that analyzed by
Pegler except in basidiospores size, which was
reported by Pegler (1988) as 6–7 3 4.5–5.7
6.5 3 5.5
mm; Q 5 1.18), much smaller than we report
here. We studied the holotype specimen (K) and
found basidiospores in the range that we report from
fresh specimens (9.5–12 3 9–11
mm) and many
collapsed basidiospores in the range reported by
Pegler (1988).
was established by Petersen and
Krisai-Greilhuber (1999) as a monotypic genus based
Agaricus nambi
Speg. described from Paraguay
(Spegazzini 1883). Singer (1944) recognized
A. nambi
as a member of his new genus
Mont.). Horak (1968) revised the types of
A. nambi
A. eugrammus
, and Petersen and Krisai-
Greilhuber (1999) also revised the type of
and studied representative materials of
. All authors considered that they were distinct
species and that
(with type
A. eugrammus)
represented a synonym of
. For a complete
discussion of the taxonomy and nomenclature of
see Petersen and
Krisai-Greilhuber (1999). Our Brazilian species shows
morphological affinities to both
(with syn.
). Both latter
genera contain species that form luminescent basi-
diomes with decurrent, distant lamellae, eccentric,
solid stipes, smooth, hyaline, inamyloid basidiospores,
and non-gelatinized, inamyloid hyphae with clamp
connections. Indeed the morphological features of
are overlapping and
the distinctions subtle, with
unpigmented or pale pigmented (white to grayish tan)
marasmielloid to pleurotoid basidiomes and
FIG. 3. Micromorphlogical features of
Neonothophanus gardneri
(SP416340). a. Basidiospores. b. Basidia. c. Lamella edge
with cheilocystidia. d. Cheilocystidia. Bar 5 10
forming more brightly pigmented (yellow to
orange) pleurotoid to clitocyboid basidiomes. Molec-
ular data have informed our decision to accept
rather than in
Neonothopanus gardneri
is moderately supported as the
sister taxon to
N. nambi
in the maximum likelihood
analysis of the combined ITS + nLSU datasets (FIG. 1),
and these taxa did not form a monophyletic lineage
species in any analysis.
Neonothopanus gardneri
differs from
N. nambi
basidiome stature, pigmentation and basidiospore
Neonothopanus nambi
forms white to pale grayish
tan basidiomes with reduced, eccentric to lateral stipe
and ellipsoid basidiospores, 4–6.5 3 2.8–4
mm (Pe-
tersen and Krisai-Greilhuber 1999), whereas
forms yellow basidiomes with a well devel-
oped, eccentric to central stipe and globose basidio-
spores, 9.5–12 3 9–11
Neonothopanus nambi
has not been explicitly
reported as bioluminescent, but from the data
provided by Petersen and Krisai-Greilhuber (1999)
and Corner (1981) we infer this to be the case.
Petersen and Krisai-Greilhuber convincingly docu-
mented that
N. nambi
is synonymous with
(Mont.) Dennis sensu Singer (1944), and
they reported that specimens from Malaysia were
conspecific (intercompatible) with those from Puerto
Rico. Corner (1981) reported that Malaysian material
P. eugrammus
(following Singer’s concept of the
species) was luminescent. Moreover we have collected
luminescent basidiomes from Micronesia whose
morphology and DNA sequences match those of
(Desjardin and Perry unpubl).
has been used recently in research that
verifies the enzymatic nature of fungal biolumines-
cence (Oliveira and Stevani 2009) in contradiction to
the research of Shimomura (1989, 1992) who
reported that the pathway to light emission in fungi
was non-enzymatic.
The authors thank the curator of the Kew Herbarium; Maria
Cecı´lia Tomasi, Instituto de Botaˆnica, for inking the
drawings; Dr Maria Helena P. Fungaro, Universidade
Estadual de Londrina, for DNA sequencing; Dr. Anı´bal
Alves de Carvalho Jr., Jardim Botaˆnico do Rio de Janeiro,
and Dr Tatiana B. Gibertoni, Universidade Federal de
Pernambuco, for helping with bibliography; Dr Michele P.
Verderane, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Sa˜o
Paulo, for permission to publish her photos (F
IG. 2c–d). We
also are indebted to Mr Marino G. de Oliveira and his family
(Gilbue´s, PI), Drs Ismael Dantas (Teresina, PI), Luiz F.
Mendes, Instituto de Quı´mica, Universidade de Sa˜o Paulo,
Dorothy Fragaszy (University of Georgia, USA) and Patrı´cia
Izar, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Sa˜o Paulo, for
the collection of fruiting bodies. This study was supported
by the Fundac¸a˜o de Amparo a` Pesquisa do Estado de Sa˜o
Paulo (Stevani grant, FAPESP 2010/15047-4) and by a
National Science Foundation (USA) grant to Desjardin
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... This fact allowed us to conclude that a selfsufficient luminescent system that ensures luminescence in vitro was isolated from this fungal species. (Capelari et al., 2011). ...
... Although the Brazilian flora has already been extensively studied, few ventured into the interior of the country as Gardner did, mainly in the northeast region (Fagg et al., 2015). In 1840, in his work ''Description of a new phosphorescent species of Agaricus'' the naturalist, after observing children playing with a luminous object and performing a careful inspection, first identified an Agaricus species belonging to the required tribe Pleurotus of Fries (Capelari et al., 2011). ...
... Shortly thereafter, in 1887, Saccardo reclassified it as Pleurotus gardneri. However, Pegler (1988), after carrying out an analysis, found that although it had characteristics typical of Omphalotus olearius, it was one of its variants, but to distinguish A. gardneri as a different species, it required to study with fresh material in which it had no access (Capelari et al., 2011). ...
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Neonothopanus gardneri (N. gardneri) is a species of bioluminescent fungus belonging to the order Agaricales (Marasmiaceae) found in South America. Its existence was first reported in 1840 by George Gardner in his travels to Brazil, where it is popularly called "coco flower". Found mainly in decaying leaves and in the trunk of dwarf palm trees called "pindoba" (Attalea oleifera) or babaçu (Orbignya phalerata), recently N. gardneri had some of its bioactives isolated and their respective structures elucidated. Thus, this paper aims to present and discuss the findings of the works produced involving this theme. Thus, for the development of this literature review, books and scientific articles were searched in the following databases: Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, web of science, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Publishing and Google Scholar (1990-2021). The following keywords were used to filter the productions: "Neonothopanus", "Neonothopanus gardneri", "Bioactivities", "Bioprospecting", "Secondary metabolite", "Endophytic" and "bioluminescence". Finally, it is possible to observe that studies involving this species of bioluminescent fungus have focused on explaining the mechanism of light production and its potential biological activities, among them, antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antileishmanial effects.
... The colours follow the Flora of British fungi: colour identification chart (Garden 1969). The dried specimens were rehydrated in 94% ethanol for microscopic examination and then mounted in 3% KOH, 1% Congo Red, and Melzer's reagent (Capelari et al. 2011), and observed using a Zeiss Axio Lab. A1 microscope. ...
... Total DNA was extracted from the dried specimens using the NuClean Plant Genomic DNA Kit (Kangwei Century Biotechnology Company Limited, Beijing, China). The nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) region was amplified using the primer pair ITS4 and ITS5 (White et al. 1990), and the large subunit ribosomal (LSU) region was amplified with the primer pair LROR and LR7 (Capelari et al. 2011). PCR reactions (25 μl) contained 2.5 μl 10 × PCR buffer, 0.6 μl 10 mM dNTP mix, 1 μl 10 μM primer L, 1 μl 10 μM primer R, 3 μl DNA solution, and 16.6 μl dd H 2 O. ...
... The obtained sequences were blasted against the NCBI GenBank database (NCBI; to find the most similar species of Neonothopanus in the database. The new sequences were deposited in GenBank (Table 1) (Capelari et al. 2011) retrieved from GenBank were aligned using ClustalX (Thompson et al. 1997) and MAFFT (Katoh & Standley 2013). SequenceMatrix was used for sequence concatenation (Vaidya et al. 2011). ...
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Specimens of Neonothopanus were collected from Ghana and examined morphologically, and molecularly using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and nuclear large subunit ribosomal (nrLSU) regions. Three species were recognized viz., Neonothopanus cystidiosus, a new species, Neonothopanus cystidiosus, a new record for Ghana, and Neonothopanus hygrophanus, a species already known from Ghana. Neonothopanus cystidiosus is characterized by brown spots visible on the surface of pileus when mature and the presence of clavate to cylindrical pleurocystidia. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses confirmed the results of the morphological study. Descriptions of all three species are presented with molecular work, along with a key to the known species of Neonothopanus. The addition of a new species provides a new perspective on the heterogeneity of Neonothopanus and contributes to increasing knowledge of the fungal diversity of Ghana.
... Neonothopanus nambi manifested anticancer effects opposing small lung cancer cell proliferation (Burakorn et al., 2015). Capelari et al. (2011) have narrated Neonothopanus gardneri with the help of molecular data. ...
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Deep down into the woods, certain fungi gleam with streaks of faint green light at night - it is due to a phenomenon called bioluminescence. A recent scientific expedition in West Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya, India, has reported a greenish glow that emerged from dead bamboo sticks that were lustrous with tiny mushrooms. Solely the stalks were lit up. It led to the discovery of a new species that is Roridomyces phyllostachydis, which is the first fungus of this genus reported from India. The occurrence of bioluminescence in fungi is rare and confined to basidiomycetes. Bioluminescence is an oxygen- dependent reaction catalyzed by the luciferase enzyme. A few reported species belong to the genus Mycena, Armillaria, Omphalotus, Pleurotus, and Panellus. DNA-based sequence analysis has brought together these genera in four lineages. ITS sequencing was performed to demonstrate their phylogenetic species. Mushrooms advertise this phenomenon for attracting insects which are hypothesized to help in spore dispersal and for self-defense. Limited studies and experiments have been executed to decipher the biochemical pathways involved under bioluminescence in fungi. This review adds to and updates on the current knowledge of bioluminescent fungi. Key words: Basidiomycetes, fungus,luminescence, macrofungi, oxyluciferin.
... One study in Panama examined how bioluminescence characteristics were affected by temperature, humidity, and exposure to light, but the species was not identified (Deheyn 2007). A group of researchers in Brazil recently discovered a new species of bioluminescent fungus of the genus Gerronema (Desjardin et al. 2005), and are in the process of describing several others species (Desjardin et al. 2007, Capelari et al. 2011. Our study aims to add to this growing body of knowledge by comparing the distribution of bioluminescent fungi across successional and soil gradients considering old-growth and secondary forests and four different soil types. ...
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Most research on bioluminescent fungi is concentrated on their taxonomic relationships, while the basics of their natural history and ecological relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we compared the distribution of bioluminescent fungi between old-growth and secondary forest as related to four different soil types at the tropical rainforest of La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. The study was conducted during the wet season of 2009. Bioluminescent fungi were sought following eight different transects distributed evenly in old-growth and secondary forests across four different soil types, covering an area of 9 420m 2. We found fungi in four different substrates: litter, fallen branches, dead trunks, and roots, for a total of 61 samples. Correspondence analysis showed that the occurrence of fungi and soil types were related (inertia=0.21, p=0.071). We found a significant relationship between the presence of fungi and the distribution of soil types (X 2 =18.89, df=9, p=0.026). We found only three samples with fruiting bodies, two of which had Mycena and the other had one fungus of the order Xylariales (possibly Hypoxylon sp., Kretzschmariella sp., Xylaria sp.). Future work will concentrate on exploring other aspects of their ecology, such as their dispersal and substrate preference. This information will facilitate field identification and will foster more research on the distribution, seasonality, reproductive phenol-ogy and ecological requirements of this group of Fungi. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61 (2): 531-537. Epub 2013 June 01.
... The use of DNA sequences has aided in the delimitation of agaric species and has been used in different studies to clarify species concepts of various bioluminescent taxa and to elucidate phylogenetic relationships (Desjardin et al. 2008(Desjardin et al. , 2016Capelari et al. 2011;Aravindakshan et al. 2012;Chew et al. 2014;Shih et al. 2014). Chew et al. (2015) performed a phylogenetic analysis of bioluminescent agarics from Malaysia using nuc rDNA 28S (28S), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), and nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ...
Seven species of bioluminescent fungi are recorded from the cloud forests in Mexico. Six represent new species belonging to the genus Mycena, whereas Mycena globulispora is a new distribution record for the country. Descriptions, illustrations, photographs, and an identification key to bioluminescent fungi species from Mexico are provided. Sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) region were generated for barcoding purposes and comparisons with similar species.
Omphalotus guepiniiformis, a bioluminescent mushroom species, is a source of the potentially valuable anticancer chemical. To provide genome information, we de novo assembled the high-quality O. guepiniiformis genome using two Next-Generation sequencing techniques, PacBio and Illumina sequencing. Our draft O. guepiniiformis genome comprises 42.5 Mbp of sequence with only 80 contigs and an N50 sequence length of over 1 Mbp. There were 15,554 predicted coding genes, and 7693 genes were functionally annotated with Gene Ontology terms. We performed a genomic study focusing on mushroom bioluminescent pathway cluster genes by comparing 17 luminescent and 23 non-luminescent Agaricales species belonging to 23 genera. Synteny analysis of genomic regions near the luminescent pathway cluster genes inferred that the Omphalotus lineage was genus-specific. In summary, our de novo assembled O. guepiniiformis genome provides significant biological insights into this organism, including the evolution of the luciferase gene block, and forms the basis for future analyses.
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This ISPRA book, entitled “Micological biodiversity and its knowledge. Mushrooms between innovation and tradition ", allow readers to start a journey of knowledge in the world of mushrooms. It intends to be a popularizing tool to solicit basic knowledge and to deepen and suggest a correct and responsible relationship with the environment and with all of its component. The work includes a general part concerning the groups that make up the Kingdom of Mushrooms, with description of the different shapes, colors, sizes and toxicity, to then deal with the topic of biodiversity. It ends with a part on Mushrooms and Institutions. The chapters are also accompanied by in-depth boxes that touch on problems of basic, of a technical-methodological, environmental and biotechnological nature.
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Pubblicazione a cura della Direzione Foreste della Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia in materia di mimetismo, aberrazioni cromatiche e bioluminescenza in natura, pagine 222, 400 foto a colori. Può essere richiesta gratuitamente al seguente indirizzo email:
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A new luminescent lignicolous fungal species, Mycena cristinae sp. nov., is proposed from the Central Amazon forest. This is unique and supported by morphological evaluation along with LSU- and ITS-based phylogenetic analyses. The basidiomata have mostly fuscous olivaceous brown pileus, adnate to subdecurrent and distant lamellae, and stipe with slightly bulbous base (basal mycelium absent). It also has inamyloid and/or weakly amyloid basidiospores, ramose cheilocystidia and a pileipellis composed of an aerated tangle of slender, diverticulate hyphae forming a coralloid pellicle overlaying the hypodermium. The luminescence is evident in the basidiomata (especially the stipe) and in the mycelium on the substrate. The LSU phylogenetic trees reveal that M. cristinae is sister to M. coralliformis within the Mycenaceae clade. In the ITS trees, it forms a unique lineage grouping with undetermined Mycena taxa. Morphological data support M. cristinae as a different species compared to previously described taxa.
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The Basidiomycota constitutes a major phylum of the kingdom Fungi and is second in species numbers to the Ascomycota. The present work provides an overview of all validly published, currently used basidiomycete genera to date in a single document. An outline of all genera of Basidiomycota is provided, which includes 1928 currently used genera names, with 1263 synonyms, which are distributed in 241 families, 68 orders, 18 classes and four subphyla. We provide brief notes for each accepted genus including information on classification, number of accepted species, type species, life mode, habitat, distribution, and sequence information. Furthermore, three phylogenetic analyses with combined LSU, SSU, 5.8s, rpb1, rpb2, and ef1 datasets for the subphyla Agaricomycotina, Pucciniomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina are conducted, respectively. Divergence time estimates are provided to the family level with 632 species from 62 orders, 168 families and 605 genera. Our study indicates that the divergence times of the subphyla in Basidiomycota are 406–430 Mya, classes are 211–383 Mya, and orders are 99–323 Mya, which are largely consistent with previous studies. In this study, all phylogenetically supported families were dated, with the families of Agaricomycotina diverging from 27–178 Mya, Pucciniomycotina from 85–222 Mya, and Ustilaginomycotina from 79–177 Mya. Divergence times as additional criterion in ranking provide additional evidence to resolve taxonomic problems in the Basidiomycota taxonomic system, and also provide a better understanding of their phylogeny and evolution.